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Orang Outang of Sumatra.


sensibility, that he ordered the process of tion, might as obviously increase his length skinning to stop till the head had been to 8 feet. Is itin s a removed.' +'

Description of the remains of the ani. It seems probable that this animal had mal-Head. The face of this animal, with travelled from some distance to the place the exception of the beard, is nearly bare, a where he was found, as his legs were ico few straggling short downy hairs being alone vered with mud up to the knees, and he scattered over itand is of a darkı lead was considered as great a prodigy by the colour. The eyes are small in relation to natives as by the Europeans. They had those of man, and are about an inch apart : never before met with an animal like him, the eyelids are well fringed with lashes. although they lived within two days' journey The ears are one inch and a half in length, of one of the vast and almost impenetrable | and barely an inch in breadth, are closely forests of Sumatra. They seemed to think applied to the head, and resemble those of that his appearance accounted for many | man, with the exception of wanting the strange noises, resembling screams and lower lobe. The nose is scarcely raised shouts, and various sounds, which they above the level of the face, and is chiefly could neither attribute to the roar of the distinguished by two nostrils three-fourths cof tiger, not to the voice of any other beast an inch in breadth, placed obliquely side with which they were familiar. " What ca- by side. The mouth projects considerably pability the great orang outang may possessin a mammillary form, and its opening is of uttering such sounds does not appear, very large; when closed, the lips appear but this belief of the Malays may lead to narrow, but are in reality half an inch in the capture of other individuals of his spes thickness. The hair of the head is of a cies, and to the discovery of more interesting reddish brown, grows from behind forwards, particulars of his conformation and habits. and is five inches in length. The beard is

The only material discrepancy which I handsome, and appears to have been curly can detect in the different accounts which in the animal's life-time, and approaches to have been given of this animal, regards his a chesnut colour; it is about three inches height, which in some of them is vaguely long, springing very gracefully from the stated at from above six feet to nearly eight. upper lip near the angles of the mouth, in Captain Cornfoot however, who favoured the form of mustachios, whence descending, me with a verbal description of the animal it mixes with that of the chin, the whole when brought on board his ship, stated, that having at present a very wavy aspect. i The " he was a full head taller than any man on face of the animal is much wrinkled. 1-AUT) board, measuring seven feet in what might Hands. The palms of the hands are be called his ordinary standing posture, and very long,' are quite naked from the wrists, eight feet when suspended for the purpose and are of the colour of the face. Their of being skinned."

backs, to the last joint of their fingers, are · Tne following measurements, which Il covered with hair, which inclines a little have carefully made of different parts of the backwards towards the wrists, and then animal in the Society's Museum, go far to turns directly upwards. All the fingers determine this point, and are entirely in have nails, which are strong, convex, and of favour of Captain Cornfoot's accuracy. The a black colour; the thumb reaches to the skin of the body of the animal, dried and first joint of the fore-finger. Ivoitto shrivelled as it is, measures in a straight Feet. The feet are covered on the back line from the top of the shoulder to the with long brown hair to the last joint of the part where the ancle has been removed, toes; the great toe is set on nearly at right 5 feet 10 inches, the perpendicular length angles to the foot, and is relatively very of the neck as it is in the preparation 3 short. The original colour of the palms of inches, the length of the head from the top the hands and the soles of the feet is some. of the forehead to the end of the chin what uncertain, in consequence of the effect 9 inches, and the length of the skin still of the spirit in which they have been pre. attached to the foot from its line of separa | served. tion from the leg 8 inches : we thus obtain Skin. The skin itself is of auldark 7 feet 64 inches as the approximate height leaden colour. The hair is of a brownish of the animal. The natural bending posture red, but when observed at some distance, of the ape tribe would obviously diminish has a dull, and in some places an almost the height of the standing posture in the black appearance; but in a strong light it living animal, and probably reduce it to is of a light red. It is in all parts very Captain Cornfoot's measurement of 7 feet, long; on the fore-arm it is directed upwhilst the stretching that would take place wards; on the upper arm its general direcwhen 'the animal was extended for dissec. | tion is downwards, but from its length it

