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To the above correction of Mr. Rose we therefore, the action of one organ becomes most readily assign a place in our columns; deranged, the others suffer in proportion, the error of which he complains having according to their more or less intimate originated with ourselves. His former connexion. " note,” which we altered, and incorporated This effect we witness as old age apin our text, to prevent it from being an proaches. As the latter stage of existence advertisement, was misunderstood. We draws near, every operation in the body now find, on referring to it, that while it becomes languid and feeble; the digestive pays a high compliment to Mr. Garbett's and assimilating organs perform their task talents, and also to those of the engraver of imperfectly—the secretions fail, and are his elegant plate, it makes no pretensions to scantily deposited the nerves too suffer, have taken from it the sketch which ap and the vivid sensibility which animated peared in our columns.-EDITOR.] them, begins to be extinguished ; the or
gans of the senses no longer receive their
wonted impressions; the eye loses its ESSAYS ON PAYSIOLOGY, OR THE LAWS OF
power, the tongue its taste, and the touch ORGANIC LIFE.
its accuracy--the hearing becomes dull and (Continued from col. 447.)
indistinct, and the voice weak and tremuEssay VIII.—On Animal Temperature.
lous. The avenues of delight are closed,
music is heard with indifference, and naFROM the views which our previous essays ture unfolds her beauties in vain. Memory, exhibit, we are led to conclude, that the the understanding, and judgment fail; in animal machine is at once furnished with short, the intellectual faculties become entwo modes of existence,-the one vegetative feebled and puerile; and this stage conor organic ; the other animal or sensitive ; tinues with increasing infirmities, the vital the one essential and necessary to constitute spark faintly quivering in the frame, till at an organized being, and comprehending in | last the “ silver cord is loosed--the golden itself all that relates to nutrition, and abso bowl broken--the pitcher broken at the lute life; the other, establishing a connex fountain--the wheel broken at the cisternion between organic living bodies and the dust returning to the earth as it was, external objects; thus constituting a strong and the spirit to God who gave it." line of separation between the animal and In accordance with the plan of our subthe plant.
ject, we shall now proceed to point the The vegetative organic life, comprehend attention of our readers to a phenomenon ing the functions by which the preservation singular and curious, on which much light of the frame is effected, may be said to yet remains to be thrown, and to account belong exclusively to the interior of the for which no complete and satisfactory system, for there all its operations are car theory has yet been offered. We allude to ried on all concurring to one great end, the temperuture of animal bodies. by the appropriation and assimilation of That all classes of animals are not of the extraneous matter, which the peculiar and same, or nearly the same temperature, we inexplicable powers possessed by the organs have noticed before, stating their division it presides over, enable them to effect. into two great families, viz. those possessing
But the animal or sensitive life relates warm blood; and those having cold blood, to objects around us,-it presides over or blood little differing from the temperaorgans affected by external things, and its ture of the medium in which they live. functions may be said to take place out Among warm-blooded animals, however, wardly. With respect, however, to these there is considerable variation; and it will, two classes of functions, namely, those we think, be observed, that this variation is, relating to the nutrition of the body, and to a certain extent, connected with the rate those connecting us with surrounding ob- of the pulsation of the arterial system, the jects, it must be observed, that although temperature of the blood increasing (in the we have treated them as two distinct and different species) according to its increased independent modes of vitality, such is not rapidity. The temperature of the human really the case; no independent action can body is, on the average, between 96° and occur in the animal frame; this division, 980 of Fahrenheit; and it has been astherefore, is purely hypothetical. In fact, serted, that from this standard it does not the functions are all links of one chain, the vary from exposure either to heat or cold. extremities of which are united to form a This is, however, a mistaken opinion; for circle; all depend upon each other; and the human temperature, as well as that of every operation is carried on in harmony | all animals, is found, within certain limits, and conjunction with the rest. When, to be susceptible of great variation, accord
Essays on Physiology: Essay VIII. acroeconocerococorror.............. ..........cerererererererererererererernos ing to the operation of external causes. | human body to be between 96° and 98° of We shall, perhaps, be better understood by | F. This however, is to be understood as the following detail:
relating to the heat of internal parts; for in In a course of experiments preferred by consequence of changes in the temperature Dr. Currie, it was found, that the tempera of the atmosphere around us, the natural ture of a man immersed in cold salt water evaporation from the surface of our bodies, at 44', sunk in a minute and a half from and incidental causes, the heat of the skin 980 to 87°; in other trials it decreased as is liable to variation, and in general is one low at 850 and 83o. A corresponding or two degrees lower than that of the change took place in the pulse also, which internal organs; hence, the sensations of decreased in frequency from 70 beats in a heat and cold which accompany the changes minute, its natural state, to 689 and 65°; of atmospheric temperature, or the contact the breathing, as soon as the shock from of different conductors of carbonic to which immersion had subsided, becoming regular, we are perpetually exposed. and remarkably slow.
