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duced at subsequent periods, to designate more accurately the technical forms of art, religion, or science. But because the Cornish contains a little Greek, in common with the other European languages, it is neither reasonable nor philological, to suppose that it is particularly allied to it, or that it shares in its elegance and copiousness. Even modern English, perhaps, contains a larger number of Greek words than the Cornish; it possesses much of a Grecian cast, and that too in words, which, it is evident, were never introduced for scientific purposes. The affinity of English to Latin is considerable, as might be anticipated. It is well known, how much Greek there is in the latter, however it may be altered 1 and disguised in form and meaning. But Latin is derived from

. the Celtic, and is an intermediate link which unites it and its derivative idioms to the Greek language. I cannot account for so many Greek words in our English, on any other ground, than that of this common origin ;' and it is rather to this, than to the Grecian trade from Marseilles, that I attribute the Greek, which is intermixed in the Cornish vocabularies.

It camiot be denied, that during the long intercourse of the Greeks with the coasts of Cornwall, the natives might have be.

' The following words, allowing for their disguises, corruptions, and endings, come from the Greek :

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safe, ows. say, 3. salt, års.

better, βέλτερος.
blow, blast, Báraw..
blunt, αμβλόω.
boy, Tais.
call, καλέω.
creep, épww.
door, θύρα.
double, dalolls.
each, έκαστος.
earth, épa.
eat, εσθίω.
eye, όσσος.
fail, fall, opánnw.
faith, πίστις.
father, fathe.
fire, rūp.
hrst, πρώτος.
foot, nous.
ford, hópos.
full, πλέος.

gather, ayelpw.
great, κρείττων.
hole, φωλεός.
hope, help, eatis. scratch, ypáow.
kind, yévos.

send, Inut.
knee, γόνυ.

sickle, Šáykan. know, γνωμι.

skiff, akápos. leave, λείπω.

spread, otepw. like, ίκελος.

strong, στερεός. loose, núw.

sword, oldnpos. lose, ολέσκω.

tame, δαμάω. most, μείζων.

tear, relpa. mother, μήτηρ.

think, dokéW. νέος.

tongue, φθόγγος. now, vûv,

tooth, odoús.

tree, Spôs. other, črepos.

view, etdw. over, útrép.

wet, water, pause, rauw.

winter, wash, rain, βαίνω.

whole, 8xos. rock, rag, crag, phyvom. wind, ów. roof, όροφος.

work, εργον.

new,

one, ένα.

}ow and derós.

come acquainted with their language, and adopted terms from it, either for objects to which they had already given names, or for such as had hitherto been unknown, and were then introduced for the first time. As their voyages were subsequent to those of the Phenicians, it naturally follows that more of those Greek words should have been retained in use, or rather, that the comparative recency of that period has been the means that fewer have been forgotten, or become obsolete. I will even allow it to be probable, that a great deal of Greek, which might have once been incorporated with the Cornish, has in the lapse of ages unavoidably been lost; but I can go no farther, unless I wished to imitate that ingenuity, which establishes a Greek town of Heraclea on Hartland Point, and would make that headland to be the pillars which terminated the discoveries of the Phocæan navigators.

The following passage, from Dr. Pryce, deserves some animadversion :

As from the Hebrews to the Phenicians, so from the Phenicians to the Greeks, came letters and arts. And accordingly from the Phenician character, the Greeks appear to have composed their letters, and the Latins progressively from the Greeks. So likewise our ancient and true Cornish appears to be mostly derived from the Greek and old Latin tongues, as it partakes much of their cadence and softness, with less of the guttural harshness peculiar to the Hebrew and Chaldee. This is the more easily accounted for, as the Phenicians about the time of the Trojan war, first discovered the Scilly Islands and the western shores of Cornwall; with the natives of which they traded for tin, and sold it to the Greeks.”! Nothing is so calculated to mislead, as the bold assertions of an able man, which are therefore implicitly believed, and his errors continually repeated. As to his first position, we have already examined how little there is of a Phenician or Hebrew mixture in the Cornish. Those languages, however, are not so generally understood in a Cornishman, to be jealous of the honors of his county, and to have a disposition to believe the exaggerated

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Ois.

An egg,

"Ts.
A sow,

Lu,
The vulgar,

Λαός.
Guis,
I know,
Γνωμι. Meroin,

A girl,
Gaon,

Μειρακίον "TW. Water,

Nef, Heaven, Νεφέλη. Guy, uy,

"Ans.

To spin, Halein, Salt,

Nyddhu,

Νήθω. Generation,

Γένεσις. Oin,
Henath,

A lamb,
Hesuek,
Ease,
“Ησυχία.

Ώον.
Oye,
“Ηλιος. Pemp,

Five,

Πέντε. Houl, Sul, The sun,

Perna,
A father-in-law, 'Ekupós.

