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place also, and at the Grange in Culver-croft, there were dove-houses; and on the hill opposite to the Grange the prior had a warren, as the names of the Coney-crofts and Coney-croft Hanger plainly testify.” Nothing has been said as yet respecting the tenure or holding of the Selborne estates. Temple and Norton are manor farms and freehold; as is the manor of Chapel near Oakhanger, and also the estate at Oakhanger-house and Blackmoor. The Priory and Grange are leasehold under Magdalen-college, for twenty-one years, renewable every seven : all the smaller estates in and round the village are copyhold of inheritance under the college, except the little remains of Gurdon-manor, which had been of old leased out upon lives, but have been freed of late by their present lord, as fast as those lives have dropped. Selborne seems to have derived much of its prosperity from the near neighbourhood of the Priory. For monasteries were of considerable advantage to places where they had their sites and estates, by causing great resort, by procuring markets and fairs, by freeing them from the cruel oppression of forest-laws, and by letting their lands at easy rates. But, as soon as the convent was suppressed, the town which it had occasioned began to decline, and the market was less frequented; the rough and sequestered situation gave a check to resort, and the neglected roads rendered it less and less accessible. That it had been a considerable place for size formerly appears from the largeness of the church, which much exceeds those of the neighbouring villages; by the ancient extent of the burying ground, which, from human bones occasionally dug up, is found to have been much encroached upon; by giving a name to the hundred; by the old founda– tions and ornamented stones, and tracery of windows that have been discovered on the north-east side of the village; and by the many vestiges of disused fish-ponds still to be seen around it. For ponds and stews were multiplied in the times of popery, that the affluent might enjoy some variety at their tables on fast days; therefore the more they abounded the better probably was the condition of the inhabitants.
* Cuker, as has been observed before, is Saxon for a pigeon. * A warren was an usual appendage to a manor.
More Particulars respecting the Old Family Tortoise, omitted in the Natural History.
Because we call this creature an abject reptile, we are too apt to undervalue his abilities, and depreciate his powers of instinct. Yet he is, as Mr. Pope says of his lord,
— — — “Much too wise to walk into a well”:
and has so much discernment as not to fall down an haha; but to stop and withdraw from the brink with the readiest precaution. Though he loves warm weather he avoids the hot sun; because his thick shell, when once heated, would, as the poet says of solid armour—“scald with safety.” He therefore spends the more sultry hours under the umbrella of a large cabbage-leaf, or amidst the waving forests of an asparagus-bed. But as he avoids heat in the summer, so, in the decline of the year, he improves the faint autumnal beams, by getting within the reflection of a fruit-wall: and, though he never has read that planes inclining to the horizon receive a greater share of warmth," he inclines his shell, by tilting it against the wall, to collect and admit every feeble ray. Pitiable seems the condition of this poor embarrassed reptile: to be cased in a suit of ponderous armour, which he cannot lay aside; to be imprisoned, as it were, within his own shell, must preclude, we should suppose, all activity and disposition for enterprise. Yet there is a season of the year (usually the beginning of June) when his exertions are remarkable. He then walks on tiptoe, and is stirring by five in the morning; and, traversing the garden, examines every wicket and interstice in the fences, through which he will escape if possible: and often has eluded the care of the gardener, and wandered to some distant field. The motives that impel him to undertake these rambles seem to be of the amorous kind; his fancy then becomes intent on sexual attachments, which transport him beyond his usual gravity, and induce him to forget for a time his ordinary solemn deportment.
* Several years ago a book was written entitled “Fruit-walls improved by inclining them to the horizon”: in which the author has shown, by calculation, that a much greater number of the rays of the sun will fall on such walls than on those which are perpendicular.
et multis aliis. Datum apud Wlnes' per manum P. de cancellis. In die sanctorum martirum Fabiani et Sebastiani. Anno Domi millesimo ducentesimo tricesimo tercio.
Seal, two saints and a bishop praying: Legend: SVI. M. SITe. BONI. PeTR' PAVL' € PATRONI.
Carta petens licemtiam eligendi prelatum a Domino Episcopo JVimtomiem si
Defuncto prelato forma petendi licentiam eligendi
DoMiNo et patri in Christo reverendo domino et P. Dei gratia Wintoniensi episcopo, devoti sui filii supprior monasterii de S. Wintoniensis dioceseos salutem cum subjectione humili, reverentiam, et honorem. Monasterio nostro de S. in quo sub protectione vestra vivimus, sub habitu regulari, Prioris solacio destituto per mortem bone memorie, etc. quondam Prioris nostri, qui tali hora in aurora diem clausit extremum, vestre paternitati reverende et dominationi precipue istum nostrum et nostri monasterii casum flebilem cum merore nunciamus; ad vestre paternitatis refugium fratres nostros A. et C. canonicos destinantes, rogando et petendo devote quatenus nobis dignemini licenciam tribuere, ut monasterio predicto, Prioris regimine destituto, providere possimus, invocata Spiritus sancti gratia,
* Probably Wolvesey-house near Winchester.
by five in the morning; and, traversing the garden, examines every wicket and interstice in the fences, through which he will escape if possible: and often has eluded the care of the gardener, and wandered to some distant field. The motives that impel him to undertake these rambles seem to be of the amorous kind; his fancy then becomes intent on sexual attachments, which transport him beyond his usual gravity, and induce him to forget for a time his ordinary solemn deportment.