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H. of R.]
Occupation of the Mouth of the Oregon.
[Dec. 20, 1824.
If proof of this were wanting, it would only be to 1,064,600 dollars--total value 5,609,600 dollars; the necessary to compare our commerce with Great Britain. exports of that year were 5,703,000 dollars. This year lle: East India Company, her South Sea Company, and there was shipped to the United States, 6,074,100 other charters granted to monopolists, will, if persever-pounds of tea, 660,000 pounds of cassia, and 1,434,000 ed in. ruin their country, or soon rank them below the pieces of nankeens. To Europe was sent 2,800,000 United States, or give employment to many tons of p un'ls of tea, 172,533 pounds of cass a, and 360,000 pieAmerican shipping, to carry that wbich their own sub-ces of nankeens jects cannot do.
In the season of 1817-18, the number of vessels I will, though, exhibit a slight view of this trade, and, amounted to 39, tonnage 14,325, having $5,601,000, in when taken in conjunction with our trade in the South specie, on board; and 1,475,828, amounting to $7,076,828; Sea, and the whale trade, all must admit its vast impor: exporting this season, 86,777,090; of the $1,475,828
worth of produce taken to Canton this year, the sandal In the season 1804–5, there entered thirty-four ves- wood produced $174,075; copper, of which there is vast sels, carrying 10,159 tons. They had on board two abundance on the Western ocean, sold for $69,528; some millions nine hundred and two thousand dollars, in specie; of the other items were 125,310 sea otter skins, 47,000 in all other articles, two millions six hundred and fifty- land otter, 75,335 beaver, 525 tox skins, 70,935 seal, 334 three thousand eight hundred and eighteen dollar's---Inak mink skins, 150 rabbit, 420 muskrat-making $563,610; ing in all, a value of five millions five hundred and fifty: besides this, the ginseng, of which Oregon produces five thousand eight hundred and eighteen Jollars; and much, sold that season for $144,000; opium, $262,400, exported that year 3,842,000 dollars. In 1805--6, there obtained, it is believed, in the Mediterranean, by the was torty-two ships, tonnage 12,480, having, in silver, sale of produce. This season there was taken to the 4,176,000 dollars, and in all other things, 1,150,000 Jol- United States, 7,535,885 pounds of tea; of china ware lars-total value 5,326,358; that year they exported 11,487p. more than paid for by the sea otter skins, 5,127,000 dollars. In the season 1806---7, there was or sandal wood, or the beaver, or seal skins, 200,836 thirty-seven ships, tonnage 11,268, having on board pieces of silk, 1,228,000 of nankeens, 1,428,9331bs. of 2,895,000 dollars in specie, and in all other articles, sugar. There was taken to Europe, 2,086,245lbs of tea. 982,362 dollars-total value 3,877,362; they exported $22,600 of raw silk, 160,000 of sugar, 46,000 of sugar that year, 4,294,000. In 1807–8, there entered thirty- candy, 73,300 of cassia, 241,000 pieces of nankeen, three ships, tonnage 8,803, 3,032,200 dollars in specie, In the season 1818-19, there were 46 ships, 16,022 and 908,090 dollars in all other articles, making a total tonnage, $7,614,000, specie, $2,603,151 in produce, value of 3,940,090 dollars; exporting 3,470,000. In making a total of $10,217,151, exporting $9,057,03S. 1808-9 entered eight ships, tonnage 2,215, specie, The importation of fur for that year was 124,000 sea 70,000 dollars, all other articles, 409,850--making in all, otter skins, 49,425 land otter, 70,065 beaver, 100,300 489,850; exporting 808,000. In 1809—10, there was seal skins, 750 rabbit, 7,550 foxes, sea olter tails 10,136 ; thirty-seven ships, tonnage 12,512, specie 4,723,000 all valued at $362,296: besides this, there was in value dollars, all other articles, 1,121,600 collars : total, in ginseng, $77,770, in opium 528,500, and in sandal 5,744,600; exporting 5,715,000 dollars. In 1810---11, wood $91,368, copper $316,814. ships, sixteen, tonnage 4,748, 2,330,000 dollars specie, In the season of 1819-20, there was 43 ships, 15,139 in produce 568,000 dollars: total value, 2,898,800, and tons; with $6,297,000, in specie; in all other articles, exported 2,973,000 dollars. In 1811–12, ships, twenty- $1,692,872, of which the furs, consisting of sea otter, five, tonnage 7,406, specie 1,875,000, all other articles beaver, seals, land otter, rabbit, and mink, announted to 1,257,810; total, 3,132,810; exporting 2,973,000 dollars. $245,101, the sandal wood to $82 872, ginseng, $38,000, In 1812–13, there were eight ships, tonnage 1,816, and the sea otter tails to $5,789. There was exported, 616,000 dollars in specie, and in other things 837,000, $8,747,988-to the Uniterl States, $6,765,132; to Europe, making in all, 1,450,000; they exported that season, $1,690,285; to South America, $292,571. 