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temple of Juno on the Lacinian promontory, some pillars of which are still standing, and give the spot its modern name, Capo delle Colonne, or Cape Colonna. The deity for the temple, as in v. 275. Contra; i. e. on the opposite shore of the Sinus Tarentinus (now Gulf of Taranto). — 553. Caulonis; coast town of Bruttium. Arces; whether rocks or towers it is not easy to say. Scylaceum; a town on the Sinus Scylleticus, about twenty miles north of Caulon. The shore about Scylaceum is said not to be rocky, so that the epithet refers to the gales which blow about that part of Italy. — 554. E fluctu=rising out of the water. — 556. Construe fractas voces ad litora, not voces fractas ad litora ; there were at the shore broken sounds; i. e. caused by the breaking of the waves.-557. With the former part of the line cf. I. 126, with the latter, I. 107. Aestu. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 245. II. 2. — 558. Haec illa. Gr. 450 and 1. A. & S. 207, R. 23 (a). Charybdis. See on I. 200.- 560. Eripite; sc. vos. Cf. II. 289. 561. Rudentem; of the sound of the prow in the water. — -563. Ventis remisque, or velis remisque, is a regular phrase for using every effort. 565. Ad Manes imos; of extreme depth, like in Tartara, G. II. 292. See on G. I. 243. Desedimus = we have sunk. See on G. I. 330. 566. Cava saxa are the rocks at the bottom of the sea, opposed to rorantia astra. Cf. vv. 421 foll. · 569. Cyclopum. See on G. I. 471.571. Ruinis eruptions. See on G. II. 308. -573. Turbine... piceo with a pitchy whirl ; i. e. with a whirl of pitchy blackness. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2.-574. Globos flammarum. Cf. G.I. 473.-576. Sub auras... glomerat rolls up to the air. — 578. Enceladi; a hundred-handed giant, son of Tartarus and Terra. In the war between the gods and the giants he was overthrown by Jupi ter and buried under Mount Aetna. Semiustum. Gr. 669. II. 3. A. & S. 306. 1. (3). — 579. Insuper. See on I. 61. — 580. Ruptis... caminis = from (its) broken passages; the flames proceeding from him burst their way through the sides of the mountain. Flammam. See on I. 44. 581. Mutet. Gr. 529. A. & S. 266. 2.- 583. Noctem. Gr. 378. A. & S. 236. Monstra = prodigies, frightful phenomena. — 585. Neque... nec. The two clauses, in Virgil's usual manner, mean the same thing. Aethra siderea = with starry splendor. Gr. 414 and 2. Nubila; sc. erant. — 587. Intempesta for action; lit. unseasonable. 588. Eoo. See on G. I. 288. Gr. 426. A. & S. 253. 590. Macie... suprema: to the last degree of leanness. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. 591. Cultu -593. Respicimus. The Trojans were apparently turned towards the sea, attending to their ships, at the time the stran ger approached. 594. Cetera. Gr. 380. 2. A. & S. 234. II. R. 3.
A. & S. 247 and 1. — 586.
blackest; because unfit
-595. Et et quidem. — 599. Testor for aëra. Light is identified with air in G. II. 340. — 602. Scio = I admit. E classibus =e militibus in classe profectis. — 604. Sceleris... injuria nostri. Cf. nostrae injuria caedis, v. 256. — 605. Spargite - fluctus is explained by IV. 600. 607. Genibus; with volutans. Gr. 422. I. A. & S. 254, R. 3. - 608. Qui sit. See on E. I. 19. Fari... fateri. See on v. 134. — 609. Deinde; with fateri. Deinde is sometimes used by Virgil out of its place. See on I. 195. Agitet is persecuting (him): his present condition being the more prominent object of curiosity. — 611. Praesenti; i.e. taking effect at once, like praesens pecunia, ready money. 612. Cf. II. 76, though its genuineness there is doubtful. — 613. Ulixi. See on I. 30. - 614. Nomine. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I. Genitore. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257, R. 7(a). — 615. Paupere. Poverty, as in the case of Sinon, II. 87, is the reason why the soldier's calling is chosen. Mansisset - fortuna; i. e. would that I had been content with my lot and stayed at home. -616. Hic; followed by in antro epexegetically. See on E. I. 54. 617. Cyclopis; i. e. Polyphemus. — 618. Domus - cruentis - (his) abode of gore and of bloody feasts. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. The absence of the adjective with sanie is very unusual and harsh.-620. Di-pestem. Cf. v. 265.-621. Nec-ulli: i=no one can either look upon or address him in speech without terror. Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. II. — 623. Vidi egomet. Cf. II. 499. — 624. Resupinus = lying on his back. — 625. Exspersa natarent = were splashed and swimming with blood. 