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I 20. I.

sentence, cf. v. 498 and IV. 143. Harpalyce was a daughter of Harpalycus, a Thracian king. After the death of her father, by whom she was trained in all manly exercises, she spent her time in the forests as a robber, being so swift in running that horses were unable to overtake her. — 317. Fuga; of rapid movement in general. Hebrum; a river of Thrace, flowing into the Aegean. — 318. Humeris. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224. Habilem well-fitted, welt-shapedi-sie-form the hand. 319. Venatrix. Gr. 362. A. & S. 210, R. 4. Dif. fundere. Gr. 553. V. A. & S. 274. 7 (6). — 320. Genu... sinus. Gr. 380 and 1. A. & S. 234. II. and R. 2. Nodo. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. -321 Prior. Gr. 174, note on primus. A. & S.

Juvenes. See on Hor. C. I. 2. 41. Monstrate ... vidistis si; if you have seen point out to me where she is; not, tell me whether you have seen. — 322. Quam. Gr. 455 and 2. A. & S. 137, R. (3). — 323. Tegmine lyncis. This was worn as a chlamy's or scarf.

- 324. Apri cursum = = aprum culrrentem ; i. e. a boar that has broken covert. Clamore; sc. canum. — 326. Audita ; (sc. est) ; not = heard of, the reference being to clamore. Mihi. Gr.388. 4. A. & S. 225. II. - 327. O would have been regularly followed by a voc. of her name ; for he is sure that she is a goddess ( o dea certe), though he knows not what goddess. Quam te. Gr. 373. A. & S. 230. Memorem. Gr. 485. A. & S. 260, R. 5. — 328. Hominem. Gr. 371. 3. A. & S. 232 (2). Certe. Gr. 583. 2. A. & S. 277, R. I. 329. An ... an, not = utrum .. an, but two separate questions. Phoebi; i. e. Apollo. Soror; i. e. Diana. This is conjectured from her attire as a huntress. Sanguinis = generis. — 330. Sis felix. See on E. V. 65. Quaecumque ; i. e. qualiscumque dea es. 331. Tandem = pray.

In interrogations the word expresses impatience. 332. Locorumque. Gr. 663. III. 4). A. & S. 307. 3. In scanning connect with the next verse. - 334. Multa ... hostia. See on E. I. 34. — 335. Me... honore. Gr. 419. 2.

A. & S. 244, R. I. - 336. Virginibus ... mos. Gr. 390 and 2.

A. & S. 227 and R. 4. Gestare. Gr. 549. A. & S. 269. – 337. Alte ; referring to the height of the boot, which rose more than half way to the knee, and the object of which was to protect the feet and legs from brambles. Cf. E. VII. 32. 338. Punica. The terms Poeni and Punicus point to the Phoenician origin of the Carthaginians. Tyrios; because Dido and her colony were from Tyre. Agenoris urbem. Carthage is so called in allusion to the descent of Dido from Agenor, the twin brother of Belus and king of Phoenicia..- 339. Fines Libyci; i.e. the country, as distinguished from the city, is a part of Libya. Genus ; grammatically in apposition with fines, but in sense referring to the noun Libyes implied in Libyci. Cf. IV. 40. Bello. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. - 340. Imperium is here the command,

390 and 2.

temp. abl.

not the domain. 341. It is a long and intricate tale of wrong. 342. Sequar=I will recount in order. - 343. Huic conjux. Gr.

A. & S. 227 and R. 4. Agri. Gr. 399 and 2. 2). A. & S. 213 and R. 1 (3). - 344. Phoenicum. Gr. 396. III. A. & S. 212, R. 2. Miserae; for ab ea misera. Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. II. Cf. IV. 31. Amore. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. 345. Pater; Belus. See v. 621. Intactam; i. e. not previously married. Hence primis; i. e. the auspices taken when she was married to Sychaeus, were the first ones. - 346. Ominibus; the omens of the marriage sacrifice, and hence the marriage rite. A mixture of instr. and

- 347. Scelere. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I. Immanior. The comparative is pleonastic. A. & S. 256, R. 13 (). — 348. Sy. chaeum. For the variety of the quantity in the first syllable (cf. v. 343) see on v. 258. — 349. Aras; i. e. of the Penates. Cf. IV. 21. Atque couples caecus with impius. — 350. Incautum superat. Cf. III. 332. Amorum. Gr. 399. A. & S. 213. — 352. Malus. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15. — 353. Inhumati. Cf. VI. 325 - 328. 354. Modis. Join with pallida. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2.

- 356. Nudavit = disclosed. Domus scelus the domestic crime ; i. e. as perpetrated by her brother, not as perpetrated before the Penates. — 357. Celerare ... excedere. Gr. 553, VI. and 3. A. & S. 273. 2. 358. Auxilium. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204 and R. I (a). Viae. Gr. 396. II. A. & S. 211, R. 2. Tellure from the earth. In her dream the ghost seems to her to open the earth and dig out from it the old treasures.' — 360. His; i. e. by these revelations. 361. Crudele = fierce, savage.

