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just association. Erasistratus could scarcely have adopted so wild a theory, unless it had been in trying to put together the fragments of a broken system, of which he was uvable to collect the whole materials. Perhaps then he had heard from the priests' of Egypt some tradition upon this subject, which he imperfectly understood. This tradition might have been, that the vital air is separated in the lungs from the air respired, and that it produces sensible changes upon the blood, when that Auid is pushed forwards into the arteries.

The impartial reader will now judge, whether it be not probable, that the physicians of Greece owed much to those of Egypt. He must have observed the admiration, bordering on the limits of exaggeration, with which Homer speaks of the medical knowledge of the Egyptians. He can have scarcely questioned either the ignorance of the Asclepiades, or the frauds which they practised. He must have seen, that the Greeks really knew nothing of the art of healing, uptil Pythagoras returned from Egypt and the East, where he had obtained all his learning. Then indeed the light of science began to dawn 'upon Europe. Medicine was taught upon rational principles; and the disciples of the school of Crotona, such as Empedocles the Sicilian, Epicharmus and Metrodorus of Cos, Timæus the Locrian, and Democides, were celebrated as physicians in Greece, in Italy, and in Asia. About half a century after the death of Pythagoras, Democritus, who had passed many years in Chaldea and Egypt, revisited his native country. He found leisure amidst his philosophical labors, to give lessons in medicine to Hippocrates. Another food of light poured in upon Greece. The pupil of Democritus became the medical preceptor of mankind. Finally, the reader must have observed, that immediately after the establishment of the Greeks at Alexandria, the science of anatomy suddenly florished, and suddenly decayed. It seems as if the first comers had profited by the traditions of the Egyptian priests, had appropriated to themselves all that remained yet untouched of the wreck of ancient learning, and bad left their successors to the efforts of their own ingenuity. Thus in following the progress of medical knowledge among the Greeks, we find that it was always connected with their intercourse with the Egyptians, and that every new accession of information among them was preceded by some communication with that people. Who indeed can contemplate with impartiality the history of medicine in Greece, without seeing that the art could not have so suddenly advanced towards perfection, unless there had been some foreign source, from which such men as Pythagoras and Democritus drew their knowledge ? Science is not of mushroom growth. It is born of experience. It becomes strong when it rests upon the accumulated testimonies of the wise. Like the oak, it comes slowly to maturity; nor shows itself clad in the fulness of its hunors to the generation that saw it planted in the soil. February, 1816.

W. DRUMMOND. P.S. No. XXXII. p. 267. for ' 14,850 will give as precisely 118,800,000 feet,' read' 14,850, multiplied by 8000, will give as, precisely 118,800,000 feet.' A few lines below, for • 19,840,' read • 19,340.

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No. 111.-[Continued from No. XXXIII. p. 51.]

Ου γαρ ότ' αμφοτέρωθεν ομού περί μέσσον έχωσιν
'Hέλιον κεϊναι νεφέλαι, σχεδόν ωκεανοίο
Γίγνεται άμβολίη, διόθεν χειμώνος ιόντος.
Είχε μεν εκ βορέαο μι' οίη φοινίσσοιτο,

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148–156. Observa, vel orientis vel tum expecta; si ex Austro ventum ex occidentis solis, si illa nubium phæno- ea parte. mena, quæ parhelia vocant, aut ab Au

Per παρήλιον intelligenda est falsa stro aut a Borea rubescunt, aut utrim- solis species juxta solem apparens; non que; nec frivole custodi hanc observa. simpliciter nubes rubens aut splendida tionem. Non enim, cum utriuque juxta solem. Nonnulli transtulere simul eæ nubes solem in medio conti. “ nubes quas parhelia vocant.” Sed nent, cum prope oceanum sit, pluviæ quoniam de nubibus lucidis juxta solem venientis dilatio e cælo fit. Si vero e apparentibus, aliis locis agitur, sine allo Borea una sola rubescat, e Borea fla- nominis hujús (traphalov) usu, placet

'Εκ βορέα πνοιάς κε φέροι, νοτίη δε, νότοιο.
*Η και που ραθέμιγγες επιτροχόωσ' υετοίο
Εσπερίοις και μάλλον αλήθεα τεκμήραιο:
Εσπέροθεν γαρ ομώς σημαίνεται έμμενές αιεί.
Σκέπτεο και φάτνην: η μέν τ' ολίγη εικυία

