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641. Solem-norunt; i. e. they have a sun and stars of their own, distinct from those in the upper world. -645. Threicius... sacerdos. See on Ov. M. X. Introd. Cf. Ov. M. XI. 2; Hor. C. I. 24. 13; III. 1. 3. The long robe was characteristic of musicians. — 646. Obloquitur numeris = sings responsive to the numbers; i. e. to the beat of the dancers. Septem―vocum; the seven notes of the seven strings of the lyre, but produced of course by the voice. 647. Pectine=plectro. — 649. Annis. Gr. 426. A. & S. 253. -650. See on I. 284; III. 107, 108, 168. — 651. Virum; with both arma and currus. Inanes ghostly, shadowy. — 653. Gratia love, fondness. Currum; for curruum. –654. Nitentes. See on III. 20.657. Vescentes feasting. Choroin a band. — 658: Superne in the upper world. — 659. Plurimus... volvitur = rolls full and strong; i. e. through the upper world. The legend was doubtless suggested by the fact that the Po, with which the Romans identified the Eridanus, not far from its source, flows underground for two miles. Eridani. See on G. I. 482. — 660. Manus; sc. sunt qui. — 662. Vates poets. — 663. Vitam; not their life, but life generally. Per artes - = artibus. 664. Merendo = by their services. -665. Vitta is the mark of consecration, being worn by the gods and by persons and things dedicated to them. 667. Musaeus is the mythical father of poets, as Orpheus of singers.

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- 668. Humeris. Gr. 418. A. & S. 256, R. 16. —670. Illius. Gr. 411. 3. A. & S. 247, R. 2 (a). — 674. Rivis. Gr. 414. 2. A. & S. 247. I. – 675. Si — voluntas = if such is your wish; i. e. to see Anchises. 676. Jam at once. - 678. Dehinc. See on I. 131. Linquunt; i. e. Aeneas and the Sibyl. — 679. Penitus — virenti = deep in a verdant dale. — 681. Studio recolens = earnestly contemplating. Suorum of his progeny; explained by caros nepotes.-682. Forte recensebat; i. e. Anchises happened to be reviewing that part of the whole multitude when Aeneas appeared. — 683. Manus martial exploits. -687. Parenti. Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. II. -690. Futurum; with ducebam as well as rebar.— 691. Tempora dinumerans; i. e. counting the days till Aeneas might be expected to come. Fefellit; of disappointment and wasted

labor. 694. Quid. Gr. 380. 2. A. & S. 232 (3). — 696. Limina. Gr. 379. 4. A. & S. 237, R. 5 (c). Tendere. Gr. 553. V. A. & S. 273, N. 4 (b). — 699. Memorans. See on II. 650. — 700. Collo. Gr. 384. I. A. & S. 224, R. 1 (b). — 703. Reducta = retired. See on I. 161.704. Virgulta-silvis the shrubbery rustling with the woods. Cf. III. 442; XII. 522, virgulta sonantia lauro. — 705. Lethaeum... amnem; Lethe, a river of the lower world, the drinking of whose waters caused forgetfulness of the past. Praenatat. Cf. praefluit, Hor. C. IV. 14. 26. — 707. Ac velut Cf.