620,000 dollars. This year, there was more produce In 1820-21, there sailed and entered in Canton, 28 than specie taken to Canton, and less than half its value ships, 9,387 tonnage, $2,995,000, specie; in all other exported. In 1813–14, nine ships entered, tonnage articles, $2,397,795 - total, $5,392,795. Exporting, 2,854. There was no specie taken out this season, but $4,715,696. The trade this year may be valued thus: a value in articles of commerce, amounting to 451,500 sandal wood $73,508, furs $340,991, ginseng $171,275, dollars; exporting 572,000 dollars. This falling off, it is opium $115,000, quicksilver $295,075, copper $33,540. presumed, was owing to the war with England, which The exports consisted of $2,437,990, silks 1,702,770 ihen existed. The season following, of 1814--15, there pieces, nankeens 402,500, cassia 68,922 ; all other artiwas not a ship or vessel of any kind in Canyon, belong-cles, $163,514, making the total above stated This year ing to the United States, which it is presumed will never the goods shipped to Europe, amounted to $1,109.114; again be the case, should you pass this bill.
that to the United States, $3,462,582; for Perui, $144,000. Immediately at the close of the late war, this trade re- In the season of 1821-22, there entered in Canton, 45 vived in a bigh degree, and seems to be steadily ap- ships, tonnage 15,530; carrying specie $5,125,000; in all proaching that point which should demand some care, other articles, $3,067,768–iotal, $3,192,768. Exporting and more justice than it has hitherto received; or why $7 563,644. This year there were taken to market, should merchandise from beyond the Cape of Good fished out of the Western ocean, $135,828 in sea olter Hope pay twenty per cent. more than from Europe? skins, land otter, beaver, fox, seal chow chowskins ; in
I will now, for the seven years following, examine all amounting, in these few articles, to the enormous this trade. so as to expose it more minutely, which I hope sum of $490,081; the ginseng amounted to $209,610, the committee will pardon, as I shall be as brief as pos opium 383,000, the sandal wood from the Sandwich isles, sible.
to the vast sum of $268,220. The exports of this year In the season of 1815-16, there entered 30 ships, ton. were distributed as follows: To the United States nage 10,208, specie 1,922,000 dollars, in other articles $6,06,218; to the continent of Europe, $772,763 : to 605,500 dollars. This year there was shipped to the outh America, $358 163 ; Batavia $352,500 ; Sandwich United States, 4,514,280 pounds of tea, 1,695 pounds of Islands $64,000; making the sum already' stated. It is a cassia, and 455,000 pieces of nankeens. There was prominent fact, which ought not to be forgotten, that sent to Europe by our ships 2,731,000 pounds of tea, this year the skins of seals, sea otter, and 'sandal wood 1,650 piculs of cassia, and 185,000 pieces of nankeens. alone, sold for the astonishing sum of $605,511.
Inilie season 1816-17, there entered 38 ships, tonnage It has not escaped the observation of all, that this 13,096, 4,545,000 specie dollars, and produce amounting trade declined towards the middle of the period herp
spoken of; this, all know, was owing to the war, and the brought by 21 ships 384 seamen, 5,492 tons, 13,426 barembarrassed state of things immediately preceding it; rels of whale oi' ; 10,496 Spermaceti; 4,378 head matthat it has been gradually increasing, notwithstanding ter; 65,446 whale bone. In 1820, there were 21 ships, the duty on some of the articles pay a higher tax than 5,249 tons, and 391 seamen, bringing 11,737 barrels of similar fabrics from Europe.
