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If the verb of the Bye sentence is in the Indicative mood, it is said to be adjoined to the Main verb, and the conjunction which joins it is called an Adjoining conjunction. By its position in the sentence it is dependent on the Main verb in form: but the writer by using the Indicative shews that he does not wish to insist on any dependence in sense.
If the verb of the Bye sentence is in the Subjunctive mood, it is said to be subjoined to the Main verb, and the conjunction which joins it is called a Subjoining conjunction. Not only does its position in the sentence make it dependent on the Main verb in form; but the use of the Subjunctive marks it as dependent also on the Main verb in sense. Conjoining Conjunctions do not join on one sentence to another, but join together two sentences on perfectly equal terms: as, 'John runs and George sits.' In practice indeed these conjunctions are often said to join together two or more words in the same sentence: but in reality such a sentence is a contraction from two sentences. Thus the one sentence 'John and George fell' is really a contraction from the two sentences John fell' and 'George fell:' the conjunction 'and' really coupling together, not John and George, but the two distinct actions of John's falling and George's falling. For the Conjunction, being an adverb, is properly attached, not to a noun, but to a verb. Still for common use it is convenient to say that a Conjoining Conjunction couples together words, or sentences, or perfectly equal terms.
In the following pages we have to do with Adjoining and Subjoining Conjunctions, only in chapters XVI, XXII, XXIII, and XXIV. In all the rest we have only to do with simple Conjoining Conjunctions. Such Conjunctions are et, que, 'and;' aut, vel, 'or;' sed, ‘but;' and the like.
40 A Preposition is a word placed (commonly) before a noun to link it on to other nouns.
Prepositions in fact do the same service for nouns which Conjunctions do for verbs.
Prepositions are followed either by the Accusative or by the
The following lines from Key's Grammar may be of use.
Præ pro de tenus, e palamque ;
Both, super in sub, subter clamque.
The Prepositions in the first two lines take the Ablative:
those in the third take both cases: all others take the Accusative.
LAW OF THE NOMINATIVE CASE.
INTRANSITIVE Verbs like Ambulo 'walk': that is, verbs which denote actions that do not operate on any object, and which therefore are not followed by any noun.
The sailor walks.
a. The Subject-word' is in the Nominative case (Law). b. The Verb agrees with the Subject-word in number and in person. This is commonly called the First Concord.
c. If the Subject-word is a Pronoun, it is commonly omitted, unless required for distinction or emphasis.
d. The Indicative Mood is used in making statements and asking questions directly. The Imperative mood is used in giving orders.
The following sentences agree exactly in construction with the Example3. But they differ in form, as the noun may be of any declension, the verb of any conjugation. Both noun and verb may be in either the singular or plural number. The verb may be of any tense, and either in the indicative or imperative mood. Also, instead of a noun, there may be one of the two personal pronouns; and to agree with this, the verb may vary in person as well as in number.
Ego ambulo, tu equitas.
Vos equitatis. 5 Aquila volant. Puer saltabat. Pugnabamus4. Stabas.
Ego laboravi, tu cessavisti.
25 Canes latraverint.
30 Ego sedeo, tu jaces".
Nos sedemus, vos jacetis.
40 Ego pallui, tu rubuisti.
55 Homo sedeto. Latete.
Ego ludo, tu plaudis.
60 Nos ludimus, vos plauditis.
Ego fremam, tu gemes. 65 Puer stertet.
Ego repsi, tu cucurristi.
70 Equites fugerint.
Ego dormio, tu salis.
75 Nos dormimus, vos salitis. Tauri mugiunt.
Ego dormivi, tu insanivisti.
85 Nautæ dormierant".
90 Tu dormiebas.
Flavet hordeum. Triticum flavescit. Hebescunt sensus. Membra torpent. 95 Gramen humet. Flores humescunt. Fons scatebat. Terga squalent.
100 Aqua fervescit.
110 Frondent silvæ.
115 Pinguescit armentum.