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IV. 402. 708. Circum... funduntur swarm around. — 709. Strepit -campus; the apodosis of the sentence, and referring to the shades. -710. Subito; adj. with visu, and explaining horrescit. —711. Ea flumina porro that river in the distance. - 715. Securos latices = care-dispelling draughts. —717. Jampridem .. cupio belong to the preceding line as well as to enumerare. Gr. 467. 2. A. & S. 145. I. 2. Meorum of my descendants. 719. Ad coelum to the upper light.720. Sublimes on high; with ire. Cf. I. 415.—721. Dira cupido. See on G. I. 37. —723. Suscipit = resumes, replies. — 724-751. Anchises explains that everything in nature is pervaded by one great spirit, that this in men is clogged by the body, and consequently that after death there has to be a longer or shorter purification, after which the souls are sent back into the world to animate other bodies.-725. Titaniaque astra; i. e. the sun: poetical plu. for sing. Cf. IV. 119. 727. Corpore. Cf. G. II. 327. — 728. Inde, etc.; i. e. this union of mind and matter is the cause of individual life in animals, which consist of soul and body.—730. Igneus; the pure ether of the divine soul being regarded as flame. Cf. v. 746. - 731, 732. Seminibus = seeds (of life). Quantum so far as. Tardant... hebetant. Cf. V. 395, 396. Moribunda; stronger than mortalia. — 733, 734. Hinc; from this influence of the body. Neque caeco= their gaze cannot pierce the sky, imprisoned as they are in darkness and a blind fleshly dungeon. — 737, 738. Penitusque; where we should expect sed penitus. Multa; i. e. multum vitii. Diu; with concreta. Modis miris. Cf. I. 354.- 740 – 742. A threefold purification, by air, water, and fire, is described. Inanes; with ventos. Infectum with which they are infected. 743, 744. Quisque - Manes each of us suffers his own Manes; i. e. each spirit has its individual discipline. The rest of the passage, which is one of the hardest in Virgil, seems to mean that all the shades are sent into Elysium after their purgation, but that while the greater part only pass through on their way to Lethe, a few, of whom Anchises is one, are allowed to remain there and complete a still higher purification. But this interpretation, the best that can be given, is not entirely satisfactory, and it may be, as Con. thinks, that this is one of the passages which Virg. left unfinished.-745-747. Longa dies. Cf. V. 783. Temporis orbe. Cf. v. 748. Concretam. Cf. v. 738. Sensum=soul: Aurai. See on III. 354. Ignem. Cf. v. 730. 749. Cf. vv. 714, 715. —750. Cf. v. 241.754. Posset. Gr. 486. III. A. & S. 264. 5, R. 2. — 755. Legere to scan. -756. Deinde hereafter. 757. Itala de gente of Italian birth; i. e. the descendants of Lavinia. Cf. v. 762.-758. Cf. v. 680.-759. Cf. III. 379. — 760. Pura hasta a headless spear;

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given to young men on their first military success. Gr. 419. II. A. & S. 245. II. 1.—761, 762. Lucis loca; a place in the upper world. Auras aetherias. Cf. I. 546. — 763. Silvius became the regular cognomen of the Alban kings. Postuma=latest.—765. Cf. Livy 1.4: casu quodam in silvis natus.—766. Unde a quo, as in V. 123, etc. Longa Alba. See on I. 271.-767, 768. Proximus; used loosely, as Procas was the twelfth (some say fourteenth) king of Alba. Capys was the sixth, eighth, or ninth ; Numitor succeeded Procas. 769-770. Aeneas Silvius was one of the earliest of the Alban kings. Serv. says that he was kept out of his kingdom fifty-three years by a usurping guardian. — 772. Atque iidem civicas gerunt coronas, nam deducent cives in colonias (Wr.). The civic wreath was originally given only to the soldier who saved the life of a comrade in battle.—773775. The places named are old Latin towns. Fidenae is more common than Fidena. Collatinas of Collatia. Pometios; for Pometia, or Suessa Pometia. On Gabii and Fidenae cf. Hor. E. I. 11. 7, 8. — 777. The meaning is, that Romulus shall appear on earth to join his grandfather, whom, according to the story, he restored to his rights. Mavortius. Cf. I. 276. — 778. Assaraci. See on I. 284. Ilia. See on I. 274.779. Viden'. Gr. 669. I. 3 and IV. Stant. See on E. V. 7. -780. Et — honore; i. e. Romulus is already marked as a child of the upper air (superum) by his father's token, the two-crested helmet (Con). Wr. makes superum gen. plu. with pater: the father of the gods already marks him with his own honor; i. e. with divine beauty and majesty. — 782. Animos; her greatness of soul. — 783. Cf. G. II. 535.-784, 785, See on Ov. M. XI. 16. Turrita; referring to the mural crown she wore.—790. Magnum- axem ; i. e. destined to go to the upper world. —792, 793. Aurea — saecula. Cf. Hor. C. IV. 2. 39 and note. —794. Saturno. Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. II. Cf. E. IV. 6. Super-beyond. Garamantas. See on IV. 198. Indos. See on Hor. C. I. 12. 51. On the whole passage, see on Hor. C. IV. 14. 39 foll. — 795–797. Extra sidera, like extra — vias, refers to the zodiac. Tellus; Ethiopia. Atlas, etc. Cf. IV. 481, 482.—799. Maeotia tellus; i. e. the Scythians about the Macotis Palus, the sea of Azov.-800. See on Ov. M. II. 254, and cf. septemfluus, M. I. 423, septemplice, M. V. 187, etc. Turbant; intrans. — 801. Cf. vv. 123, 392 and Hor. C. I. 12. 25, etc. — 802, 803. Fixerit. Gr. 515. I. A. & S. 263. 2 (1). Three of the labors of Hercules are mentioned: the killing of the Cerynitian stag, the Erymanthian boar, and the Lernean hydra. Cf. v. 287 and V. 448. 805. Liber. See on Ov. M. III. 636. Nysa, the legendary mountain on which Bacchus was brought up, was identified with various places in Europe, Asia, and Africa.—809. Sacra ferens. See on G. II. 476. —810, 811. Regis; Numa Pompilius. Fundabit