whale oil; 11,885 Spermaceti; 5,027 head matter ; The idea has been pretty generally spread abroad, 59,794 whale bone. In the succeeding years it was much that nothing is taken in the Canton market bot gold and the same. One of the vessels arriving in 1823, reported silver, ginseng, and furs. This I explained on a former a lisè of 36 ships then in the Western Ocean, though occasion, that, owing to the bulk and low price of bread they did not know of any cargo except 35,200 barrels stuffs, &c. and their liability to spoil from so long a voy- of whale oil. age, through a hut country, that they would not pay the I have the authority of a respectable newspaper for expense of freight. But, from the mouth of this river, saying, that, within the period of thiee years, viz. in the voyage is short and safe, which will afford a good 1820, '21, and '22, there arrived at Nantucket, 2,101,292 profit for Aour, and all other articles the products of gallons of Spermaceti oil; and, for the same three years, agriculture. Cotton, too, bas been sold there for a good at New Bedford, 1,407,797 gallons, this being but one price; broken glass, leather, gin, brandy, and candles. item in the trade During these years there went to What a prospect for the tanner! in a country abounding Canton, in furs and sandal wood, from that coast and in timber, of oak, and spruce pine, affording bark of the sea, including some fur likewise shipped from N. York, best quality, as containing much of the tanning principle, that which sold for the incredible amount of 1,494,397 with skins in inexhaustible abundance, from the plains dollars! There was exported to that sea, in that year, below.
17,544 dollars' worth of domestic fabrics, and 9,417 of I have sought in vain for a correct statement as to the foreign merchandise. To the Western coast, 113,746 number of seamen annually employed in this trade, but domestic, and 193,363 foreign merchandise. We have, can only find an imperfect account for the years 1819 from the year 1805 to 1822, inclusive shipped to the Pato 1822 inclusive, making the number above 951 each cific, in domestic and foreign merchandise, 520,295 dolyear. It will be seen, likewise, that the shipments to lars; and, to the Western Coast, in the same articles, for South America are increasing, and will doubtless be the same period, 4,557,078 dollars ; making 5 077,371 dolprofitable, and increase the tonnage employed in that lars ; yet, hy this trade we obtain the valuable furs, sold branch of business.
for such enormous amounts in China ; our exports to that If the House will indulge me a few minutes, I will now coast amounting, in twenty years, to 5,077.371 dollars. make sone exposition of the whale trade, and the trade What a wonderful profit must there be, when the fuis to the Western Ocean. For all I shall say, I have the alone, in tbe Canton markel, for the season 1821, -22, documents in my hand, and if there is an error, it is, 1 sold for half a million of dollars ! The exports for the know, in making the exposition less than the real fact; year 1820, to the Western Coast, in articles the growth, but I deem it prudent to present the least favorable produce, and manufacture, of the United States, only view it is susceptible of. It is proper further to observe, amounted to 41,068 dollars ! consisting of 797 quintals tliat this part of the subject may be better understood, of dried fish, 3,729 pounds of hams and bacon, hats, leaththat the number of vessels here stated, regards the deer, boots, beer, spirits from molasses, nails, refined suparture and arrivals each year; though, it is believed, gar, brass, gunpowder, tobacco 26 hogsheads; but the that in some years there may be more at sea than in other most important article seems to be, the different kinds of years, which, of course, would not be noticed that year, manufacture from wood; this item amounts to 983 dolwhich may, on the other hand, be counterbalanced lars ; hence, it is evident, that it is the most valuable by the arrival of a vessel which that year cleared; yet it commerce known to the United States, as it creates its is pretty accurate.
own capital, and enriches by its labor, and the sale of in the year 1819, there cleared from Boston, 8 ships, nails, tobacco, leather, hats, and blue beads. For the engaged in the whale fishery, and commerce of the year 1821, the exports to that coast amounted to 94,493 Western Ocean, &c. The tonnage of these ships amount. dollars, and, for 1822, they amounted to 54,799. 'The ed to 2,171, navigated by 164 seainen. Their particu- goods, wares, and merchandise, the growth, produce, lar places of destination were Chili, Lima, Valparaiso, and manufacture, of foreign countries, exported to that Sandwich Islands, Western coast, &c. New Bedford, country or coast, amounted, in the year 1820, to 193,36% twenty eight ships, tonnage 7,379, seamen 552. Edgar- dollars ; consisting of different sorts of wine, brandy, &c. town, fourteen sbips, tonnage 3,908, seamen 281. New-tea, coffee, sugar, cassia, gunpowder, lead, shot, iron, port, one ship, tons 366, seamen 23. Providence, three black bottles, and leather. In 1821, the exports amount ships, tons 520, seamen 27. New London, ships 4, tons ed to 282,505 dollars, in much the same articles, also in 845, seamen 74. New York, one ship of 168 tons, and cluding some China ware, silks, teas, &c. For 1822, 21 seanen. There entered that year, 33 ships, 7,968 the amount was 110,790 dollars. Great as this trade is, tons, and 557 seamen, making 118 ships, 20,428 tons, na- all our seaports do not participate in it equally: for, Nanvigated by 2,199 seamen. In the year 1820, there clear- tucket alone, owns 83 of these ships. ed 103 ships, 25,118 tons, navigated by 2,063 seamen ; Why should we not protect and cherish this trade? and arrived 58 ships, 13,581 tons, and 946 seamen, mak- Was there evera
nation on earth which bought so much, ing 161 ships, 38,649 tons, and 3,009 seamen.