As results of that power termed vital On the contrary, if the body be sub- principle, there are two laws, with which jected to an increased external heat, it ex- the all-wise Author of nature has invested periences an increase of temperature ac- the animal frame, intended to protect it, to cordingly. From a series of experiments a certain point, against the effects of heat upon the subject by Dr. Fordyce, it was and cold; for we are not to forget, that to found, that upon confining the body in a a certain point only, can the system strugclose room, the air of which was heated to gle against their influence, and life con1209, or even 211°, its temperature rose to tinue. And although perhaps, from the -100°, the pulse at the same time becoming natural temperature of the globe, even at its accelerated to the rate of 145 beats in a highest, we do not so frequently witness the minute; yet, as he states, the breathing effects of extreme heat as of extreme cold, was neither quickened nor laborious. yet not a few have fallen immediate victims
The same law extends to the inferior ani- to a burning clime,—not a few have left mals, cold as well as warm-blooded; for their bones to whiten in the sultry desert, example, the temperature of a common where death marks the track of the simoom. mouse, Dr. Hunter ascertained to be 990, But few winters, even in our own country, - the atmosphere being 60°, but upon expos pass without some unguarded individuals ing the same animal to a cold atmosphere of fatally experiencing the influence of cold. 15°, for the space of an hour, its temperature In reading. Captain Parry's journal, and had fallen to 83o. In experiments upon Captain Franklin's narrative, we were much the dog, whose natural temperature is about struck with the accounts there given, of the 101, it was found by Dr. Crawford, that effects produced from exposure to the inupon exposure to water at the temperature tense cold of an arctic winter. Not only of 112°, the heat of the animal was raised did the unprotected parts of the body suffer, to 108 or 1099, but that if exposed to air at but the mind also participated in the de130, his temperature was raised only to rangement under which the system was 106o.
labouring. The sufferers are described as · The temperature of the viper (a cold appearing under the stupifying influence of blooded animal) when exposed to a degree liquors-wild and haggard in their looks of heat amounting to 108°, was found by incoherent in their answers incapable of Dr. Hunter to rise to 921°, but when sub. understanding questions or directions, and jected to severe cold, the thermometer bereft of reason ;-- as the circulation became ranging from 10° to 209, the temperature of gradually restored, they returned to themthe animal decreased as low as 31o. It selves, nor, as it would seem, 'experienced would appear, then, that the animal body, any consequent inconvenience. If, howfrom the agency of external temperature, ever, the body be subjected for a certain admits of increase or decrease within cer- time to extreme cold, the vital energies fail tain limits, its organization remaining unin under its benumbing influence; a strange jured. The temperature of the human and stupid apathy to life, a wish to be left frame we see capable of increase, four de- alone, an irresistible desire to sleep, come grees above, and of decrease, 15 degrees on. This overpowering propensity is soon below, its natural standard. In the ex- yielded to, and a heavy stupor creeps upon ample of the mouse, its temperature was the victim, from which he is destined never found to admit of diminution 16 degrees to awaken, below, and in that of the dog, an increase The two laws to which we have alluded,
of seven above, the natural standard. are these ;-1st. That under exposure to a • We have stated the temperature of the temperature greatly above the ordinary standard of the animal, the body is capable, many others, habit appears to exert much by an innate power, of generating cold, influence; this is evident among glassand so exerting a counteracting influence. blowers and others; and we have often 2d. That under exposure to a temperature ourselves remarked, with astonishment, the greatly lower than its ordinary standard, indifference which the firemen in chinathe body is capable of generating heat, and manufactories exhibit, upon entering ovens so also everting a counteracting influence. not fully cold, for the purpose of removing
With regard, then, to the first rule, we the ware; the heat they are thus exposed have to observe, that when the animal to is often intense, and it is endured (so frame, on exposure to great heat, has much are we the creatures of habit) for a attained the maximum of elevation of long time with perfect impunity. which it is capable, an increase of external In all cases however of exposure to inheat to a still higher degree does not occa- tense heat, there is a great expenditure of sion a corresponding increase in the tem- vital energy; and the system, in struggling perature of the body; under such circum thus against a high temperature, becomes stances it remains stationary, and hence, by speedily exhausted. thus resisting the increase of heat, demon- "If heat be applied to a part only of the strates its power of counteraction.
