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1970. March.

A considerable number of thwarts were laid from gunwale to gunwale, to which they were fecurely lashed on each side, as a strengthening to the boat. The ornament at the head projected five or six feet beyond the body, and was about four feet and an half high; the ornament at the stern was fixed upon that end, as the sternpost of a ship is upon her keel, and was about fourteen feet high, two feet broad, and an inch and an half thick. They both consisted of boards of carved work, of which the design was much better than the execution. All their canoes, except a few at Opoorage or Mercury Bay, which were of one piece, and hollowed by fire, are built after this plan, and few are less than twenty feet long: some of the smaller sort have outriggers, and sometimes two of them are joined together, but this is not common. The carving upon the stern and head ornaments of the inferior boats, which seem to be intended wholly for fishing, confifts of the figure of a man, with a facę as ugly as can be conceived, and a monstrous tongue thrust out of the mouth, with the white shells of sea-ears stuck in for the eyes, But the canoes of the superior kind, which seem to be their men of war, are magnificently adorned with open work, and covered with loose fringes of black feathers, which had a most ele, gant appearance: the gunwale boards were also frequently carved in a grotesque taste, and

adorned

March.

adorned with tufts of white feathers placed upon
a black ground. Of visible objects that are
wholly new, no verbal description can convey a
just idea, but in proportion as they resemble
fome that are already known, to which the mind
of the reader must be referred: the carving of
these people being of a singular kind, and not
in the likeness of any thing that is known on our
side of the ocean, either “ in the heaven above,
« or in the earth beneath, or in the waters that
« are under the earth," I must-refer wholly to.
the representations which will be found of it in
Plate XV. '

The paddles are small, light, and neatly made ;
the blade is of an oval shape, or rather of a
shape resembling a large leaf, pointed at the
bottom, broadest in the middle, and gradually
losing itself in the shaft, the whole length being
about six feet, of which the shaft or loom includ-
ing the handle is four, and the blade two. By
the help of these oars they push on their boats
with amazing velocity. .
· In failing they are not expert, having no art
of going otherwise than before the wind: the
fail is of netting or mátt, which is set up be-
tween two poles that are fixed upright upon
each gunwale, and serve both for masts and
yards : two ropes answered the purpose of sheets,
and were consequently fastened above to the top
of each pole. But clumsy and inconvenient as

March.

this apparatus is, they make good way before 1770. the wind, and are steered by two men who fit in v the stern, with each a paddle in his hand for that purpofe.

Having said thus much of their workmanship, Tools, I shall now give some account of their tools; they have adzes, axes, and chissels, which serve them also as augers for the boring of holes: as they have no metal, their adzes and axes are made of a hard black stone, or of a green talc, which is not only hard but tough; and their chissels of human bone, or small fragments of jasper, which they chip off from a block in sharp angular pieces like a gun-flint. Their axes they value above all that they possess, and never would part with one of them for any thing that we could give : I once offered one of the best axes I had in the ship, besides a number of other things for one of them, but the owner would not sell it; from which I conclude that good ones are scarce among them. Their finall tools of jasper, which are used in finishing their nicest work, they use till they are blunt, and then, as they have no means of sharpening them, throw them away. * We had given the people at Tolaga a piece of glass, and in a short time they found means to drill a hole through it, in order to hang it round the neck as an ornament by a thread; and we imagine the tool must have þeen a piece of this jasper. How they bring

their

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their large tools first to an edge, and sharpen the weapon which they call Patoo-Patoo, we could not certainly learn ; but probably it is by bruising the same substance to powder, and, with this, grinding two pieces against each other.

Their nets, particularly their feine, which is of an enormous size, have been mentioned already: one of these seems to be the joint work of a whole town, and I suppose it to be the joint property also: the other net, which is circular, and extended by two or three hoops, has been particularly described, as well as the manner of baiting and using it. Their hooks are of bone or shell, and in general are ill made. To receive the fish when it is caught, and to hold their other provilions, they have balkets of vari. ous kinds and dimensions, very neatly made of wicker-work.

They excel in tillage, as might naturally be expected where the person that fows is to eat the produce, and where there is fo little besides that can be eaten : when we first came to TeGADOO, a district between Poverty Bay and East Cape, their crops were just covered, and had not yet begun to sprout; the mould was as smooth as in a garden, and every root had its small hillock, ranged in a regular quincunx by lines, which with the pegs were still remaining in the field. We had not an opportunity to see any of these husbandmen work, but we faw

Tillage.

what

as a

what serves them at once for spade and plough: 1770.

March : this instrument is nothing more than a long nar. row ftake sharpened to an edge at one end, with a fort piece faltened transversely at a little distance above it, for the convenience of pres. sing it down with the foot. With this they turn up pieces of ground six or seven acres in extent, though it is not more than three inches broad ; but as the soil is light and sandy it makes little resistance.

Tillage, weaving, and the other arts of peace, seem to be best known and most practised in the northern part of this country; for there is little appearance of any of them in the South: but the arts of war flourish equally through the whole coast.

Of weapons they have no great variety, but Weapons, such as they have are well fitted for destruction; they have spears, darts, battle-axes, and the Patoo-Patoo. The spear is fourteen or fifteen feet long, pointed at both ends, and sometimes headed with bone: these are grasped by the middle, so that the part behind balancing that before, makes a push more difficult to be parried, than that of a weapon which is held by the end. The dart and other weapons have been fufficiently described already; and it has also been remarked, that these people have neither sling nor bow. They throw the dart by hand, and so they do stones ; but darts and stones are

seldom

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