with so little? The fisheries, which bave occupied so In 1821 there sailed 162 ships, tonnage 41,550, navi- large a space in our negotiations for many years, only gated by 3192 seamen. There arrived that year, 53 yielded us, in the year 1816, the sum of 1,331,000 dol. ships, 12,908 tons, seamen not known, making 215 ships, lars, employing - tons of shipping; this also includtonnage 54,450. In 1822 there sailed, 161 ships; ton. ed — tons of shipping engaged in the whale trade. nage 43,515; seamen 3,174. There arrived 80 ships, Under this view of the subject, I think, Mr. Chairman, lons 18,127 ; there is no note of the seamen who en- you will agree with me, that our interests on the Patered, save 180 in New York; making, that year, 241 cific Ocean, are not so minute" as to be unworthy of inships, tons 61,612. In 1823, there sailed ninety-five vestigation, as has been said in a recent negotiation, by ships, tons 25,079, and arrived 80 ships, tons 20,833 ; a personage in no very subordinate station. This trade, making 175 ships; seamen not ascertained. In the year yielding such vast sums upon the capital and labor em1817, it is to be remembered, there was brought to Nan- ployed; giving employment to 45,000 tons of shipping, cucket, by 23 ships, tonnage 5,153, and 409 seamen, and upwards of 3,000 seamen ; ought to be looked to 5,771 barrels of whale oil; 15,401 barrels of Spermace..with care, and fostered with solicitude. Besides bringti; 6,813 of head matter; 19,444 of whale bone. In 1818,'ing us great wealth, it is the finest nursery for seamen ir
[H. of R.
Occupation of the Oregon River.
(Dec. 20, 1824.
the world. An ordinary whaling voyage is from two to I willing to embark in the same pursuit; among these may three years, I have it from authority that cannot be be named, Louis A. Tarascon, of Shippingport, Ken. doubted, that ships have been ahsent for four or five known in Bordeaux and Philadelphia, as one of the most years, and, in one instance, even seven years; it is this accomplished merchants; who has been among the first which makes the real scaman.
to open the trade from the Ohio to the West Indies, and But, sir, why should we not have our own ships built buili the first slip which descended that river, for that on that sea, and fitteil out from our own port on the Or- purpose, and whose commercial views have been useful, egon? Why send ships of war from this coast, from and deserve the most respectful attention of the governWashington City, to cruise in the Pacific Ocean, when ment. we can there build then, and keep on that coast a fleet, The great difficulties which Lewis and Clark met for that ocean?
with, induced adventurers to search for a more practicaMuch has been said concerning the difficulty of esta. ble route, which was soon discovered, to the south of blishing the posi, and subsisting those who might em- that pursued by these early travellers. Others went bark in the enterprize. It is true, we will not, for a few still further southwardly, and continued up the Yellow. years, find as much wealth and splendor as is found in sione river, taking the fork of that river, called the Big ile saloons and drawing rooms of this magnificent coun- Horn, pursuing it to its source, thence through the mounterfeit of European royalty; neither would we find what tain, falling upon the waters of Lewis river, one of the is very common here, a heartless intercourse, and aping principal branches of the Oregon. At this point the etiquette of miserable pretenders to the " monthly fash. waters interlock; and present very few difficulties, as ions, just from Europe."