body, it appears, from experiments, that Thus in the experiments of Dr. Fordyce, the temperature of such part cannot be although the human body attained, under increased above that degree to which the exposure to a high heat, the temperature of whole body admits of being raised, a coun100°, yet it could not be raised a degree teracting influence being exerted. higher when the external heat was in- With regard to the second law, viz. creased to 211o. The same effects were that the animal frame is endued with the observed in the dog and the viper : power of generating a counteracting heat, an increase of heat to a very high degree we have to observe, that experiments deonly raises the temperature of the one, as monstrate, that although the body is capable before stated, to 1099, and of the other to of being reduced in temperature to a cer924°. If then the body (under these cir- tain limit, below which it does not fall, cumstances) be capable of maintaining a (except when cold is applied in such excertain temperature, far below that of a treme severity, and so long, as to extinguish medium greatly higher than its own stand- life, and, with the extinction of life, freeze ard, it may be asked, what is the modus the body,) yet that, by an exertion of vital operandi by which this is effected ? On a energy, it does not remain at the grade to first view, one would be ready to imagine, which it sinks from the first effects of cold, that in the experiments performed to ascer- but in a short time rises to a higher degree; tain this phenomenon, the production of and this, according to the powers of life cold might result as a natural consequence enjoyed by the animal, it is enabled to of evaporation from the body. In Dr. preserve for a longer or shorter period Fordyce's experiment, the surface of his during its continuance in the same cold body while exposed to the air of the heated medium. apartment, was streaming with water ; but! We have seen, in the experiments rethis was only the vapour of the heated room, ferred to, that in one example the heat condensed on the colder skin, as was very of the human body sunk rapidly from 980 evident, from the circumstance of a Florence to 87°, when placed in water as cold as flask filled with water, at the then tempe- 44o. At this degree, however, the temperarature of his body, (viz. 100°) having its ture of the body did not continue; but in surface covered with vapour, which he the course of twelve minutes it rose to 9310. observed to be condensed upon, and trickle In another experiment, when immersed in streams down the sides.
in water at the same temperature, the body Besides, as experiments by Dr. Crawford fell in two minutes from 98° to 88°; but at prove, the body exerts the same power of the end of thirteen minutes it had risen to generating cold when immersed in heated 96o. Dr. Hunter performed the following water, in which case no evaporation can of experiment upon a dormouse, the tempecourse take place from its surface. We rature of which animal he found to be must ascribe, then, this operation only 10 | 814° in an atmosphere of 64o. He placed the energy of that principle by which all it in a vessel containing air at 20°, and in the parts and organs of the system are the course of half an hour the temperature maintained in their natural state and order, of the animal was raised to 93o; an hour and enabled to execute their respective after, the air being 30°, its temperature was functions.
| still 93°; in another hour, the air being Over this power of the body, as over | reduced to 19°, its temperature decreased to
830, the animal appearing less lively, and the body suffers exposure to unusual heat the energies of the system beginning to be or cold, great exhaustion in the protection exhausted.