hangs shaggyi below the arm; from the system, for its support and nourishment, so shoulders it hangs in large and long massy it is the office of the veins to return it to the tufts, which in continuation with the long same source, its important task being accomhair of the back, iseems to form one long plished. 1. All the veins of the body, except masse 'to the very centre of the body. those of the heart itself, terminate ultimately About the flanksvtheo hair is equally long, in the two vende cavæ, from whence the and in the diving animal must have de blood passes into the right auricle; this rescendedi below the thighs and nates. On seivoir being filled, its sides immediately the limits, chowever, of the lateral termina contract, and the blood is forced through tion of the skin which must have covered the ostium venosum into the right ventricle, the chest and belly, it is scanty, and gives being prevented from returning back into the impression that these parts must have the veins by the valve placed at their enbeen comparatirely bare. Round the upper trance into the aurice. The right ventricle, part of the back it is also much thinner than on receiving the blood, now in its turn conelsewhere, and small-tufts at the junction of tracts, and forces it into the pulmonary arthe skin, with the neck are curled abruptly tery, by which it is carried immediately to upwards, corresponding with the direction the lungs, where, undergoing certain changes, of the hair at the back of the head. si it becomes fitted for the purposes of the aniembru 28

il ! mal economy. On the contraction of the ulinio eti bob


ventricle it would be natural to expect that ESSAYS ON PHYSIOLOGY, OR THE LAWS OP the blood would, at least in part, retam

bi 16 ORGANIC LIFE. .. back into the auricle, and this would certrn pi byeontinued from col. 147.)

taily occur, were it not prevented by the ESSAY V. On the Circulation of the

valve at the ostium venosum, or entrance

into the ventricle; the same remark holds o pessyt Blood.

good, with respect to the valves also on the FROM the left ventricle of the heart, as we other side of the heart,

i , have before stated, the main artery of the 1. The blood having traversed the lungs, is frame, termed aorta, arises; this vessel dis returned by the pulmonary veins to the left tributes its branches, like a tree, to every auricle of the heart; and this contracting, parts of the body, forming, as they proceed, ) it is propelled into the left ventricle, from numerous communications with each other, whence it is sent through the aorta and its till i at last, by their extreme ramitications, ramifications to every part of the body; and termed capillaries, a network of such deli. is again returned by the veins to the right cacy and minuteness is produced, that a auricle. It appears, therefore, that the blood puncture with the finest instrument cannot on the right side of the heurt, must pass be made without wounding them, and through the lungs, before it can be admitted drawing blood. The capillaries gradually into the left, in order to be conveyed by assume the character of veins, as minute and | the means of arteries through the system. delieate as themselves, assisting equally to | Now, we shall find, upon examination, that form the, network, and so intimate is their a manifest difference exists between the blood union; and so imperceptibly do the veins in the veins, and in the arteries,-or, in the assume their venous character, that it would right, and in the left cavities of the heart; be difficult to say, where the artery ends, and that of the veins of the right side of the heart the vein begins. This beautiful system of being of a dark livid colour, while its hue in minute vessels is distributed throughout the arteries and left side, is scarlet or bright every part of the body but the skin; the va red. This circumstance, independent of rious membranes, and the muscles, are sup- others, indicates a change in its nature, and plied, the most abundantly. It is not, how | it is evident also, that this change must be ever, intojall the capillary vessels, in a na- effected in the lungs. But before proceedtural state, that the red particles of the blooding, it may be proper to give a brief deare admitted geås, for instance the cornea of scription of these orgáns, by which some the eye, whose vessels contain the serous, or idea of their structure and use may be formed. uncoloured, portion only;^- This may arise T: The lungs are situated in the cavity of the from the calibre of the vessels being too mi chest, which when distended with air, they nute to admit the entrance of the red parti completely fill; their texture, is light and cles, pr, from a natural disposition and powd spongy, and consists of an assemblage of er in them, to refuse that parts of the blood | most minute and numberless cells, connectwhich would interfere with the necessary ed together and communicating with each function of the organ. 4.1 gio or other; the whole being covered by an ex

As it is the office of the arteries to convey tremely fine membrane termed the plura. the blood from the heart to every part of the In these cells the, ramifications of the tra

111.–VOL. X.


