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this work must depend, it will be proper to observe some obvious rules ; such as of preferring writers of the first reputation to those of an inferiour rank; of noting the quotations with accuracy; and of selecting, when it can be conveniently done, such sentences, as, besides their immediate use, may give pleasure or instruction, by conveying some elegance of language, or some precept of prudence or piety.

It has been asked, on some occasions, who shall judge the judges? And since, with regard to this design, a question may arise by what authority the authorities are selected, it is necessary to obviate it, by declaring that many of the writers wbose testimonies will be alleged, were selected by Mr. Pope ; of whom I may be justified in affirming, that were he still alive, solicitous as he was for the success of this work, he would not be displeased that I have undertaken it.

It will be proper that the quotations be ranged according to the ages of their authors; and it will afford an agreeable amusement, if to the words and phrases which are not of our own growth, the name of the writer who first introduced them can be affixed ; and if, to words which are now antiquated, the authority be subjoined of him who last admitted them. Thus, for scathe and buxom, now obsolete, Milton may be cited:

The mountain oak
Stands scath'd to heaven.

He with broad sails
Winnow'd the buxom air.-
By this method every word will have its history, and
the reader will be informed of the gradual changes of the
language, and have before his eyes the rise of some words,
and the fall of others. But observations so minute and
accurate are to be desired, rather than expected; and if
use be carefully supplied, curiosity must sometimes bear
its disappointments.

This, my Lord, is my idea of an English dictionary; a dictionary by which the pronunciation of our language

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caut

meg!

may be fixed, and its attainment facilitated; by which its *
purity may be preserved, its use ascertained, and its dura-
tion lengthened. And though, perhaps, to correct the
language of nations by books of grammar, and amend their
manners by discourses of morality, may be tasks equally
difficult, yet, as it is unavoidable to wish, it is natural
likewise to hope, that your Lordship’s patronage may not
be wholly lost; that it may contribute to the preservation
of ancient, and the improvement of modern writers; that
it may promote the reformation of those translators, who,
for want of understanding the characteristical difference
of tongues, have formed a chaotick dialect of heterogeneous
phrases; and awaken to the care of purer diction some
men of genius, whose attention to argument makes them
negligent of style, or whose rapid imagination, like the
Peruvian torrents, when it brings down gold, mingles it
with sand.

When I survey the Plan which I have laid before you,
I cannot, my Lord, but confess, that I am frighted at its
extent, and, like the soldiers of Cæsar, look on Britain as
a new world, which it is almost madness to invade.
I hope, that though I should not complete the conquest,
I shall, at least, discover the coast, civilize part of the in-
habitants, and make it easy for some other adventurer to
proceed further, to reduce them wholly to subjection, and
settle them under laws.

We are taught by the great Roman orator, that every man should propose to himself the highest degree of excellence, but that he may stop with honour at the second or third : though, therefore, my performance should fall below the excellence of other dictionaries, I may obtain, at least, the praise of having endeavoured well; nor shall I think it any reproach to my diligence, that I have retired without a triumph, froin a contest with united academies, and long successions of learned compilers. I cannot hope, in the warmest moments, to preserve so much caution through so long a work, as not often to sink into negligence, or to obtain so much knowledge of all its parts,

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as not frequently to fail by ignorance. I expect that
sometimes the desire of accuracy will urge me to super-
fluities, and sometimes the fear of prolixity betray me to
omissions ; that in the extent of such variety, I shall be
ofteu bewildered, and, in the mazes of such intricacy, be
frequently entangled; that in one part refinement will be
subtilized beyond exactness, and evidence dilated in an-
other beyond perspicuity. Yet I do not despair of appro-
bation from those who, knowing the uncertainty of con-
jecture, the scantiness of knowledge, the fallibility of
memory, and the unsteadiness of attention, can compare
the causes of errour with the means of avoiding it, and the
extent of art with the capacity of man: and whatever be
the event of my endeavours, I shall not easily 'regret an
attempt, which has procured me the honour of appearing
thus publickly,

MY LORD,
Your Lordship’s most obedient,
and most humble servant,

SAM. JOHNSON,

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PREFACE

TO THE

ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

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It is the fate of those, who toil at the lower employments of life, to be rather driven by the fear of evil, than attracted by the prospect of good ; to be exposed to censure, without hope of praise ; to be disgraced by miscarriage, or punished for neglect, where success would have been without applause, and diligence without reward.

Among these unhappy mortals is the writer of dictionaries; whom mankind have considered, not as the pupil, but the slave of science, the pioneer of literature, doomed only to remove rubbish and clear obstructions from the paths, through which Learning and Genius press forward to conquest and glory, without bestowing a smile on the humble drudge that facilitates their progress. Every other author may aspire to praise; the lexicographer can only hope to escape reproach, and even this negative recompense has been yet granted to very few.

I have, notwithstanding this discouragement, attempted a Dictionary of the English language, which, while it was employed in the cultivation of every species of literature, has itself been hitherto neglected; suffered to spread, under the direction of chance, into wild exuberance; resigned to the tyranny of time and fashion; and exposed to the corruptions of ignorance, and caprices of innovation.

When I took the first survey of my undertaking, I found our speech copious without order, and energetick without

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rules: wherever I turned my view, there was perplexity to be disentangled, and confusion to be regulated; choice was to be made out of boundless variety, without any established principle of selection; adulterations were to be detected, without a settled test of purity; and modes of expression to be rejected or received, without the suffrages of any writers of classical reputation or acknowledged authority.

Having, therefore, no assistance but from general grammar, I applied myself to the perusal of our writers; and, noting whatever might be of use to ascertain or illustrate any word or phrase, accumulated in time the materials of a dictionary, which, by degrees, I reduced to method, establishing to myself, in the progress of the work, such rules as experience and analogy suggested to me: experience, which practice and observation were continually increasing; and analogy, which, though in some words obscure, was evident in others.

In adjusting the ORTHOGRAPHY, which has been to this time unsettled and fortuitous, I found it necessary to distinguish those irregularities that are inherent in our tongue, and, perhaps, coeval with it, from others, which the ignorance or negligence of later writers has produced. Every language has its anomalies, which, though inconvenient, and in themselves once unnecessary, must be tolerated among the imperfections of human things ; and which require only to be registered, that they may not be increased, and ascertained, that they may not be confounded: but every language has likewise its improprieties and absurdities, which it is the duty of the lexicographer to correct or proscribe.

As language was at its beginning merely oral, all words of necessary or common use were spoken, before they were written ; and while they were unfixed by any visible signs, must have been spoken with great diversity, as we now observe those, who cannot read, catch sounds imperfectly, and utter them negligently. When this wild and barbarous jargon was first reduced to an alphabet, every penman

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