To buy,

Περνάω. Huigeren, Hylwys, To cry out,

'Olonusw. Porthwys, A ferryman, Πορθμεύς Hyrch, To command,

'Peúow. Apxw. Resas,

To flow,
Crabs,
Keukraz,

Καύκρος. Reuki,

To snore,

Ρέγχειν. Kentrow, Nails, Κέντρον. Riou, Cold,

'Piyos. Krên, A fountain, Κρήνη. Ryn,

A promontory, 'Pív. Kûr,

Safe,

Σώς.
A coast, Xápa. Sau,

Κύων.
A dog,
Ky,

Skez,
A shadow,

Σκία.
To speak,
Laul,

Λαλέω. Yan, A yoke, Ζυγόν.

The following are also derived from the Greek, but it is evident from their meanings, that they are not of a very ancient date, and that they were naturalised subsequent to the conversion of the Britons to Christianity.

Abestely, Ancar, Badeza, Brefusy, Cloireg, Diagon, Ebscob, Eglos, Erhmit, Grest,

Apostles, 'Αποστόλοι. Jedhewon, Jews, Ιουδαίοι.
A hermit, 'Avaxwpírns. Krestudnian, Christians, Χριστιάνοι.
To baptise, Battisw. Manach, A monk, Μοναχός,
Prophets, Προφήται. Mihal, Michael, Μιχάηλ.
A clergyman, Κλήρικος. Pasch, The Passover, sáoxa.
A deacon,

Διάκονος. Penhast, Witsuntide, Πεντεκόστος.
A bishop, 'Επίσκοπος. Satnas, Satan, Σαπάνας.
A church,
'Ekkanoia. Senedh, A synod,

Σύνοδος.
A hernit,
'Ερημίτης. Scol,

A school,

Σχολή. Christ, Χρίστος.

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The signification of all the words of this latter list determines their age

at once.

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113

OBSERVATIONS ON SOME

ORATIONS ASCRIBED TO CICERO.

No. III.- Continued from No. xxxiv. p. 409.] Equidem quum' C. Marcelli, viri optimi et commemorabili pietate præditi, lacrymas modo vobiscum viderem, omnium Marcellorum meum pectus memoria offudit: quibus tu etiam mortuis, M. Marcello

Equidem quum-memoria offudit) Commemorabili pietate, vel alia virtute, præditus nemo reperitur apud Ciceronem, etsi hoc genus laudis ei frequentissimum est; et memorabili fortasse usus esset fideliore memoria Scríptor. Agnoscendum autem est bonum judicium aut potius magna fortuna, quod Orator optimum virum illum accuratius designare neglexit, et extrema etiam Oratione simpliciter fratrem appellavit, quod nomen non tantum ad germanum sed et patruelem pertinere constat. Alioqui mors, quæ sæpe hominum scripta expungit et reliqua turbat consilia, forsan hujus quoque Scriptoris spem infregisset, certumque indicium voðhlas ex historia præberet. Nam quos perisse civili bello duos Consules memorat Cicero Philipp. XIII. 14, ii sunt C. Marcellus, frater germanus Marci nostri, et L. Lentulus Crus. Vide Perizon. Animadvv. hist. c. IX. p. 396. et Ferrat. Epp. IV. 5. f. Sed illud ad liquidum perduci nequit. Mox conjunctivus viderem rectus est et optimi usus ; in quo et similibus grammaticis minutiis nuperum Editorem errare potuisse, summe mireris. Plus dubitationis habet extremum verbum propter duplicem in libris scripturam, in aliis et melioribus quidem, offudit ; in aliis et pluribus, effodit. Sed priorem harum lectionum Latinæ consuetudinis esse, ii ipsi, qui eam ob fidem librorum prætulerunt, nullis exemplis, nulla analogiæ ratione demonstrant; et cras forsan, non hodie sperabo, exstiturum alio tempore, qui id facere conetur. Nam primum huic verbo accusativus jungi non potest; tum per se nihili est, memoria alicujus offudit pectus meum, aut pectus memoria offusum, aut pectori meo offusa est memoria ; denique nullus hic omnino locus est verbo offundere, nec memoriam offundere quisquam dixit umquam pro refricare, id quod temere sumebat Grævius. Alterum illud, vulgatum olim et a Victorio W. L. XXXIV. 9. ceterisque usque ad Gruterum eruditissimis Viris defensum, minore quidem molestia premitur, neque tamen nulla. Rursus enim duplex exsistit interpretatio hujus verbi: altera hæc, quæ hodie imperitissimo cuique prima in animum veniat, commovit, percussit, laceravit, ut sensus sit: Marcellorum omnium mihi memoria subiit non sine singulari acerbitate del dolore animi mei, quum unum eorum pro alterius salute lacrymantem viderem ; altera Victorii est, ut alia translatione capiatur aperuit hoc sensu: Marcellorum sibita recordatio patefecit sibi viam in animum meum. Ita nova optio dată est, sed talis, ex qua equidem neutram partem capere velim. Nam posterius remedium extremæ est desperationis, magnoque auctore ejus indignum: prius autem quamquam imagineni offert tritissimam, tamen ipsum vocabulum, hac vi positum, longe recedit a vetustatis consuetudine. Confodere, opinor, citius erat tolerandum, quum certe pectus confossum telo dicatur, Valerio Maximo etiain causa confossa crimine etc.; sed effossum pectus sic abhorret ab ingenio linguæ, nullius ut probati scriptoris auctoritate excusari queat.