362. Acer - keen, violent; i. e, such as impels to action. *Cf. III. 682. Both acer and crudele are emphatic. — 365. Locos. Gr. 379. 4. A. & S. 237, R. 5 (c). — 366. Novae. See on v. 298. – 367. Mercati; sc. sunt. Byrsam (called) Byrsa. This word, whence the legend of the bull's hide (Búpoa in Greek meaning a hide) arose, appears to have been the Greek corruption of Bosra, the Phoenician name of the citadel of Carthage. — 368. Taurino ... tergo. The story was that they cut the hide so as to make one thong; the bargain being that they should have as much ground as they could compass with a bull's hide. Possent. Gr. 485. A. & S. 266. 3. 369. Tandem. See on v. 331. — 370. Talibus; probably with quaerenti, though it may go with ille. 371. Imo. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17. — 372. Si- pergam; i. e. if I should tell my story throughout, beginning at the first. Pergam ... vacet ... componat. Gr. 502 ; 503 and III. ; 509. A. & S. 261 and 2. — 373. Vacet=should you have leisure. - 374. Ante = first; i. e. before I should finish. Diem

.. componat would lay the day to sleep. Vesper; the god of evening, the evening star personified. Clauso ... Olympo=clos

Gr. 391.

Gr. 519.

= now.

ing the gates of heaven; i. e. through which the day issues. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. See on E. V. 56. — 375. Troja; with vectos. -376 Diversa per aequora:

=over various seas. Heyne and Forb. take it to mean, out of our course.” — 377. Forte sua= by its own chance, casualty; i. e. without any purpose of ours. — 378. Raptos

mecum explains pius. — 380. Patriam; because his ancestor Dardanus was born in Italy. Genus — summo is epexegetical of patriam. Genus ab = (my) ancestry (sprung) from. — 381. Phrygium ; i. e. that washes the shores of Troas. See on v. 182. — 382 Fata oracles. Cf. IV. 345. The oracle itself is given, III. 94 foll., by Apollo at Delos. — 383. Euro. See on v. 108. — 384. Ignotus ; i. e. in a land where I am unknown. — 385. Europa – pulsus. Cf. vv. 232, 333. Querentem; for queri with sub. acc. — 387. Haud .,. invisus == not odious. Coelestibus. A. & S. 222, R. I. - 388. Carpis = thou enjoyest, breathest. Adveneris.

A. & S. 264. 8 (1). - 389. Modo Perfer. Per implies that he is to go on till he reaches the place. 391. In tutum=into a safe place. Gr. 441. A. & S. 205, R. 7 (1). Aquilonibus. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. See on v. 108. - 392. Vani; i. e. ignorant of what they pretended to understand. Cf. II. 80. She sees the swans, and professes to interpret the omen on the spot by the rules her parents have given her. — 393. Bis senos ... cycnos. The swans were the birds of Venus, and their number is that of the missing ships. Laetantes agmine. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1. Agmine is opposed to turbabat, and explained by ordine longo. Cf. agmen in v. 186, contrasted with miscet in v. 191.

394. Aetheria... lapsa plaga=swooping from the upper sky; the aetheria plaga being higher than the coelum. Jovis ales; i. e. the eagle. Aperto ... coelo = in the wide air ; harmonizing with turbabat =was scattering, dispersing. - 395. Ordine longo. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. — 396. This perplexing line seems to answer in structure, and therefore probably in sense, to v. 400. Capere has been variously understood either as to settle on or to mark out for settling (capere oculis). It seems best on the whole to take the former meaning, and to make captas = captas ab altera cycnorum parte ; i. e. some alight, others look down on those which have alighted, and already (jam) are preparing to follow them. Coetu cinxere polum is no objection to this interpretation, being evidently ornamental and only vaguely descriptive. — 398. Cinxere polum= have wheeled in circles through the air. -399. Pubesque tuorum

= your companions. Tuorum is distinguished from tuae merely for variety's sake. — 400. Tenet ... subit. Gr. 463 and I. A. & S. 209, R. 12 (3). - 401. Qua - via. Cf. E. IX. 1. — 402. Rosea — refulsit=with her rosy neck she threw back a brilliant light. — 403. - of great

Divinum ... odorem; i. e. a fragrance such as the gods diffuse. 404. Defluxit. Her short hunting-tunic is changed into the flowing robe characteristic of a god or goddess. 405. Incessu.

Cf. v. 46. -408. Ludis mock. — Jungere. Gr. 549. A. & S. 269. — 409. Datur. Gr. 640, Ex. A. & S. 290 (a). — Veras; i. e. without disguise on the one part or mistake on the other. — 411. Obscuro .. aëre=with a dark mist. -412. Multo=thick. - Circum ... fudit; a tmesis for circumfudit. Gr. 384. 1. A. &. S. 249, R. 3. — Dea (=as a goddess) is added rhetorically, expressing the divine power exerted in the action. Cf. vv. 691, 692. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. 413. Contingere =to injure. — 414. Moliri = to cause. - 415. Paphum. See on G. II. 64. Gr. 379. A. & S. 237. — Sublimis

= through the air. — 416. Laeta; probably to be contrasted with tristior, v. 228. Templum ; sc. est. Sabaeo. See on G. I. 57, and compare Milton, Par. Lost, IV, 161: “Sabaean odors from the spicy shores of Araby the blest.” — 417. Ture ... sertis. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1. — 418. Corripuere viam. See on Ov. M. II. 158. Qua semita monstrat; like qua te ducit via, v. 401. Elsewhere via and semita are opposed, as a main road and a by-path; here via is general, semita particular. — 419. Plurimus size. -421. Molem=massive structures. Magalia=mere huts. The contrast is in the poet's own mind, not in that of Aeneas. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204.

