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riage. The yoke was fastened to the end of it, and by means of it the oxen drew. Sometimes the temo was of the same piece of timber with the buris and share-beam (dentale), though not in the kind of plough here described. — 172. Aures = mould-boards. These rose on each side of the share (vomer), bending outwardly in such a manner as to throw on either hand the soil which had been previously

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Fig. 1.

- 1. dentalia ; 2. buris; 3. temo; 4. stiva ; 5. manicula ; 6. vomer; 7. jugum ; a. funiculus; b. clavus ; c. collare ; d. lora subjugia.

Fig. II. – The common ploughshare.
Fig. III.

The dentalia alone.
Fig. IV. – A plough with mould-boards, aratrum auritum ; 7, 7. aures.

loosened and raised by the share, and were adjusted to the sharebeam which was made double (duplici dorso) for the purpose of receiving them. Duplici ... dorso. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Dentalia the share-beam ; a piece of wood fixed horizontally at the lower end of the buris, and to which the share was fitted. In some cases it was itself shod with iron. It is not certain whether it was one solid piece of timber, with a space to admit the end of the buris, or two pieces fastened on each side of it and running to a point. The plural dentalia is used by Virgil in speaking of one plough, but it is probably nothing more than a usual poetic license. -173. Ante. See on v. 167. Jugo; a piece of wood, straight in the middle and curved towards both ends, which was attached to the end of the pole of the plough or cart, and went over the necks of the oxen. Fagus stivaque; by hendiadys for stiva fagina. Gr. 704. II. 2. A. & S. 323. 2 (3). - 174. Stiva = the plough-handle. The stiva was originally mortised into the buris, but it sometimes formed one piece with it. It had a cross piece named manicula, by which the ploughman held and directed the plough. Cursus ... imos the lowest courses ; referring, perhaps, to the turning of the plough at the end of the furrow. Most editors read currus (= carriage). Gr. 500. A. & S. 264. 5. – 175. Explorat searches (i. e. dries) and tests.

The above diagrams, illustrating Virgil's plough, are taken from the work of Schulz, De Àratri Romani Forma et Compositione.

176. Possum ... ni refugis. Gr. 508. A. & S. 261. R. I. Tibi. Maecenas is ad ssed throughout as the ideal reader. 177. Refugis ; i. e. from hearing, as in A. II. 12 from speaking. Observe the mood and tense : I can repeat . but I see you start off. — 178. Cum primis =as a matter of the first importance, especially. -179. Vertenda manu. The earth had to be turned up and worked, or kneaded, with the hand. This operation really preceded the acquanda cylindro, as the preparation of the floor was the first thing. Gr. 704. IV. 2. A. & S. 323. 4 (2). Creta= argilla, as in II. 215. The clay was for the purpose of making it harden and bake.

- 180. Pulvere; for siccitate, effect for cause. — 181 Tum=et tum ; i. e. if the threshing-floor cracks. Illudant i.e. the threshing-floor and the husbandman's labor. See II. 375, where the goats are said to mock, to disport themselves with the young vine. Gr. 485. A. & S. 260. II. Pestes; as injuring the floor and annoying the husbandman. — 182. Posuit ... fecit; aoristic perfects. See on v. 49. — 183. Oculis capti = blind ; lit. taken in the eyes. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. 1. The expression seems to come from the use of capi, for to be injured. The mole has eyes, though they are very small, and much covered over. Talpae. Gr. 44. Ex. A. & S. 42. 2. - 184. Inventus; which is found in holes, and which therefore is likely to creep into holes. Bufo is said to occur nowhere else in the classics. Plurima. Gr. 453. 5. A. & S. 206 (7) (a) and (6). - 185. Monstra=unsightly creatures ; sometimes, as here, without reference to their size. Farris. Cf. on v. 73. - 186. Senectae. Gr. 385. 3. A. & S. 223. Ants live but for a short time (supposed to be for one year only), so that senectac is a poetical expression for hiemi, which is the old age of their brief existence. It is well known that the ancients were in error about the habits of the ant, which has no storehouses, and remains torpid dur