(if we may so express it) of itself is proIn this experiment, however, we see the duced, and if the exposure be persevered animal maintaining a temperature of about in, death is the result. Hence an uniform 70 degrees higher than the surrounding temperature of body, according to the namedium for the space of two hours and a tural standard allotted the animal, with cer. half. The same laws of generating heat, tain restrictions, is requisite for the conunder similar circumstances, are extended tinuance of its healthy and perfect organie to cold blooded animals also.
existence. But where the atmospheric We stated, that heat applied to a part changes are very considerable, and where could not (without destroying the organiza- the medium in which the individual may tion of such part) elevate its temperature exist, is of a temperature very far below above the maximum to which the whole that of the body, (supposing, of course, body will attain; but with respect to a the animal to be warm-blooded, as is the minimum of cold, the parallel does not case with the whale, walrus, seal, &c. hold good, for if parts be subjected to the which inhabit the arctic seas, how is the agency of a cooling cause, their tempera- natural standard of temperature perpetually ture sinks far below the minimum of the kept from sinking, without an exhaustion of depressed temperature of the body.
vital energy; or what are the means furThus in experiments, parts incapable of nished for resisting the influence of cold? being elevated a degree above the maxi- To obviate the changes to which animals mum of the elevated temperature of the in a natural state are exposed, and to prebody, have been cooled 29 degrees below serve them in their due temperature, without the minimum of the depressed, viz. as far an immediate expenditure of vital energy, as 58". The ears of rabbits, and the comb the great Author of the universe has exand wattles of the cock, have been cooled pressly arranged a plan, which obtains, undown until frozen, and yet, upon thawing, der certain regulations, throughout the animal have recovered their natural temperature and creation. To this end the cutaneous, the gruscirculation. In the late northern expedi cular, the nervous, and the digestive systems tions, it was not uncommon for individuals concur-each in a manner peculiar to itself, to have their hands and feet frozen, and and connected with its natural action. again restored ; in Russia, and other cold With regard to the cutaneous system, climates, similar occurrences also are well we may observe, that the skin itself, a bad known.
conductor of caloric, is morever generally These laws, it would seem, are not con- furnished with additions according to the fined in their influence solely to animals in need of the animal, man only providing for a complete or perfect state; but wherever his body an artificial protection. Warmthe vital principle exists, wherever there blooded animals seem alone, from their are organic rudiments capable of unfolding constitutions, to require these coverings, to maturity, however dormant other powers which are among the worst conductors of may be, there we may expect their opera caloric in nature. Animals inhabiting the tion. We are borne out in this assertion warmer climates of the earth, are, if we by the experiments of Dr. Hunter on the except birds, (and of these we shall preegg of the common fowl. An egg, which sently speak,) less furnished in this respect had been frozen and thawed, (the embryo than those of colder regions, which inhabit of course being killed,) was put into a a cold medium. The appendices of the freezing mixture with one newly laid ; and skin, to which we especially allude, are the fresh one was seven minutes and a half feathers, fur or hair, and the layer of fat longer in freezing than the other. The between the skin and muscles. same experiment was again tried with a In many animals peculiar to the north, freezing mixture at 150, and the egg, the as winter comes on, this layer of fat bevitality of which was destroyed, soon came comes much increased ; and although one down to 32°, and congealed, but the fresh of its uses is, to serve as a magazine for the egg sunk to 29', and in fifteen minutes supply of nutriment to the system when rose to 32°, and began to swell and freeze, other supplies fail, yet, as it is a bad conthus resisting the influence of the mixture ductor, it must necessarily tend, in no small for twenty-five minutes, during which time degree, to the preservation of a due temit must have generated much heat, in strug- / perature. It is true, that these animals are gling against the low temperature, to which well provided with fur also, (as the white it finally yielded.
bear, the seal, the ermine, &c.) which may In all these experiments, and whenever constitute the chief defence, yet as tending
to confirm our opinion, there is one remark- / manifested the most rancorous enmity to the reliable exception, viz, the whale ; in this huge
gion of Christ. For ever since, like locust, it
issued out of the hellish smoke of the bottomless creature, (of the class mammalia,) the
pit, it has not ceased to persecute the children of layers of fat are of extraordinary thickness,
the Cross; and, under pretence of destroying idol and, being totally deficient of hair, are indeed
worship, deluged the whole East with rivers of its sole protection-enabling the animal to Christian blood. withstand the intense cold, as well as fitting For judicial and mysterions reasons, (perhaps to its body to sustain the immense pressure of scourge the fallen churches of that day,) “there water in the profound depths of the ocean.