629. Ve, for nec. See on v. 43. Sui; i. e. of his craftiness. Gr. 406. II. A. & S. 216. Ithacus, when applied by Virg. to Ulysses, implies cunning. See on II. 104. — 630. Simul; sc. ac.-631. Per throughout; with reference to his enormous length. — 633. Mero. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 245. II. 2. 634. Sortiti vices =having cast lots for our parts; i. e. for the part each was to take. 635. Telo; i. e. a stake. — 637. Argolici clipei; which was round and protected the whole body. Phoebeae lampadis; i. e. the disc of the sun. Instar. Gr. 128. 1); 363. A. & S. 94; 204. The point of comparison lies in the fact that the objects were huge, round, and glaring. 642. The whole line is a poetical synonyme for est. 643. Vulgo=passim. — 645. Tertia — complent; the moon is filling with light, or is increasing, for the third time; i. e. the third month is already passing. -646. Quum = since; of time. Deserta
forsaken, unfrequented, i. e. by men. - 647. Ab rupe ... prospicio I descry from a rock. - 649. Infelicem = miserable. Cf. E. V. 37. Corna. See on G. II. 34. — 650. Vulsis radicibus = torn up by the roots; lit. the roots having been torn up. — 651. Primum; almost = tandem. See on E. I. 45.-652. Fuisset. See on
II. 94.653. Addixi expresses total surrender, and so prepares us for the language of self-abandonment which follows. 656. Vasta... mole with his vast bulk. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Some make it an abl. of quality. — 657. Nota shows how he made his way in spite of his blindness. -658 Cui. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224, R. 2. In this verse mark the adaptation of the sound and movement to the idea. Gr. 672. 2. A. & S. 310. 2. — 659. Manu; with regit. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3.660. Ea. Gr. 445. 4. A. & S. 206 (8). — 662. Altos-fluctus... ad venit. Gr. 704. IV. 2. A. & S. 323. 4 (2). · - 668. Inde; i. e. de
fluctibus, with water taken from the sea. 664. Dentibus. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. Gemitu. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. - 666. Celerare. Gr. 545. I. A. & S. 209, R. 5. Recepto supplice. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257.-667. Sic merito= since he had so deserved; i. e. to be received. Merito is a part., not an adj. — 668. Proni; of the action of rowing.
Exterrita; sc. est.
to seize, grasp. See on tegere, G. I. 213. · - 671. Potis (est) = potest; sc. Polyphemus. Ionios sequendo; i. e. he cannot move as fast as the waves carry the ship along. Sequendo. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I. — 673. Penitus = far within. - 676. Complent. Gr. 461. A. & S. 209, R. 11 (2). — 677. Adstantes standing side by side. Nequidquam; quia nocere non poterant. Lumine. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. -678. Aetnaeos; merely a local epithet. Coelo. See on II. 186. Capita-ferentes. Cf. I. 189. 679. Quales quum as when; lit. (such) as (are) oaks, etc., when (they). Vertice celso on a high mountain-top. - 681. Constiterunt = stand together; an aoristic present, there being no definite time in comparisons.-Silva-Jovis is the quercus, as being sacred to Jupiter; lucus Dianae the cyparissi, as being sacred to Diana, she being regarded as an infernal goddess. — 682. Acer. See on I. 362. Quocumque for any quarter, any direction whatever. Rudentes excutere. See on v. 267.-683. Ventis... secundis to following winds; i. e. to sail before the wind, whichever way it blew. It would seem from the context that it must have been blowing at the time from the south, and carrying them directly on to Scylla and Charybdis, from which (vv. 561 foll.) they had turned away in terror. -684-686. Contra-retro = on the other hand, the injunctions of Helenus warn them (socios) not to hold on their course between Scylla and Charybdis — the passage on each side (utramque) being a hairbreadth remove from death; (so) it is resolved to sail back again; i. e. toward the south and the Cyclopes from which they were fleeing, as being the less of two evils. Just then the north wind sprung up and carried them into safety. On inter see on G. II. 345. Utramque viam; in apposition with