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constituet et firmabit. Curibus; an ancient Sabine town. Tullus (sc. Hostilius); the third king of Rome. — 815, 816. Cf. Pomp. Sabinus: Ancus Martius vivente Tullo aegre ferebat, quum e stirpe regia se jactaret, praelatum sibi Tullum. Itaque statuerat favore populari Tullum regem cum tota familia occidere. -817, 818. Virg. has not chosen to call Tarquin superbus, but has transferred the epithet to Brutus, the majestic and inflexible founder of Roman liberty. Receptos; i. e. transferred from the kings to the consuls. 820. Nova bella; the conspiracy to restore the Tarquins. — 822, 823. The meaning is, that he will risk being called cruel by posterity, so long as he forces them to acknowledge that he is great. — 824, 825. Decios. See on G. II. 169. Drusos; referring especially to Livius, the conqueror of Hasdrubal. See on Hor. C. IV. 4 37. Torquatum; T. Manlius Torquatus, who caused his own son to be beheaded (hence saevum securi) for fighting contrary to orders. Camillum. See on Hor. C. I. 12. 37 foll. He recovered the standards (signa) taken by the Gauls at the battle of the Allia. -826. Paribus . . . armis. Cf. G. I. 489. Fulgere; an older form than fulgère. Cf. G. I. 456. — 830. Socer; Caesar, whose daughter Julia Pompey married. Monoeci; the port of Hercules Monoecus, the modern Monaco, where was a promontory and a temple, whence arx, as in III. 531. -831. Adversis - Eois arrayed against him with an Eastern army; referring to the composition of Pompey's forces.-832. Animis — bella; a variety for adsuescite animos bellis. -833. Note the alliteration.-837. Ille; L. Mummius. Triumphata; a poetical construction. Cf. Hor. C. III. 3. 43. Capitolia. See on Hor. C. IV. 3. 9. Corintho. Cf. Hor. E. II. 1. 193. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. — 838. Cf. I. 284, 285. Ille; probably L. Aemilius Paullus. See on Hor. C. I. 12. 38. — 839. Aeaciden; probably Perseus, the Macedonian king, who is said to have been a descendant of Achilles. -840. Cf. I. 41; II. 165, 403, etc. — 841. Cato; the Censor. See on Hor. C. I. 12. 34. Cosse; A. Cornelius Cossus, who won the spolia opima, B. C. 428.842 - 846. Gracchi genus; Tiberius, who was general in the second Punic war; a second of the same name, who distinguished himself in the Spanish wars; and the brothers Tiberius and Caius, the tribunes, who died the death of martyrs in the protection of the oppressed plebeians. Scipiadas; not the Scipios who fell in Spain, but the elder and younger Africanus. Potentem = opulentum, as in Hor. C. II. 18. 13. Fabricium. See on Hor. C. I. 12. 37 foll. Serrane; an agnomen of M. Atilius Regulus, said to have been given him because he was sowing when the news was brought him that he was elected consul. See on Hor. C. III. 5. 13. Quo-rapitis; alluding to the numbers and exploits of the Fabii, which tire him who tries to