Essays on Physiology: Essay V.


chéa or wind-pipe terminate, and it is in becomes of a florid colour, having parted these that the blood undergoes its change. with the carbon, to which its previous' darkThe lungs are abundantly supplied with ab. ness was owing; and this is supposed to be sorbents, and also with a considerable num the only change it undergoes during respiber of nerves, although at the same time ration. It has been, however, the opinion of their sensibility is very imperfect. On several physiologists, that a part of the oxyeach dilatation of the chest there enters into gen" was absorbed by the blood, and so enthese organs, according to some physiolo tered into combination with it. This again gists, between thirty and forty cubic inches, is contradicted, and with reason, as it is or, at a deep inspiration, from six to eight ascertained by experiments that the portion quarts of atmospheric air, consisting when of oxygen which disappears, is just sufficipure, of 73 of azote or nitrogén, 27 of oxy- ent for the formation of the carbonic acid gen, and one or two parts in the 100, of which is produced. carbonic acid : the character of the air, when | The quantity of oxygen consumed by expired, is found to be considerably altered, animals in a given time is variable, tot the portion of carbonic acid being much in only as it regards species and individuals, creased, that of the oxygen diminished, and but the same individual under different cirthe azote remaining apparently unchanged. cumstances.

Now, on the air-cells of the lungs, the In man, the quantity of oxygen consumcontexture of which is estimated by Haller | ed in a minute has been differently rated. at the 1000th part of an inch in thickness, Allen and Pepys found it to be 266 cubic the extreme ramifications or capillaries of inches in a minute; Davy 31-6; and Murthe pulmonary artery are spread like a deli ray 36. Various states of the system, howcate network, and under such circumstan. ever, occasion considerable differences. For ces it appears, that the oxygen of the atmo instance, the quantity of oxygen consumed, sphere is fully capable of acting on the is increased by exercise; and if the experiblood, and affecting the requisite changes, ments of Peguin may be trusted, this conby which, having become arterial, it is re- sumption is nearly four times more than in tumed through the pulmonary veins, to the the usual state of the body. But Prout, left side of the heart. We may here re who has paid much attention to the subject, mark, that the pulmonary artery is the only concluded from numberless experiments, artery which carries dark, or, as it is com that exercise, when moderate, inereased the monly called, venous blood, and it arises consumption of oxygen, but when continufrom one of the right cavities of the heart; | ed so as to induce fatigue, diminished it. while the pulmonary veins proceeding to the The exhilarating passions, appear to increase left are the only veins that carry arterial the quantity, the depressing passions on the blood : thus the blood in the right cavities other hand, and sleep, alcohol, and tea, to of the heart is dark-coloured, or venous; that diminish the quantity. The experiments in the left, bright red, or arterial.

of Dr. Prout tend also to prove, that the With the passage of this fluid through the quantity of oxygen consumed, is not unilungs is connected that most important phe form during the twenty-four hours, but is nomenon, the nourishment and support of always greater at one and the same part of the body. It is remarkable that arterial the day than at any other. For instance, blood seems to be alone calculated to sus that its maximum occurs between 10 a.' m. tain the natural integrity of the animal frame; | and 2 p. m., or generally between 11-a. m. its decay and losses being repaired, and its and 1 p. m, and that its minimum comvarious secretions being furnished, from ar mences about 8h. 30ʻp. m., and continues terial blood. To this rule there is however nearly uniform till about 3h. 30' a.'m.! one exception, viz. the bile ; this fluid is se To account for this phenomenon, Dr. P. creted by the liver from venous blood. refers, and with much probability; to the .. ' In venous blood is contained a large por- sun, as regulating by its presence or absence tion of carbon, 'acquired during its course these variations. And we may here observe through the animal system. Now, when it that in all diurnal animals, the season of reaches the lungs, and becomes acted upon theirgreatest activity is the forenoon, at which by the atmospheric air, which I have alrea time also the consumption of the oxygen is dy said to be comprised principally of oxy greatest, while lassitude and fatigue come gen and azote, the oxygen unites with a on gradually in the afternoon, when the great portion of the carbon, forming car- consumption of oxygen is diminished. bonic acid, 'expired with the azote, which | There are, however, many animals from seems to be unchanged, and also with the whose natural habits of activity in the night, remainder of the oxygen which exists after and repose during the day, we may conclude the production of the acid. The blood now that with them the arrangement is reversed.