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nobis vepéw tè reddere (ut sapra) nuo plane non ignorabant veteres : ita Arisbium effectus seu phænomena, quæ toteles, Tò dè altuor TobTW awdyrum parhelia vocant; cum qua interpreta- ταυτό, πάντα γάρ ανάκλασις ταυτά έστι: tione non male congruit Aristotelis par- διαφέρουσι δε τους τρόπους, και αφ' ών και heliorum descriptio, Παρήλιοι δε και ως συμβαίνει την ανάκλασιν γίγνεσθαι προς ράβδοι γίνονται εκ πλαγίας αεί· και ούτ' τον ήλιον ή προς άλλο τι των λαμπρών. dvwev, otte mpos , oór et évarrigs, [Aristot. Meteor. iii. 2.) Per paßious ουδε δή νύκτωρ, αλλ' αεί περί τον ήλιον έτι intellige apparentes solis radios, quos δή αίρομένου και καταφερομέ.ει τα πλείστα Romani virgas appellavere. Seneca δε προς δύσμας μεσουρανού τις δε σπάνιόν de parheliis scribit, « Οuid eas vocem τι γέγονεν οίον εν Βοσπόρο τοτε συνέπεσε" imagines solis? Historici soles vocant δι' όλης γαρ της ημέρας συνάσχοντες δύο et binos ternosque apparuisse memoraphaigu Oleténetai Méxpe dvouậv. [Arist. ria tradunt. Græci Parhelia appellant, Meteor. iii. 2.) Plinius illustrat hanc quia in propinquo fere a sole visuntur descriptionem in Historiæ Naturalis aut quia adcedunt ad aliquam similitulibro de parheliis ita locutus : “ Et dinem solis.” In capite xiii. ita est, rursus plures soles simul cernuntur, nec “ Solent et bina parhelia fieri, eadem supra ipsum nec infra sed ex obliquo, ratione." Et paullo infra,“ Pluviarum numquam juxta nec contra terram, nec autem et bi soles (utar enim historica noctn; sed aut oriente aut occidente. lingua) indicia sunt; præcipue si a Semel ex meridie conspecti in Bosphoro parte Austri constiterunt, unde maproduntur; qui a matutino tempore xime nubes ingravescunt: cum atrimduravere in occasum. Trinos soles an- que solem cinxit talis effigies (si Aráto tiqui sæpius videre; sicut Sp. Pos- credimus) tempestas surgit.” [Senec. tumio, Q. Mutio, et Q. Martio, M. Por. Nat. Quæst. i. 13.] tio, et M. Antonio, P. Dolabella, et M. De rubescentibus nubibus ita ApolLepido, L. Planco coss. Et nostra lonius in Argonauticis, etas vidit divo Claudio principe, con- Τώ δε δι' ατραπιτοίο μεθ' ιερόν άλσος Ικονsulatu ejus Cornelio Orfito collega. το, Plares simul quanm tres visi, ad hoc evi φηγόν άπειρεσίην διλημένω, και επί κώας numquam produntur.” [Plin. Hist. Bébanto vepéan evalyklov hr' åvlovtos Nat. ii. 31.) Seneca accuratius scri- 'Herlov Proyepoiol èpeu0etal àKTivegou. bit, “Sunt autem imagines solis in nube (Apollon. Rhod. Argon. iii. 126.] spissa et vicina in modum speculi. Valerius Flaccus imitabatur : Quidam parhelion ita definiunt: Nubes “ Cnjus adhuc rutilam servabant bra. rotunda et splendida similisque soli.” chia pellem [Senec. Nat. Quæst. i. 2.]

Nubibus accensis similem ; aut cum v. 155. pouviooolto proprie, ad purpu

veste recincta reum seu phæniceum colorem refert; Labitur ardenti Thaumantias obvia Scapula derivat a verbo phanix: du- Phabo.bito an hoc in loco rubere pro purpu- (Val. Flacc. Argon. viii. 114.] rescere ponitur; vel simpliciter splen- 157–159. Pergit poeta narrare, ant descere intelligi debet. Parhelia sem- sicubi guttæ decidunt pluviæ. Occiper splendent; aliquando color addi. dentalibus enim certiora deprehendetur, per refractionem. Sed vetat Se. res. Namque ab occidente invariabilia ueca, (ile parheliis) “ Ceterum nihil signa semper sumuntur. De quibus babent ardoris hebetes ac languidi,” jam satis dictum est. [Sener. Nat. Quæst. i. 2.)