the whole chain of mountains differs from those known First, As to subsistence. I think myself well justi. on the Atlantic shores, inasmuch as the mountains bere fied, from the concurrent testimony of all travellers and are composed of one unbroken chain; there are compos. voyagers, in stating, that the salmon of the Oregon river ed of a number of detached hills, though large, and of alone, woull subsist fitty thousand men a year. The great height from the base to the summit, resembling a potato grows wild there, on which the natives feed, not j chain of tumuli ; through these you pass with ease and only those who live on the river, but those of the neigh safety, so much so, that I have the most perfect confi. boring nations. Portlock and Dixon say, and their tes-dence, that even now, a wagon, with its usual freight, timony is strengthened by Messrs. Lewis and Clark, could be taken from this capital to the mouth of Oregon. that the gooseberry is to be found there in abundance; Besides these passes, there is stiil another, which, so is the red and black currant, strawberries, mulberries, though longer to the upper, part of that river, is yet raspberries, onions, and peas. Portlock also states, that, better, where even the feeble difficulties there encounhigh up that coast, a shrub is found, the leaves of which tered, are here almost annihilated. is so good a substitute for the tea of China, that he could This route, pursued by many how engaged in that hardly tell the difference. Moreover, wheat, and all trade, holds its course from Missouri, up the Kanzas kinds of grain, can be had in a few days from Mexico, at river, continuing some distance up the Republican fork very reduced prices. Hogs, sheep, goats, black cattle of that river; then falling on to the river Platte, thence, of every description, can be had, with ease, and in abun- entirely up that riverto its source, where the Oregon, or dance, in a short time, from California, or the Sandwich Rocky Mountain, sinks into a bed of sanc, without water Islands. The difficulties to be overcome in a voyage or or timber for the space of sixty miles smooth and level. journey to that country, are ideal, and for some years on crossing the sandy plain, the traveller finds himself unknown to the enterprizing citizens of Missouri, who, in a rich extensive country, in which heads the Rio del I had almo t said, were daily in the habit of planning Norte, the Rio Colorado, of California, Rio Buenaventu. and executing trips to Oregon and to Mexico, yielding ra, Timpanogos, Multnoma, on the head of Lewis' river. a profit in furs, peltries, money, and mules, beyond any It is worthy to remark, that at this point is to be found thing known to us. The journey is safe and easy, and that portion of the civilized Indians who escaped the requires, from Franklin, in Missouri, the space of fifty slaughter of the Spaniards when Montezuma was destroy. days, by their present slow mode of travelling, to per. ed. This excellent people live there in all the peaceform the trip. So frequent are their journeys, that I ful abundance of a rich soil and good government. They should almost feel myself justified in saying, that there have herds, flocks, till the soil, and manufacture various is a constant intercourse between Missouri, Mexico, and articles of cotton wool, and wood, and live in fine houses, Oregon.
some of stone, of the best workmanship; of this there is Auch of the reluctance which is felt by gentlemen, no doubt--some of their fabrics, such as counterpanes, arises from a recurrence to the difficulties experienced have been sold in the markets of Missouri. by Messrs. Lewis and Clark, when visiting that coast; The course, taken from the neighborhood of these their difficulties proceeded, not from the country, but people, is near the Lake of Timpanogos, thence to the from their entire want of knowledge—which is now pos- Multnoma, and with it to the Oregon, near its mouth; sessed, gained by a residence among the Indian nations the other, to fall on the waters of Lewis' river, and with who inhabit the country near the Oregon mountains. it, to its mouth, which is in truth the main branch of the
The course now travelled to pass those mountains, Oregon. lies far to the south of that formerly travelled, and a jour- Shoula capital be soon employed at the mouth of that ney can now be made without meeting any obstructions river, there can be little doubt that all the beneficial reof a serious character. Much of this information has sults here anticipated, would soon ensue; the valley of been imparted by Mr. Farnham and Mr. Crooks, gentle- the Mississippi would soon be supplied by this route, men to whom I am much indebted for many interesting with all the luxuries, and all the rich productions of the facts relative to this country, who have had an intimate Western ocean. One of the strongest of these supposed knowledge, from having been there, engaged in the difficulties, is the want of navigation on the Missouri trade of that country with John Jacob Astor, who is well river, and a want of safety at all times in ascending and known for his ski'l, experience, and extensive know- descending that river. This ceases to be an objection ledge in the fur trade, and is ready to vest in that pur- altogether-as I have been informed by General Jesup, sui:, several hundred thousand dollars, fixing his esta- that a boat invented on the Missouri river, (by General blishment at the mouth of Oregon, so soon as this repub- Atkinson,) and constructed and put into operation, by lic will extend to her citizens the same protection which an order from his Department, can ascend and descend, even the Kings of Europe, particularly England, grant or cross that river in any direction, with ease and with to their subjects. I am also informed, that other large safety, the persons on board being free from danger of Capitalists in the Western country, and in Virginia, are every kind.' His representation, all know, is to be reliDec. 20, 1824.]