From the experiments of Dr. Crawford, are refreshed at each interval ; but the heart it would appear, that temperature, exerts | alone is unwearied, it continues its labour much influence also, as to the quantity of for years; it requires no repose; death oxygen consumed. He found, for example, alone puts a period to its exertions; and that a guinea pig confined in air at the tem- even then life lingers there the latest, and perature of 557, consumed double the quan slowly and unwillingly retires. The heart, tity which it did when confined in air at we have said to consist of two auricles and 1049; and also that in such cases of expo. two ventricles, and their contraction sepasure to high temperature, the venous blood | rately on the blood has been mentioned, had not its usual dark character, but, by its but it must not be thence concluded, that arterial florid hue, indicated that in its course each of these divisions in turn contracts sethrough the system, the natural and usual parately and by itself, no other action of the changes in it had not taken place.

heart occurring at the same time; for this is When the temperature of warm-blooded by no means the case. The two auricles animals is greatly increased, exertion be contract and dilate together, and it is the comes laborious, and fatigue and lassitude, same with respect to the ventricles, whose as if resulting from yiolent muscular efforts, motions are simultaneous also; the contracare speedily induced ; but on the contrary, tion of one part, and the dilatation of the in cold-blooded animals, on whose system other, both occurring at the same period. temperature has so marked an influence, It may be observed here, that when the conthat when cooled below a certain degree | traction of the heart is mentioned in general they become torpid, the effect of a møde- | terms, that of the ventricles is always alludrate degree of heat will be to increase mus ed to. cular action, and a corresponding consump On each action of the ventricles, the whole tion of oxygen. As then it appears that an of the heart is carried smartly forwards, and increase of muscular action to a certain the point of this organ comes in contact with point at least) is accompanied by an increas the left side of the chest, between the sixth ed consumption of oxygen; so, on the other and seventh true ribs, when its pulsation hand, as fatigue follows exertion, this in may be easily felt. From this circumstance, creased consumption will always be suc- a controversy has arisen among physioloceeded by an equally great decrease, and this gists, respecting the mode in which the conis indicated by yawning and drowsiness,which traction takes place; some supposing the are also the signs of muscular exhaustion. heart at that instant to be elongated; and

The amount of oxygen consumed is an | others, with better reason, affirming it to be index of the quantity of carbon thrown out shortened ; and numerous were the animals of the system, and this in man amounts to sacrificed, to prove the truth of each assernearly half an ounce every hour, but its rela tion. The question is now set at rest, as it tive proportion to the quantity of food taken is ascertained that the external portion of into the system, or to the bulk or natural ha the ventricles is drawn towards the septum bits of the animal, is yet undetermined by or partition between them, and the apex or experiments.

point towards the base; the displacement The blood having thus become aerated, of the heart being therefore to be attributed or, to speak more correctly, deprived of the to the influx of blood into the auricles, and carbon which it had acquired in its course to its expulsion from the ventricles, by which through the frame, is now fitted for the pur the aorta and pulmonary artery are distendposes of the animal economy; and it is in ed. The pulsations of the heart during the order of our plan to take a closer view health vary much, according to the sex, haof the agents appointed to this end. Our bits, or temperament of the individual; readers need not now be told that these are their frequency, however, decreasing froin the heart, the arteries, and the veins. The infancy to old age.. general anatomy of the heart has already - In the new-born infant, the pulse may be been explained; it now remains for us to estimated at 140 per minute; at the end of consider its peculiar, mode of action. ' } , the first year 127-second 110-third and

We have stated this organ to be a must fourth 96; in youth from 80, to 86-mande, containing four, cavities, destined for re hood 75-old age 60. But as life advanceiving and expelling the blood; but with reces, farther, the pulse is found so,, variable, spect to its action, it differs from every other that no accurate estimate can be taken., . in the animal frame. To other muscles, rest The heart, through the medium of the from their labours is necessary, that their nerves, is greatly influenced by the passions powers of exertion may be renewed; they and affections of the minds its action is are wearied with toil, and require repose; modified and often accelerated by the slightthose even by which respiration is effected, est, emotion 5] and diseases of every kind