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may mock;


ing the greater part of the winter. — 187. Contemplator. Gr. 537. II. A. & S. 267 (3). Nux= the walnut-tree. Some understand it of the almond-tree. Plurima abundantly, - 188. Curvabit; said by anticipation; for if the poet uses fetus of the blossoms, or embryo fruit, he may likewise speak of these bending the branches. -189. Si — fetus; i. e. if a great number of the blossoms set, as the gardeners term it. — 190. There will be a very hot summer and a great threshing; i. e. an abundant harvest. -191. Foliorum is emphatic, opposed to fetus; umbra, general. - 192. Nequidquam. Connect with teret. Palea. Gr. 419. III. A. & S. 250. 2. Teret

The tritura was performed sometimes by the trampling of oxen, sometimes by the tribulum or trahea (see on v. 164), sometimes by fustes, flails or sticks. 193 - 203. Steeping seed-beans is a plan often pursued, to make the produce larger and easier to be cooked. But the best seeds will degenerate, unless you pick every year. It is the tendency of everything in nature, and only man's most strenuous efforts can counteract it. – 194. Nitro; not our nitre, but a mineral alkali, carbonate of soda, and therefore used in washing. Amurca = = lees of olive oil. - 195. Siliquis. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Fallacibus; referring to the general character of the pods of beans, which in this particular case are to be less deceptive than usual. - 196. Quamvis — maderent=that they might be quickly cooked by a fire however small. Properata = propere ; lit. being hastened. — 198. Vis humana; i.e. homines. — 199. Quaeque. Gr. 458. 1. A. & S. 207, R. 35 (6). – 200. Ruere ... referri. Gr. 545. I. A. & S. 209, R. 5 and N. 7. Translate, “are accustomed,” etc. Retro – referri = slipping away to be borne backward. Retro is often used pleonastically with verbs beginning with re. Cf. A. II. 169. - 201. Flumine. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. – 202. Subigit. Cf. A. VI. 302. - 203. Atque, according to Gellius and Servius, is statim, but it is better to connect it with remisit, and give it its usual signification. Virgil does not expressly introduce an apodosis in such comparisons, but makes his whole sentence depend on the quam or si which follows the non aliter or haud secus following the simile. Cf. A. IV.'669. Illum is doubtless the lembus, which is distinguished from the rower. Wr. accounts for atque by supplying retro sublapsus refertur before it, and making the whole into an apodosis, but he quotes no similar instance. Alveus =the current. Amni. Gr. 87. III. 3. A. & S. 82. Ex. 5 (a). - 204 - 207. The husbandman must observe the rising and setting of the constellations as attentively as the sailor. 204. Arcturi. See on Ov. M. II. 176, and cf. v. 68. Nobis. Gr. 388. I.

A. & S. 225. III. – 205. Haedorum = the Kids, or Goat. See on Ov. M. III. 594. Anguis. See on Ov. M. II. 138. 206. Quam quibus =as (by those) by whom. Vectis = euntibus. The Latin having no present pass. part., the perf. part. is sometimes used in a present sense. 207. Pontus; sc. Euxinus. Fauces . . . Abydi; i. e. Hellespontus. Abydos was a town on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont, opposite the European Sestos. Oysters are still found there. — 208. Libra; i. e: the Balance, between Scorpio and Virgo. See on v. 33. Die. Gr. 119. 4. A. & S. 90. 2. Pares. The sun was in Libra at the time of the autumnal equinox, when the days and nights were of equal duration, and when the Roman hours were, of course, equal too. Fecerit. Gr. 473. A. & S. 145. VI. – 209. Et — orbem=and already divides the globe equally for light and darkness; i. e. gives both the northern and southern hemispheres an equal amount of day and night. - 210. Tauros boves. -- 211 Usque — imbrem = even to the first rain of the impracticable. (i. e. when no work can be done) winter solstice.

Extremum may be used of either end; here the beginning. - 212. Segetem; used proleptically for the seed. Cereale; because sacred to Ceres, who was represented with poppies in her hands. She was said to have calmed her grief for the loss of her daughter Proserpina by eating its seeds. — 213. Humo. Gr. 47. 2. 2); 414.