Occupation of the Mouth of the Oregon.
[H. of R.
ed upon, as it is plain and never exaggerated. From all rope, she has Gibraltar and Malta, and other islands in the information to be had on this subject, the time taken the Mediterranean, wbich hold all Europe in check. On from Franklin, in Missouri, to the mouth of the Oregon, another side, she has a position in the West Indies, by the head of the river Platte, is fifty days.
in Africa, in India, and the South Seas; all chosen with Again, should capital be fixed at that point, as it soon the same intent, and all in completion of her schemes ; will be, why not have a dock yard and a naval esta- she wants nothing now to give her the entire control of olishment, to construct and repair our feet on that all the commerce of the world, for ages to come, but a sea? Would it not also be proper for this governinent position on our Western Coast, which she will soon to negotiate with the republic of Mexico, or Guatimala, have, unless you pass this bill. for the privilege of passing the isthmus? In this point Mr. POINSETT, of South Carolina, offered an amend. of view, Pensacola is likely to become the greatest city ment to the bill, the effect of which would be to leave in the south, and, perhaps, one of the greatest in this re. it discretionary with the President at what point on the public. The voyage is easy, and much shorter than any Pacific the military post should be established, and supwould suppose who had never considered it. From Oreported his amendment by some remarks, the substance gon to the Gulf of Panama, is a voyage of 22 days; of which was understood to be, that the information in from thence, across the land, to the Bay of Mandlinga, is possession of the mover, as to the geographical and tothree days; then to Pensacola, is a voyage of eight days; pographical advantages of the position at the mouth of making a voyage from the mouth of Oregon to Pensa. the Oregon, was adverse to that just laid before the cola, in thirty-three days. There is another course House by the gentleman from Virginia, (Mr. Floyd.) He which may be pursued, making the trip shorter-it is, was not very confident of the accuracy of either, and to leave Oregon for the Bay of Tehuantepec, a voyage thought it best to leave the matter to the President, who of twenty days; thence, across, to the Rio Huasecualco was, or doubtless would be, in possession of the best inin three days; and in four more to Pensacola ; in all telligence which was to be had in the case. twenty-seven days.
On motion of Mr. TRACY, of N. Y. the day being Is this not an object worthy to be secured? In the many somewhat advanced, the committee then rose. treaties which we have of late been negotiating, in all of Mr. COOK moved to discharge :he committee of the which, in my opinion, we have been much injured, whole on the state of the Union from the farther consiwould it not be right to secure this object to the South, deration of this bill, with a view to its reference to the that we may have some little benefit for immense injur- committee to whom so much of the President's message ies? Or, are our claims to Oregon, and our interests in as refers to this subject had already been committed. the Western ocean, really so “minute,” that they cannot 7his course appeared to him to be proper in itself, and, be perceived ?
particularly so, as there were manifest defects in the I throw out these binis, as forming principles for our bill, which made it advisable that it should undergo recommerce and vur country at large, to guide us in the vision by a committee. better way; just principles may be looked to as guides, Mr. FLOYD said, he was not at all anxious about the even when we cannot adhere to them as rules.