160-166. Descriptio constellationis Horum omnium pbantasmatum com. páruns seu Prasepis— Intuere quoque mupis causa refractio est: ipsa tanen Præsepe ; quod tenui nubeculæ simile differunt inter se secundum diversas sub Cancro boreali versatur. At circa interposita nubis qualitates; quod ipsum duæ stellæ parum lucentes fe

165

'Αχλύς, βορδαίη υπό Καρκίνο ηγηλάζει. 'Αμφί δέ μιν δύο λεπτά φαινόμενοι φορέονται 'Αστέρες, ούτε τι πολλών απήορόι, ούτε μαλ' εγγύς, 'Αλλ' όσσον τε μάλιστα πυγούσιον oιήσασθαι Είς μεν παρ' βορέαο, νότω δ' έπιέρχεται άλλος Και τοι μεν καλέονται ονοι· μέσση δε τε φάτνη, Ητε και εξαπίνης πάντη Διός ευδιάοντος Γίνετάφαντος όλης τοι δ' αμφοτέρωθεν ιόντες 'Αστέρες αλλήλων αυτοσχεδόν ένδάλλονται». Ουκ ολίγω χειμώνα τότε κλύζονται αρουραι. Ει δε μελαίνηται, τοι δ' αυτίκ' έoικότες ώσιν 'Αστέρες αμφότεροι περίχ' ύδατι σημαίνομεν. Εί δ' ο μεν εκ βορέω φάτνης αμενηνα φαείνη Λεπτός επαχλυόων, νότιος δ' όνος αγλαός είη, Δειδέχθαι ανέμοιο νότου βορέω δε μάλα χgή *Εμπαλίν αχλυόεντι φαεινομένω τε δοκεύειν. Σήμα δε του ανέμοιο και οιδαίνουσα θάλασσα, Γινέσθω και μακρόν επ' αιγιαλοι βοόωντες,

170

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runtur; nec multum distantes, nec ventum Austrum expecta. Boream valde vicinæ ; sed talis distantia est ut vero e contra tenebrescente lucenteque maxime cubitum putes. Una Bóreæ, observare oportet.-Theophrastam sealtera Austro appropinquat.

Atque cutus est, qui ipse hanc constellatiohæ quidem Asini vocantur; medium nem præcipue tempestatem præmonuantern Presepe est. Ita descripta est isse docet, εν τω Καρκίνο δύο αστέρες a Theophrasto. το Καρκίνο δύο εισιν, οι καλούμενοι ένοι, ών το μέταξυ το αστέρες εισίν οι καλούμενοι όνοί. [Theoph. νεφέλιον η φάτνη καλουμένη: τούτο δε αν Sign. Pluv.]

οφώδης γένηται, υδατικόν. [Theoph. 167. Pergit enarrare quæ ex præsepi Sign. Plav.) Et postea inter tempesprognostica sunt; quo meteorologica tatia signa, ή του όνου φάτνη εί συνίσταται astronomicis confundit. Νam diverse και ζοφερά γίνεται χείμωνα σημαίνει. barum stellarum species, non a propria [Theoph. Sign. Temp.] Quum cælum ipsarum atmosphæra, sed a nostro aërě nulla de causa apparente, ut scilicet efficiuntur; quare ergo hæ, magis quam nube, sed tamquam aëre densato obaliæ stellæ per obscuritatem suam tem- scuratur, ita ut in die sol, noctu vero pestates portendere possint? Si qui- luna et astra languido et obtuso lumine dem ab ipsaram aëré aut aliquo circa splendeant; pubes quam cirrostratum eas fieri possit speciei variatio, quis vocant diffusa est in aëre, e qua, ulla credit tantam inter tam remotà sidera forma apparente, sed præcipue cuin relationem existere, ut aliquid in stellis late diffusa sit, certissima pluviarum visum pluviam in mundo præmoneret? signa eveniunt. Rectius tamen paullo Sensus est-Quod etiam confestim, inferius hoc præsagium ad omnes stellas caelo sereno, fit evanidum totum ; atqne poëta retulit, quod nunc ad præsepe stellae ntrinique coeuntes, si invicem solum referre videtur. Vide vý. 281vicitiae apparent; non modica tempes. 286. late arva inundant. Si autem nigrés. 178. Jam cælestia tempestatis pro. cat, riitsus vero eodem colore ambæ gnostica relinquens, terrestria amplectistellæ existnnt, pluvias significant. Si Et primum de ventorum signis vero hic (ovos) qui est e præsepis borea agens, ita docet super eorum adventa modice tenebrescens, languide splen- significare.