A. & S. 49. I; 247. Tegere. Gr. 563. 6. A. & S. 275. III. N. 1. Jamdudum

=at once, without delay. Cf. A. II. 103. Incumbere; like curvus arator, E. III. 42. 214. Tellure. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a). Pendent; i.e. they do not yet come down in rain. - 215. Med. ica (sc. herba) = lucerne ; introduced into Greece from Media at the time of the invasion of Darius. Putres; because they have lain fallow through the winter. -- 216. Annua cura; to distinguish it from lucerne, which required to be 'sown only once in ten years. — 217, 218. A periphrasis for vere. - 217. Candidus. The allusion, according to Keightley, is to the milk-white bulls with gilded horns which appeared in the triumphal processions at Rome. Aperit is illustrated by the etymology of Aprilis. Cornibus. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Whether auratis cornibus is meant to be taken descriptively with taurus, or instrumentally with aperit, is not clear. The former seems more reasonable, as there would be no natural propriety in the image of a bull using his horns to open a gate. The horns are called auratis, because there are bright stars at their tips.

- 218. Canis; i. e. Sirius, a star of the first magnitude in Canis Major. This star sets heliacally, i. e. is lost in the effulgence of the sun, a few days after he has entered Taurus. It is therefore said to give way (cedens) to this sign. Adverso astro; sc. Tauro. Gr. 384. A. & S. 223. The bull is represented as driving the dog before him ; the dog, however, keeping his face to the bull. - 219

Robusta hardy. - 220. Solis; as opposed to the produce just mentioned, vv. 215, 216. Aristis bearded grain. Gr. 386. A. &S 224. 221. Ante ...

quam. Gr. 523. 2). Eoae=in the morning. Atlantides = the daughters of Atlas ; i. e, the Pleiades. Scc on v. 138. Gr. 316. A. & S. 100. I and (6). These set in the morning, according to different authorities, from Oct. 20 to Nov. II.

222. Gnosia Cretan ; from Gnosus, a city of. Crete, cf which island Minos, father of Ariadne, was king. Stella Coronae; i. e. the constellation Corona Borealis, said to have been Ariadne's crown, placed among the stars by Bacchus, after he married her. Stella sidus, as in Hor. C. III. 29. 19. - 223. Com. mittas . . . properes. Gr. 523. II. A. & S. 263. 3. - 224. Invitae; because conscious that she is not yet ready to receive the seed. - 225. Maiae; one of the Pleiades, here standing for the .group, as Taygete in Ov. M. III. 595. — 227. Vilem; on account of its abundance. 228. Pelusiacae=Egyptian ; from Pelusium, a town at the mouth of the eastern branch of the Nile. Egypt was famed for lentils. 229. Mittet dabit. Bootes. See on Ov. M. II. 176. — 231. Idcirco; i. e. that the seasons should be clearly marked for the husbandman. Certis ... partibus ; referring to the twelve divisions of the zodiac. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Orbem (sc. annuum) = (his yearly) circle. Cf. Annuus orbis, A. V. 46. — 232. Duodena duodecim. The poets often use distributive for cardinal numerals. Cf. A. I. 393. Regit. Cf. cursus regres bam, A. VI. 350, and Nulla viam fortuna regit, XII. 405. Mundi

astra the constellations of the celestial sphere. — 233. Coelum; because the zones of heaven answer to the zones of earth, and determine their character. — 234. Ab igni; instead of the ordinary abl. of cause. — 235. Extremae; i. e. the frigid zones. Dextra. Gr. 441. 3. A. & S. 205, R. 7 (1). — 236. Glacie. The mention of ice seems more appropriate to the earthly than the heavenly zones; but Virgil was doubtless thinking of the sky as the parent of ice. — 237. Duae; i. e. the temperate zones, which alone the ancients supposed to be habitable. -238. Via; i. e. the ecliptic. Per=inter; as the sun never enters the temperate zones. So v. 245, per duas Arctos. 239. Obliquus; with se verteret. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (a). Obliquus ordo is the zodiac, the constellations of which it consists be. ing arranged along the ecliptic which cuts the equator obliquely at an angle of about twenty-three and a half degrees. · Cf. Ov. M. II. 130 foll. Se ... verteret: might revolve. Gr. 500. A. & S. 264. 5. – 240. Mundus. See on v. 232, Scythiam; used for the North generally, as often in the poets. Rhipaeas. The Rhipean mountains were supposed to separate the land of the Hyperboreans from the rest of the world. Here these countries are made to stand

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