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If the verb of the Bye sentence is in the Indicative mood, it is said to be adjoined to the Main verb, and the conjunction which joins it is called an Adjoining conjunction. By its position in the sentence it is dependent on the Main verb in form: but the writer by using the Indicative shews that he does not wish to insist on any dependence in sense.

If the verb of the Bye sentence is in the Subjunctive mood, it is said to be subjoined to the Main verb, and the conjunction which joins it is called a Subjoining conjunction. Not only does its position in the sentence make it dependent on the Main verb in form; but the use of the Subjunctive marks it as dependent also on the Main verb in sense. Conjoining Conjunctions do not join on one sentence to another, but join together two sentences on perfectly equal terms: as, 'John runs and George sits.' In practice indeed these conjunctions are often said to join together two or more words in the same sentence: but in reality such a sentence is a contraction from two sentences. Thus the one sentence 'John and George fell' is really a contraction from the two sentences John fell' and 'George fell:' the conjunction 'and' really coupling together, not John and George, but the two distinct actions of John's falling and George's falling. For the Conjunction, being an adverb, is properly attached, not to a noun, but to a verb. Still for common use it is convenient to say that a Conjoining Conjunction couples together words, or sentences, or perfectly equal terms.

In the following pages we have to do with Adjoining and Subjoining Conjunctions, only in chapters XVI, XXII, XXIII, and XXIV. In all the rest we have only to do with simple Conjoining Conjunctions. Such Conjunctions are et, que, 'and;' aut, vel, 'or;' sed, ‘but;' and the like.

40 A Preposition is a word placed (commonly) before a noun to link it on to other nouns.

Prepositions in fact do the same service for nouns which Conjunctions do for verbs.

Prepositions are followed either by the Accusative or by the
Ablative case, or by both.

The following lines from Key's Grammar may be of use.
Absque cum sine, ab coramque,

Præ pro de tenus, e palamque ;

Both, super in sub, subter clamque.

The Prepositions in the first two lines take the Ablative:

those in the third take both cases: all others take the Accusative.




INTRANSITIVE Verbs like Ambulo 'walk': that is, verbs which denote actions that do not operate on any object, and which therefore are not followed by any noun.


Nauta ambulat.

The sailor walks.


a. The Subject-word' is in the Nominative case (Law). b. The Verb agrees with the Subject-word in number and in person. This is commonly called the First Concord.

c. If the Subject-word is a Pronoun, it is commonly omitted, unless required for distinction or emphasis.

d. The Indicative Mood is used in making statements and asking questions directly. The Imperative mood is used in giving orders.

The following sentences agree exactly in construction with the Example3. But they differ in form, as the noun may be of any declension, the verb of any conjugation. Both noun and verb may be in either the singular or plural number. The verb may be of any tense, and either in the indicative or imperative mood. Also, instead of a noun, there may be one of the two personal pronouns; and to agree with this, the verb may vary in person as well as in number.

Ego ambulo, tu equitas.
Aquila volat.

Nos ambulamus,

Vos equitatis. 5 Aquila volant. Puer saltabat. Pugnabamus4. Stabas.

Magister jurabit.

10 Pugnabitis.

Puellæ saltabunt.

Ego laboravi, tu cessavisti.
Puella natavit.

Nos cantavimus,
15 Vos saltavistis.
Alaudæ volaverunt.
Arma sonuerant.
Gladii crepuerant.
20 Saltaveratis.

Pugnaras 5.

Homines cubuerint.
Ambularis 5.

25 Canes latraverint.


Puer ambulato.


Puellæ cantanto.

30 Ego sedeo, tu jaces".
Hortus viret.

Nos sedemus, vos jacetis.
Horti virent.

Rosæ rubebant.

35 Ridebatis.



Homo sedebit.

Homines sedebunt.

40 Ego pallui, tu rubuisti.

Virgo siluit.
Nos latuimus,
Vos apparuistis.
Virgines nituerunt.

45 Tacueramus.

Aqua ferbuerat.
Uvæ pependerant.,

50 Jacuero.


Sagittæ jacuerint.


55 Homo sedeto. Latete.

Virgines flento.

Ego ludo, tu plaudis.
Puer currit.

60 Nos ludimus, vos plauditis.

Pueri currunt.

Terra tremebat.
Rudebant aselli.

Ego fremam, tu gemes. 65 Puer stertet.

Ludemus. Curretis.

Ego repsi, tu cucurristi.
Serpens repserat.

70 Equites fugerint.

Pueri ludunto.

Ego dormio, tu salis.

Taurus mugit.

75 Nos dormimus, vos salitis. Tauri mugiunt.



Pueri dormient.

80 Desiliemus.


Vacca mugiet.

Pisces salient.

Ego dormivi, tu insanivisti.

85 Nautæ dormierant".
Tempus venerit.

Puella dormiunto.
Ego vigilabam.

90 Tu dormiebas.

Flavet hordeum. Triticum flavescit. Hebescunt sensus. Membra torpent. 95 Gramen humet. Flores humescunt. Fons scatebat. Terga squalent.

Baccæ ferbuere.

100 Aqua fervescit.
Arbusta florescunt.
Floret ager.
Frigent pedes.
Manus frigescunt.
105 Genæ madent.
Madescunt tempora.
Virebant ulmi.

Quercus virescebant.
Testudines obdormiscunt.

110 Frondent silvæ.

Frondescit ornus.

Frumenta maturescunt.
Baccæ nigrescunt.
Uva mitescit.

115 Pinguescit armentum.
Dies vesperascit.

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