cursus, or better perhaps a sort of cognate acc. expressing the effect of teneant cursus. Ni; for ne, as it is occasionally found elsewhere. Discrimine parvo; an abl. of quality or characteristic after viam. The whole passage is difficult, has puzzled all the commentators, and has been rejected by some as an interpolation. — 687. Ab sede Pelori. See on v. 411. The places off which winds blew were called by the poets their homes. – 688. Missus; i. e. by the favor of the gods. Saxo. See on I. 166, 167. — 689. Pantagiae; a small river of Sicily, whose mouth is enclosed with rocks, which form a natural harbor. Megaros of Megara: a small gulf a little north of SyraThapsum; a town of Sicily, on a peninsula of the same name, enclosing the gulf of Megara on the south side. - 690. Relegens - litora : coasting backward again the shores passed by in his wanderings; i. e. under Ulysses, with whom he is supposed to have traced the shore in the opposite direction. — 692. Sicanio... sinu; which afterwards formed the great harbor of Syracuse. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. 693. Plemyrium; a promontory of Sicily, forming the south side of the great harbor of Syracuse. — 694. Ortygiam. See on Aeneadas, v. 18. It was a small island in the same harbor, in which was the celebrated fountain Arethusa. Elidis. See on G. I. 59. – 695. Vias; for viam. - 696. Ore. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. Undis. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. — 697. Jussi; probably by Anchises, who throughout the book directs the religious observances of the Trojans. — 698. Exsupero. Cf. superare, I. 244. Helori ; a small river of Sicily, south of Syracuse, which overflowed its banks at certain seasons; hence the epithet stagnantis. — 699. Pachyni. See on v. 429. -700. Fatis by the oracle; i. e. of Apollo. — 701. Camarina; a lake in the south of Sicily, near a town of the same name. The story is that the place was surrounded by a marsh, which the inhabitants drained in spite of the oracle, thus making the spot accessible to the enemy, who took it. Geloi; so called from Gela, a town in the south of Sicily, named from the river Gelas. 702. Immanis savage, fierce; referring to the character of the tyrants who ruled it. Some construe it with fluvii. — 703. Acragas; a high mountain on the south shore of Sicily, on which stood the city of Agrigentum. Sometimes the city was called Acragas. — 704. Magnanimum. Gr. 45. 5. 4). A. & S. 53. Quondam: in after times. It seems to be Virgil's remark rather than that of Aeneas. 705. Selinus; a town on the southwestern shore of Sicily, noted for its palm-trees. Gr. 73. 5. A. & S. 76, Ex. 6. — 706. Saxis; with dura. Lilybeia. Lilybaeum was the western promontory of Sicily.707. Drepani; a town on the western coast of Sicily, near Mount Eryx, where Anchises died. Illaetabilis; on account of the loss of his father. -714. Labor extremus. He calls it his last
agony, losing in his sense of it all recollection of the subsequent shipwreck, which is barely glanced at in the next line.
THE subject of the Fourth Book has made it the most attractive, perhaps the most celebrated, part of the poem : it has provoked much controversy, and that of a kind which has an interest, not only for the scholar, but for the general reader; much of it has been supposed to be borrowed from Apollonius Rhodius, whose work happens to be preserved: it is the most dramatic portion of the Aeneid, and as such may be viewed in relation to the masterpieces of Greek dramatic art.
According to the most detailed accounts, as epitomized in the Dictionary of Biography, Dido's early history up to the time of her landing in Africa coincides substantially with that narrated by Venus to Aeneas in Book I.; afterwards she is persecuted by her neighbor, King Iarbas, who demands her hand, resolves to avoid him by death, erects a funeral pile under the pretence of a sacrifice to propitiate her former husband, and kills herself there. Virgil turns the loveless queen into a passionate lover, keeping, however, the groundwork of the character, devotion to the memory of her murdered lord, which is only overcome by Venus's express agency, and even then from time to time struggles and resists. Iarbas is naturally made to recede into the distance; his anger contributes to darken the prospect of Dido's desolation, but is in no sense the motive cause of her death. The mode of her death is borrowed from the traditional story, and the fact of her resorting to a pretext to conceal her purpose; but as the reason for her death is different, the pretext is different also. In filling up the picture which he has sketched Virgil is indebted partly to Apollonius, partly perhaps to the Ajax of Sophocles.
Virgil's power is nowhere more conspicuously shown than in the lines describing the horrors which drive Dido to her fatal purpose (vv. 450-473).
DIDO having become violently enamored of Aeneas, consults her sister Anna on her circumstances, and by her is advised to consent to marriage with the Trojan prince (1–53). Dido's feelings further described (54-89). Juno consults with Venus: both agree to the union