VOL. XVIII. Cl. Jl. NO. XXXV. G

conservato, dignitatem suam reddidisti, nobilissimamque familiam, jam ad paucos redactam, pæne ab interitu vindicasti. Hunc tu igitur diem tuis maximis et innumerabilibus gratulationibus jure antepones. Hæc enim res unius est propria C. Cæsaris : ceteræ

:

:

Quare, his rejectis, nihil superest nisi conjectura Faërni, memoriam effudit: at id ipsum nihil est, etsi Patricius hoc dicit videri sibi etiam atque etiam considerandum. Ego certe quo id diligentius considero, eo magis et aptam sententiam et Ciceronianam dictionem requiro.

Quibus tumpane ab interitu vindicusti). Ferri potest, quod conservato! dicit pro restituto ; etsi non est sermo de acie, neque homini vitam, sed patriam et dignitatem reddidit Cæsar.' Ita supra §. 2. etiam junxit conser. vatam ac restitutam, exemplo quidem Catilin. 11. 1., veruntamen minus accommodate loco, quam apud Ciceronem. Deinde quod familiam dicit ad paucos redactam, pertinet hoc ad memoratum unum C. Marcellum et ad paucitatem summam amicorum, propinquorum et necessariorum in M, Marcelli epist, inter Famil. iv. 11., quum Cicero aliud significare videatur, semel iterumque totam Marcelli domum scribens, et genus Marcellorum ac Marcellinorum. Utcumque se ea res habuit, in verbis, pæne ab interitu vindicasti, in animo recursant ex Or. post R. in Sen. c. 10. Metelli ab inferis et pene ex Acheronte excitari, et plures loci in Indice consignati propter ineptumn illud complementum orationis.

Hunc tu igitur diem etc.) Diem, videndum: non quin per se rectun sit, sed quia h. l. cum eo, quod sequitur, non satis convenit. Statim enim comparat hunc diem, non cum alii ebus aut temporibus, cum gratulationibus, quæ mihi non plane directa esse videtur comparatio. Legerim, Hanc igitur tu rem, pro diem: sequitur enim in redditione causæ statim: Hæc enim res, et rursus mox, Hujus autem rei. Sed tamen libenter quæro aliud, quod reponam, sive laudem, sive quid aliud. Fidem non longe abesset a diem: sed et hoc videndum. Quid si, Hoc tu igitur diem ? commutatis videlicet litteris idem pro diem. Quid ? si dien plane deleas, et simpliciter legas: Hanc tu igitur tuis mar. etc. et quidem hanc, ut subaudias gratulationem. Quid autem denique? si totum legas sic: Hanc tu igitur laudem, quæ unius est propria Cæsaris, tuis maximis et innumerabilibus gratulationibus jure antepones. Cetera enim duce te gesta, magna illa quidem, sed tamenhujus autem rei tu idem dux es et comes: quæ quidem tanta est etc. Dixi, quod videretur, et quidem utcumque videretur: tu quin tuo judicio utare, nihil impedio.” Animi causa totam posui annotationem Patricii, ut discant lectores, non nostra demum ætate ortam esse hanc modestam levitatem criticam. Acute tamen sensit. Vir doctus, quam sint ingrata hæc et perperam vincta: Hunc tu diem-Hæc enim res- -Hujus autem rei. De cetero, ne dubita gratulationes Rhetorem scripsisse pro supplicationibus; nec id male, nisi quod drupov quiddam videtur esse in tuis et in maximis, Nemo enim nos docebit, quæ sit supplicatio magna, aut ubi veteres scripserint Cæsaris, Pompeii, etc. gratulationem vel supplicationem. Præterea pro re nimis grave vocabulum est innumerabilibus : nam, etiamsi singuli festi dies numerentur, numerus eorum non ingens fuerit, qui facile potuit iniri ex Senatus consultis; tametsi verum est, Cæsari plurium, quam cuiquam ante ipsum, dierum supplicationes decretas esse. Forsan intempestive meminerat Rhetor loci pro Deiot. C. 4. f. “ Cn. Pompeii bella, victorias, triumphos, consulatus, admirantes numerabamus: tuas (inteli. illa omnia) enumerare non possumus."

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