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tell them. Maximus; Q. Fabius Cunctator, famous for his " masterly inactivity" while dictator in the second Púnic war. Verse 846 is taken almost verbally from Ennius. - 847–850. Alii refers to the Greeks, the natural rivals of Rome. Mollius: more gracefully; with some reference, perhaps, to giving the soft appearance of flesh. Orabunt - melius; i. e. excel in oratory. Coeli meatus. Cf. G. II. 477. Radio. See on E. III. 41. - -851-853. Romane; an address to the nation. Hae these shall be your arts; i. e. shall stand to you in the place of sculpture, eloquence, and astronomy. Pacisque-morem; i. e. compel them to cultivate the arts of peace (Wr., Henry, and Con.). Parcere, etc. Cf. Hor. C. S. 51. — 855859. Marcellus; the elder. See on Hor. C. I. 12. 46. Tumultu; a Gallic war. Poenos; in the second Punic war. Tertia arma. The spolia opima were won only thrice in Roman history; by Romulus, Cossus (see on v. 841), and Marcellus. Quirino. See on I. 292.

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860-863. Una; with Marcellus. Frons-parum; saddened with the presage of death.—865. Quantum — ipso = how commanding is his presence! - 866. Cf. II. 360.868. Gnate. Wr. remarks that Virgil prefers the archaic spelling in solemn passages. 870, 871. The construction seems to be: Romana propago visa (est) nimium potens (futura fuisse). Propria. Cf. E. VII. 31.—872, 874. Mavortis; with urbem, and perhaps with Campus also (Con.). See on I. 276. Aget will send forth. Tiberine; sc. pater. Tumulum; the mausoleum of the Julian family in the Campus Martius, erected by Augustus five years before. -876. Romula; the form of the noun used as an adjective. Cf. I. 686; III. 602; IV. 552; and Hor. C. S. 47. — 878. Cf. I. 292 and Hor. C. S. 57. - 879-881. No one would have been his match in fight, had he been destined to live. 883. See Life of Virgil. Tueris = you shall be a true Marcellus; i. e. worthy of your ancestral renown. - 884. Spargam. Gr. 493. 2. A. & S. 262, R. 4. Cf. V. 79.886. Munere. Gr. 419. I. A. & S. 245. I. — 887. Aëris; with campos: the shadowy plains. -890. Deinde. See on v. 756. — 891. Laurentes populos; the Latini, from Laurentum, "the city of Latinus.”. 892. Cf. III. 459. — 893-896. The gates of Sleep are from Hom. Od. XIX. 562 foll. Fertur is said (to be). Veris Umbris; real spirits which appear in sleep. Candenti — elephanto= gleaming with the polish of dazzling ivory. Cf. V. 267. — 898. No good reason can be given why Aeneas should have been dismissed by one gate rather than the other. — 900. Caietae; the modern Gaeta. Recto litore; sailing straight along the shore (Wr., Forb., Con., et al.). Limite is found in three or four inferior MSS.-901. Cf. III. 277, and see on vv. 4, 5 below.

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