was given to them power, such as the scorpions With regard to Birds, although it may
of the earth possess, to slay the third part of
men.” In the tenth verse of the ninth chapter of seem, at a first view, that in all climates
Revelation, it is said, they had tails like scorpions, they are alike furnished with a downy gar and in them stings, with which they might hurt; ment, we shall find, that, independent of and how long they have afflicted with grievous the difference in closeness and softness torments, both Christians and Jews, I have no which really exists in the plumage of the
need to say. Does any nation upon earth, besides
the Ottoman, so fight against the truth as it is feathered race, there is another circum
in Jesus," as to put a man to death if he but prostance constituting a general distinguishing
fess it; but this is a standing law of the vast mark between birds of a cold and of a
Turkish empire ; and 1 Mussulman dare become sultry clime, and so ordered as to assist in Christian on pain of death. protecting the one race from cold, the With regard to their treatment of Christians, other from heat; we allude to colour.
even the ambassadors of Christian princes, it is The birds of the torrid zone are remark
well known how they despise them from their
hearts; and are not Dog and Infidel the best names able for their brilliant plumage,-art tries
they can afford a follower of the blessed Jesus ?
It is computed, that in the different nations their colours, while, on the contrary, the where this pestiferous delusion has spread, there swa
are 176 millions of Mahommedans, about one-fifth the desert climes of ice, are principally
part of the entire inhabitants of the globe. Alas, white, or become so as the severity of
| sir, we speak of the approach of the millennium !
but what prospect is there of that golden period, winter commences; which, we may add, is
so long as the Arab imposture covers so many also the case with many quadrupeds. regions of the earth? In no part of the world
where Mahommedanism is the established religion, caloric than white; and hence we see how can a Christian Missionary publish the glad this simple law becomes subservient to the
tidings of salvation : the Missionaries in Pales
tine have access only to Armenians, to Europeans, welfare of the animal. Thus, while the
or British sailors; preaching to the Turks being inhabitants of the frigid zone are so wisely
a thing altogether out of the question. Hence, sir, nothing less than the entire overthrow of the
Turkish empire, will afford facilities to the pubwinged dwellers in his sultry lands, whose
lishing of the Cross of Christ ; and would any but
a blinded and infatuated politician, smitten with beauty is at once their ornament and pro
the golden gains of commerce, or that nondescript tection.
thing called the balance of power, prevent its Hammersmith. W. Martin Overthrow?
There is such a thing as standing in the way of (To be continued.)
God's 'providence, and making ourselves promi. nent butts for the arrows of his quiver ; but I
hope God will defend this nation from throwing POETKY.
away another one hundred millions of the public money, to uphold Turkey our ancient ally. I will
yield to no man in loyalty to my king, and attach(For the Imperial Magazine.) ment to my beloved country, but I shall rue the Worcester, April 24.
day, and blush to be a Briton, when the English
nation shall become a buttress to prop up that THOUGHTS ON THE PRESENT CRISIS OF
sinking country, the abhorred of the Lord. THE TURKISH EMPIRE,
If Austria does not like the Russians at the MR. EDITOR,
gates of Constantinople, as too near her own Sin-The affairs of Turkey at the present crisis, l dominions, why not let the two emperor's settle the must awaken and excite the attention of every | matter between themselves? I have no sympathy mind" alive to the fulfilment of ancient record for the Koran, and I regard the Moslem in no other respecting the fulness and accomplishment of the light than an "abomination that maketh desolate." latter-day glory. That in the nineteenth century, | It is one of that triple alliance, the dragon, the a nation should exist in the midst of the civilized I beast. and the false prophet, wbich Jehovahworld, which has no feelings or thoughts in com Jesus shall consume by the spirit of his mouth, mon with the other nations of Europe, is indeed a and by the brightness of his appearing ; and he matter of astonishment. A nation that bitterly who does not sincerely pray for the conversion or despises the name, the rites, and the institutions downfall of the Ottoman empire, breathes but of the Christian world ; and which has always little of the spirit of the Gospel, 114, VOL. X.