Measures taken for the Abolition of Slavery in Ceylon.


control, diminish, and even excite its pow. | humane endeavours to ameliorate the coners; and by this derangement other parts dition of the natives, have been attended of the system are again influenced; for the with the most happy effects. The following animal frame may be said to resemble a letter, written by this gentleman, on the piece of mechanism, furnished with numer measures adopted for the abolition of slavery ous wheels depending on and giving aid to in Ceylon, dated July 22d, 1816, will each other; but let one be displaced or put place his character, exertions, and success, out of order, the whole is thrown into con in an amiable light. fusion. Fainting, for instance, we know is “I have, for the last ten years of my often occasioned by emotions of the mind, residence in Ceylon, been endeavouring, as by which, through the medium of the nerves, I believe I have often mentioned to you, to the action of the heart is diminished, and get the principal proprietors of slaves on the less blood is consequently sent through the island to fix a day, after which all children vessels to the brain. Now, from this defici- born of their slaves shall be considered as ency, the nervous power of the brain be- free. My endeavours have, at last, as comes diminished, or even for a time sus- you will see by the enclosed papers, been pended, as it depends materially on the cir- attended with success. I wrote on the culation, and the body sinks inanimate ; nor 10th of this month, a letter (of which perhaps would it recover, had not the heart No. I.* is a copy,) upon the subject, to the the property of still preserving its power of principal proprietors of slaves at this place, contraction to a certain degree, which, as who are upon the list of the special jurythe blood begins again to circulate slowly men for the province of Colombo, and through the brain, it more and more re who are therefore all personally known to covers; and as it recovers, sends forth by me. By the letter, of which No. II. is a degrees a still greater portion of blood, till copy, you will see that the proposal conat last the whole circulation becomes fully tained in my letter was well received by restored. Hence we see the reason why them; and that they, at a general meeting persons fainting should be placed in a hori which they called to take the contents of zontal position, with the head as low or that letter into consideration, unanimously lower than the rest of the body,

came to the resolution, that all children The arteries, we have before stated, may born of their slaves, after the 12th of Aube considered as ramifications of one great gust next, should be free ;-(the 12th of trunk; they are composed of three coats, August was fixed upon by them, at my the external one consisting merely of cellu. suggestion, as a compliment to the Prince lar membrane, the middle one of fibres en Regent.) They afterwards appointed a circling the artery, and asserted by many to committee, from among themselves, to be muscular; and the internal one, a thin frame certain resolutions, (No. III.) for the membrane calculated to give strength to the purpose of carrying their benevolent in. artery, and afford at the same time, by the tention into effect. The principal object of smoothness of its surface, a free and easy these resolutions is, as you will perceive, to passage to the blood. The veins also in secure that the children, born free after like manner are composed of three coats; the 12th of August next, shall be provided but as their structure is much more delicate for by the masters of their parents until the than that of arteries, it is a difficult matter age of fourteen; it being supposed that after to demonstrate the fact, while, on the con- | they have attained that age they will be trary, the coats of arteries from their struc- | able to provide for themselves. türe easily admit of separation. The ar “ The Dutch special jurymen of this teries and veins are both elastic, and capa- | place consist of about 130 of the most ble of dilation to a considerable degree, but respectable Dutch gentlemen of the place; the latter possess this power more remark- / in which number are contained almost all ably than the former, and it is indeed aston- | the Dutch who are large proprietors of ishing to how great an extent this may be slaves. Besides these gentlemen, there are carried without injury.

jurymen of all the different castes among Hammersmith. W. Martin. the natives, such as vellales, fishermen, men (To be continued.)

of the Mahabadde or cinnamon department, Chittees, and Mahomedans. The moment

the jurymen of these castes heard of the MEASURES TAKEN FOR TIIE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY IN CEYLON.

In the Eleventh Report of the " African Insti. tution," from which this extraet is taken, the let ters here marked No, I, II, III. &e, are inserted,

but we are obliged to omit them from the want of impartial administration of justice, and I room.

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