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5 These four words, or Parts of Speech as they are called; namely, the Noun, Pronoun, Verb, and Adjective; pass through changes of form in order to shew changes of meaning, and therefore are said to be Declinable, or to have Flexion. The other four Parts of Speech; namely the Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, and Interjection; are said to be Indeclinable, or to be without Flexion.
6 The Noun is said to have two Accidents, or to pass, when declined, through two changes of form; namely, Numbers and Cases.
7 Numbers are certain Forms which the noun passes through in order to shew whether one object, or more objects than one are spoken of. These forms are called the Singular and Plural Numbers: as, singular, rosa 'rose;' plural, rosœ 'roses.'
8 Cases are certain Forms which the noun passes through in order to shew the circumstances in which the object named by the noun is placed. There are Six Cases in Latin; the Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Vocative, Ablative. In order then to understand the force of these different cases we must consider the different circumstances in which an object can be placed.
9 An object is either at rest or in motion: and if in motion, it is moved from one place to another. Hence we think of an object in space as connected with three places: the place from which it moves; the place at which it rests, or so operates as not to move therefrom; and the place to which it moves. Just so in time. We think of an object moving on from time past, operating at time present, and moving on to time future. To suit then these three ideas we have three Cases, the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative; so that we may lay down the following as the three primary Ideas of these
The Genitive gives the idea of motion from.
These it must be understood are Primary Ideas of, not Laws for, the Cases. Almost all, if not all, the rules in Latin may be deduced from them; but they themselves are in practice much altered and enlarged.
10 For Example. If the object A comes out from the object B, the object B has possessed the object A. Hence we have the idea of possession connected with the Genitive case; and the following Law may be laid down
The object spoken of as possessing another object has its noun in the Genitive case.
11 Again. In the idea of 'motion to' is included the idea of 'motion through.' For in moving through a space I come to each point of it in turn. Hence we have the idea of 'motion through,' as well as the idea of 'motion to,' connected with the Accusative case; and the following Law may be laid down
The object, to or through which motion is directed, has its noun in the Accusative case.
12 Again. The idea of Operation at does not merely refer to the place at which an action is performed, but to everything that can be conceived as accompanying or surrounding the acting object as for instance, the time at which it is performed; the matter, manner, or sphere in which; the means or instrument by which; the cause for which it is performed; and the like: for all these may be conceived as objects at, or by the side of, which the acting object operates. Hence we have the idea of accompanying or surrounding objects connected with the Dative case-but we do not at present lay down a Law, for a reason that will appear hereafter.
13 It is chiefly however by observing the different ways in which actions operate that we shall discover the different ways in which these primary ideas of the cases are varied or enlarged. And in fact we shall best learn the syntax of the cases by carefully considering the sort of actions which are denoted by verbs.
Now first of all there is between verbs this great distinction. b
Some verbs denote actions which stop short with the agent; while others denote actions which pass over from the agent into some other object. For instance; if I walk, or run, or sleep, I perform actions which stop short with myself, and have not to do with any other object. It is good sense to say 'John walks,' without naming in the sentence any other object than John. Hence such verbs are called intransitive (from in 'not' and transeo 'pass over'), because they denote actions which do not pass over from the agent into any other object. But if I carry, or kill, or love, I perform actions which do pass over into some other object. It is not sense to say simply, 'John carries;' I must name in the sentence the object which he carries; the object into which the carrying passes. Hence such verbs are called transitive, because they denote actions which do pass over from the agent into some other object. Now in what case will this object have its noun? Clearly in the accusative, because the accusative denotes motion to, and to this object motion is dirccted. The carrying, killing, or loving passes over from the agent which carries, kills, or loves, into the object carried, killed, or loved.
14 Again. There are some verbs denoting actions which have to do with objects without exactly passing into them. If I sleep, I sleep no object at all. Therefore the verb 'sleep' will be followed by no noun at all. If I carry, I must carry an object. Therefore the verb 'carry' must be followed by a noun; and we have seen that this noun will be in the accusative case. So, if I yield, I must yield to some object. The sense is incomplete, if I simply say, 'I yield,' without naming the object to which I yield. Now in what case will this object have its noun? We might expect, in the accusative; because the yielding passes from me to it. But the yielding does not pass in the same way that the carrying does. The carrying moves and transmits motion. It passes straight into an object and causes it to move. But the yielding to an object does not move that object. It operates round, or by the side
of it. If I yield to a man, I do not move him out of his place: but I myself move out of his way, and go as it were to one side of him. Here then the idea of the Dative steps in and predominates over the idea of the Accusative. The noun after such a verb as 'yield' is put in the dative, because it is considered as naming the object, at or about which the action of yielding operates, not the object into which the action of yielding passes. And such verbs as 'yield' are reckoned intransitive, not transitive; those only being reckoned transitive which denote actions that pass straight into an object.
15 We have therefore the following definitions of Transitive and Intransitive verbs:
Transitive verbs are verbs denoting actions which pass straight over from the agent into an object. Such actions may be said to operate directly.
Intransitive verbs are verbs denoting actions which either do not operate on any object at all: or, if they do, operate round it, and do not pass straight over into it. Such actions may be said to operate indirectly.
16 So far then we have in Latin three classes of verbs, of which we may take porto, ambulo, and cedo respectively as types: as, Marcus portat librum, 'Marcus carries the book.'
Marcus ambulat, 'Marcus walks.'
Marcus cedit Balbo, ‘Marcus yields to Balbus.'
Verbs then like Porto 'carry' are transitive, and denote actions which pass over straight into an object; or, in other words, operate directly.
Verbs like Ambulo 'walk' are intransitive, and denote actions which do not operate on an object at all.
Verbs like Cedo 'yield' are intransitive, and denote actions which operate at or round an object; or, in other words, operate indirectly.
17 The simplest way of discovering by the sense to which of these classes a verb belongs, is to consider whether motion is caused by the action or not. There can be no doubt with such verbs
as traho 'drag,' or dormio 'sleep,' or assentio 'assent;' because it is clear that the action of dragging moves an object, but that the action of sleeping or assenting does not. There are, however, many verbs which do not admit of the same certainty, and which are, in fact, differently considered in English and in Latin. Besides the sense, therefore, we have in each language a test by which we may know whether the verb is transitive or intransitive.
The test in Latin is this:
If a verb is followed by a noun in the accusative case, it is transitive. All others are intransitive.
The test in English is this:
If a verb is followed by a noun without a preposition, it is transitive. All others are intransitive.
18 Each of these two things--the definition, and the test, of transitive verbs-will be useful in considering Latin verbs. The definition requires thought, and deals with the action denoted by the verb. The test requires memory, and deals with the verb as it appears in a sentence. The pupil, therefore, must not only consider how an action operates; whether it causes motion or rest, whether it passes directly into an object or operates round it; but he must also commit to memory all the verbs which are found by the test to be transitive in English but intransitive in Latin, or on the other hand, to be intransitive in English, but transitive in Latin. In fact, he will at first find the latter process the safer and more expedient of the two; and for translating from English into Latin he should learn the following Rule:
If a verb is followed in English by a noun without a preposition, put the noun after the corresponding Latin verb in the accusative case, unless you have learned an instance to the contrary.
19 Once more. Just as we have found two sorts of intransitive verbs-namely, verbs like Ambulo and verbs like Cedo-so are there two sorts of transitive verbs. Of one sort Porto is a type of the other let us take Do 'give,' as a type. Now