course this bill might take; but he could not see any neI shall, Mr. Chairman, close the few remarks I have cessity for the reference of it which was now proposed, to make, by an appeal to the House, to consider well especially as the present committee was composed of a our interests in the Western Ocean, on our Western majority of the persons who were upon the committee Coast, and the trade to China and to India ; and the by which, at the last session, this bill had been maturease with which it can be brought to Pensacola or ed. The President, it was true, had recommended the down the Missouri. What is this commerce ? Has it occupation of that territory in a military point of view. not enriched the world ? Thousands of years have pass. This bill contemplated that object, indeed; but, in aded by, and, year after year, all the nations of the earth dition, it proposed to give power to the President to have, each year, sought the rich commerce of that coun- erect the settlement into a territorial government whentry; all have enjoyed the riches of the East. This trade ever he may think proper. There must be at this set. was sought by King Solomon, by Tyre, Sidon; this wealth tlement, besides traders, many shipwrights, blacksmiths, found its way to Egypt, and, at last, to Rome, to France, and other artisans, &c.; and he stated, on the authority Portugal, Spain, Holland, England, and, finally, to this of General lector, that, in the last season, there were Republic. How vast and incomprehensibly rich must on the waters of the Missouri sixteen hundred persons be that country and commerce, which has never ceased, engaged in the fur trade, who could not go over to the one day, from the highest point of Jewish splendor, to Columbia, because they would have been unprotected, the instant I am speaking, to supply the whole globe besides having high duties to pay, &c. The bill con: with all the busy imagination of man can desire, for his tained but two features--the one was the establishinent ease, comfort, or enjoyment! Wbilst we have so fair an of a military post, and the other was an authority to the opportunity offered, to participate so largely in all this President to establish a territorial government whenever wealth and enjoyment, if not to govern and direct the he might judge it expedient. He appealed to the Amewhole, can it be possible that doubts, on mere points of rican feeling of every gentleman whether it was proper speculation, will weigh with the House, and cause us to to place under military law or the caprice of the comlose forever, the brightest prospect ever presented to mander of a post of two hundred troops, the number of the eyes of a nation?
persons who would belong to such a civil settlement. I will conclude my observations on this important sub- lle could not, for his own part, think of such a thing for ject, with one other remark, which I beg the House to a moment. The persons there would be chiefly engagbear in misd, and give it such weight as it deserves. ed in hunting and fishing, and he thought it was just The idea of extending our military frontier, or posts, to that they should have the blessings of civil government the mouth of that river, seems to have created alarm in as soon as their circumstances would adinit of it. He the minds of some gentlemen ; but, when it is well con- was, therefore, opposed to the reference of the bill to sidered, all cause of fear will vanish. It is not so im- a committee, as proposed. portant as to the number of military posts, as it is, that Mr. COOK said, that this bill proposed certainly a they should be properly placed. I am thoroughly per very important measure. Hesides the establishment of suaded, that England governs the commercial world a civil colonial government on the coast of the Pacific more by the advantageous positions she occupies in it, Ocean, it proposed the giving grants of land to settlers, than by her physical strength or powerful marine. In which were calculated 'to delude the people of this addition to the strength which she derives from her in- country, enterprizing as they are-to produce upon sular position, which is as a bastion to the coast of Eu- | them an impression that the country in question is adapt.
Sen. & H. of R.]
Gratitude to Lafayette.
[Dec. 21, 1824.
ed to the babits and constitutions of our citizens—to de. The question was then put on Mr. COOK'S motion to lude from their present peaceful abodes a considerable recomnit the bill, and lost by a large majority. population. Before we adopt a measure of this kind, he And then the House adjourned. said, we ought to have some satisfactory information, upon proper responsibility, as to the character of the soil, climate, &c. of the country. Before any settlement was
IN SENATE.-TUESDAY, Dec. 21, 1824. made there, the country ought to be explored by proper
GRATITUDE TO LAFAYETTE. topographical engineers, &c. The proposed undertaking was one of great importance, and the subject was The Senate then, according to the order of the day, worthy of consideration." He wisbed to place the whole took up the bill making provision for General LAFAYmatter before the committee raised on that part of the ETTE; and, no amendment being proposed thereto, the President's message which relates to this subject, to en-question was about to be put on ordering the bill to be able them to digest such measures as might appear pro-read a third timeper to enable the House to act knowingly and delibe. Mr. MACON rose. It was with painful reluctance, he rately on this subject. At present they were leaping said, that he felt himself obliged to oppose his voice to entirely in the dark: for one, he confessed that he was; the passage of this bill. He admitied, to the full extent and he presumed a large portion of the House were in claimed for them, the great and meritorious services of the same situation. He wished to have information on General Lafayette, and he did not object to the precise this subject which could be relied upon, and not to es sum which this bill proposed to award him; but he obtablish a grand system, for such this was, without firstjected to the bill on this ground: he considered General exploring their way, and ascertaining whether that act Lafayette, to all intents and purposes, as having been, would not have the effect to delude many of our citizens during our Revolution, a son, adopted into the family, from their present successful pursuits, to a vain search taken into the household, and placed, in every respect, after imaginary improvement of their condition. on the same footing with the other sons of the same