Atqui signum venti esto deat, cum austrinus aseflas lucidus sit, intumescens mare, nec non et margines

tur.

'Ακταί τ' εινάλιοι, οπότ' εύδιοι ηχήεσσαι
Γίγνωνται, κορυφαί τε βοώμεναι ούρεος άκραι.
Και δ' άν επί ξηρών ότ' ερωδιός ου κατά κόσμον

'

180

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multum sonantes. Etiam littora marina, mæve dispersæ aut aquæ bullantes. cum serena arguta fiunt, sonantiaque Pulmones marini in pelago, plurium summa montis cacumina. Theophras- dierum hyemem portendant. Sæpe tus inter ventorum signa ponit odracoa et silentio intumescit, Alatuque altius οιδούσα, και ακται βοώσαι, και αιγιαλος solito jam intra se esse ventos fatetur. hxâv åveuwons. [Theoph. Sign. Vent.) Equidem et montium sopitus nemorum

Virgilius in Georgicorum libro primo que mugitus prædicunt-Atque etiam ita Arati sensum expressit :

in campis tempestatem venturam præ“ Continuo ventis surgentibus aut freta cedens suus fragor. Cæli quidem murPonti

mur non dubiam habet significationem.” Incipiunt agitata tumescere, et aridus (Plin. Hist. Nat. xviii. 35.] altis

De hoc venti, e mari, prognostico ita Montibus audiri fragor; aut resonantia Silius versificat: longe

“ Sic ubi prima movent pelago certaLittora misceri et nemorum increbres- mina venti, cere murmur.'

Inclusam rabiem ac sparsuras astra (Virg. Geor. i. 359.]

procellas Et in Æneidos libro decimo ubi cæli- Parturit unda freti, fundoque emota colarum fremitus ventorum flaminibus minaces comparat, de nemorum murmure scri- Expirat per saxa sonos, atque acta bit,

cavernis “ Talibus orabat Juno, cunctique fre- Torquet anbelanten in spumanti vertice mebant

pontum.” Cælicolæ adsensu vario. Ceu flamina

[Sil. Ital. lib. iv.] prima

Et Valerius, Cum deprensa fremunt sylvis, et cæca “ Ceu tumet atque imo sub gurgite volutant

concipit austros, Murmora, venturos nautis prodentia Unda silens.” ventos.'

(Valer. Flacc. Argon. v.] [Virg. Æneid. x. 99.]

Seneca habet, “ Agitata ventis undą Et Lucanus in quinto Pharsaliæ li- venturis tumet.” [Senec. Agam.] Étiam bro,

in Thyeste, “ Tum rector trepidæ fatur ratis ; Ad- “ Instat nautis fera tempestas, spice sævum

Cuin sine vento tranquilla tument.” Quanta paret pelagus : Zephyrusne

[Senec. Thyest. 957.] intendat an Eurus

Hoc prognosticum, recentiorum quam. Incertum est : puppim dubius ferit un- quam experieutia confirmatum, primo dique pontus:

tamen ex Homero desumtum video, Nubibus et cælo Notus est. Si mur. qui in Iliade ita capit, mura ponti

Ως δ' ότε πορφύρη πέλαγος μέγα κύματι Consulimus, venient Cori in mare gur- κωφώ gite tanto

'Οσσόμενον λιγέων ανέμων λαιψηρά κέNec ratis Hesperias tanget nec naufra- λευθα. gus oras.

[Homer. Il. E. 16.) [Lucan. Phars. v. 573.]

M.T. Cicero ad hanc venti significaPlinius in Hist. Nat. libro scribit: tionem respexisse videtur, quum tristi“Est et aquarum significatio. Mare ficas dicit esse saxorum voces : si tranquillum in portu a cursu stabit, “Saxaque cana salis niveo spumata et murniuravit intra se, ventum prædi- liquore cit. Si identidem, et hyemem et im- Tristificas certant Neptuno reddere brem. Littora ripæque si resonabunt tranquillo; asperam tempestatem ; item

(Cicero Divin. i.) maris ipsius tranquillo sonitus ; spu

181. In pertractandis ventorum in

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