-422. Strata viarum= paved streets. Gr. 396, III. A. & S. 212, R. 3, N. 4. The expression is partly partitive and partly that of quality. 423. A semicolon is commonly placed at Tyrii ; but insto is found with the infin. in II. 627, X. 118. Pars

· pars; i. e. part are at work on the fortifications, houses. Cf. E. I. 65, 66. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204, R. 10. Ducere = to extend. 424. Moliri

= to build.

Arcem; the citadel proper, as distinguished from the arces, v. 420. — 425. Optare=to choose ; i. e. with auspices.

Cf. III. 132.

Sulco is generally taken as the trench for the foundations. — 426. Jura - legunt, a zeugma for jura constituunt magistratusque legunt. Gr. 704. I. 2. A. & S. 323. 1 (2) (a). Sanctum; the regular epithet of the Roman senate. — 427. Effodiunt. The harbor of Carthage was artificial. – 429. Scenis ... futuris = for the future stage. For the strict meaning of scena see on v. 164. The dat. limits, not decora, but some omitted participle. Gr. 392, 1; 398, 5. A. & S. 211, R. 5, N. — 430. Qualis implies some such antecedent clause as talis labor Poenos

See on v. 316. Aestate nova; in the first bright days of summer, when the hive, awakened from its winter torpor, is busiest and most like a young colony. The divisions here introduced by quum imply, not different times, but different parties, and so are parallel to the different occupations of the Carthaginians. Cf. G. IV. 162 – 169.

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– 432. Liquentia; from līquor, not liqueo. 433. Nectare. Gr. 87. II. 1. A. & S. 82, Ex. 1 (6). — 435. Pecus. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. 436. Thymo. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1. -437. The want of a city is the key-note of the whole Aeneid. Aeneas envies the Carthaginians as he envies Helenus and Andromache, III. 493 foll. — 438. Suspicit. He has now descended the hill. — 439. Mirabile dictu. See on v. III. - 440. Miscet probably borrows se from the previous line, as no other instance is quoted of its intransitive use. Viris. Gr. 385. 5. A. & S. 245. II. R. I. Ulli. Gr. 388. 4. A. & S. 225. II.

441 -493. Aeneas enters a grove, where a temple is building to Juno. There he sees represented the various incidents of the Trojan

– 441. Lucus is a sacred grove. Laetissimus dant; and therefore causing joy. Umbrae. Gr. 399 and 2. 2). A. & S. 213 and R. 1 (3). — 442. Primum; with effodere. — 443. Signum; the, not a, signo; i. e. the sign which Juno had, in some way not here described, taught them to expect. — 444. Caput. A horse's head is common on Punic coins. Cf. III. 539 foll. Sic; i. e. by this sign. Fore; sc. monstrarat. Bello. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. 1. 445. Facilem victu wealthy; lit. easy to live. Some take victu from vinco (in which case facilem victu victorious) ; but cf. G. II. 460, fundit humo facilem victum justissima tellus (of which expression this, as Heyne remarks, is only a variety), and VIII. 318, asper victu venatus. Bello egregiam et facilem victu thus answers to the two characteristics of Carthage, v. 14, dives opum studiisque asperrima belli. 446. Sidonia. Dido is so called from Sidon, the most ancient city of Phoenicia, and the mother-city of Tyre. — 447. Donis

divae=enriched by offerings and by the especial presence of the goddess. It is a zeugma. See on coluisse, v. 16. There was doubtless a statue, though this is implied rather than expressed by numen both here and in IV. 204. - 448. The threshold was of brass, with steps leading up to it. Cui gradibus = from the steps of which. Gr. 384; 422. 2. A. & S. 223 ; 255, R. 3 (6). Nexaeque aere trabes =and doorposts bound (i. e. plated and fastened) with brass. Surgebant is to be supplied to trabes, but so that nexae aere shall be a predicate. See on v. 332. — 449. Foribus aënis. Gr. 704. I. I; 384. A. & S. 323. I (6) ; 223. In translating supply while. 452. Rebus. Gr. 385. I. A. & S. 223, R. 2. — 453. These representations are probably on the doors or external walls of the temple. Sub then will express that Aeneas is looking up. Compare the sculptures mentioned at G. III. 26; A. VI. 20. Singula=the objects one by one. — 454. Quae - urbi ... miratur; for miratur fortunam urbis

marvels at the prosperity of the city ; i. e. as shown in the splendor of its temple. Gr. 445. 8; 485. A. & S. 206 (6) (b); 266. 3. –

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