Mr. TRIMBLE, of Kentucky, felt some regret that the family. To treat him as others were treated, was all, in motion of the gentleman from Illinois had been made. this view of his relation to us, that could be required. He did not see the necessity for it even to the attain and this had been done. That General Lafayette made ment of the mover's own object, and there was, in the great sacrifices, and spent much of his money in the sermean while, a weighty reason why the Hodge should act vice of this country, (said Mr. M.) I as firmly believe as I upon the bill at the present session. The bill had, as do any other thing under the sun : I have no doubt that had been observed, two leading features-first, the es- every faculty of his mind and body were exerted in the tablishment of a military post, and, secondly, the esta- Revolutionary war, in defence of this country; but this blishment of a territorial government at such time as the was equally the case with all the suns of the family. President shall jucige it to be proper. The object of Many native Americans spent their all, made great sacrthe gentleman from Illinois would be fully answered by fices, and devoted their lives in the same cause. This striking out the latter feature, to wlich alone his objec- was the ground of his objection to this bill, which, he tions seemed to apply; for, certainly, when he talked of repeated, it was as disagreeable to him to state as it sending topographical engineers to survey the country, could be to the Senate to hear. He did not mean to take he did not mean to turn those gentlemen out defenceless up the time of the Senate in debate upon the principle among savages : he would surely send a military force of of the bill, or to move any amendment to it. He admitsome description to accompany and protect them. But ted that, when such things were done, they should be it was needfnl that the House should act upon the sub- done with a free hand. It was to the principle of the ject, and for this reason : By the terms of the British bill, therefore, and not to the sum proposed to be given treaty, England and the United States are to trade in by it, that he objected. With regard to the details of comtion throughout that country; and the treaty stipu- the bill, however, he was rather of the opinion that it lates that the rights possessed by each at the time of the would have been better to have given so much money, treaty, are to remain as they then were for fourteen which we have in the l'reasury, than to have given stock years. Now, it was well known that an agent of the Ame to the amount. rican Government had gone round to Astoria, the set- Mr. BROWN, of Ohio, said that this bill purported to tlement at the mouth of the river Oregon, immediate- give a compensation to General Lafayette for services ly after the conclusion of peace, and demanded that the rendered. He should like to know what evidence had British fag should be lowered and the American flag induced the committee to suppose that the amount prohoisted, as a signal of the possession of that part of the posed was the proper amount of compensation. He coast. Well, said Mr. T., the lion accordingly came should like to know how far the proposed appropriation down and the eagle went up; but, no sooner did the was grounded on claims for services or for expenditure. American agent turn bis back, than down went the ea- le should, indeed, like to see the phraseology of the gle, and up went the lion again. Under such circum- bill changed. He should like to have the bill recom. stances, we made the agreement contained in the committed, also, for another and a peculiar reason. As it mercial treaty; and, if we shall leave the territory in proposed to raise money by a loan, he doubted whether possession of Great Britain until the fourteen years shall ihat provision of the bill was not invading the peculiar run out, at the end of that time it will be hers by right privilege of the House of Representatives. Under the of possession, and she may expel our traders, &c. The influence of these considera tions, he moved to recommit possession which may now be obtained and secured by a the bill. small military force, say of two hundred men, may not, Mr. HAYNE, of South Carolina, said he had entertainafter that time, be obtained by a much larger force, and ed the hope that this bill would have given rise to no at a much greater expense. He was, therefore, opposed discussion; and if no other objection had been made to to the recommitment of the bill. Whilst up, he begged it than that of his friend (Mr. Macon) who was opposed leave to return his thanks, those of the people whom be upon principle, to making an appropriation, in any case, represented, and, he believed, of a great portion of the or under any circumstances, by way of compensation American people, to the gentleman from Virginia, (Mr. for losses and services in the public cause, he did not Floyd,) who had so long, and with so much assiduity, la- know that he should now have risen. But the objection bored to collect and present facts for the information of the gentleman from Ohio made it his duty to submit, and guidance of the House in a matter of so great na- as briefly as possible, his views of this question. He tional importance as that which was now before it, and trusted, he said, that he should be able to satisfy the which he liad at successive sessions brought forward. Senate, and to satisfy even the scruples of the gentle.