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the Phenicians, of all the people of have recourse to a substitute, and it is antiquity, were the most attached to to this necesity that the invention of trade, to the sciences and arts, and parchment is attributed, though the confequently the first who had any learned are not agreed with regard to idea of a literary intercourse with stran- this. But what has more than any gers. They introduced learning a- thing given fame to Ptolomy is, the mong the Greeks, and taught them having acquired and caused to be tranthe ufe of parchment and of letters. Mated, at great expence, by seventy inBy this means Sanchionatho, acknow- terpreters, the sacred books of the Jews, ledged to be the moft ancient writer besides many other books in different after Mofes, and who composed a languages. He likewise acquired the history of the antiquities of his library of Aristotle, enriched with the country about the year of the world works of the philosopher Speulippus and 2560, was enabled to make use of of Theophrastus, as well as with the the books preserved in the temples, tragedies of Sophocles, of Euripides, and of the annals of neighbouring ci- and Eschylus, in the hand-writing of ties. The progress which the Greeks these authors. afterwards made in learning prepared From the establishment of these and the age for the rks of Homer : the other libraries, the author concludes, Iliad and Odyssey necessarily suppose an- that a great number of transcribers terior productions, not perfect indeed, must have been necessary, as well as a but fit to serve as models. Pisistra- great number of booksellers ; and con-' tus, tyrant of Athens, who flourished sequently that, among the Greeks, about the 56th olympiad, that is, $50, there was a great traffic carried on in years before the Christian æra, caused books : and he proves it by a multithe poems of Homer to be collected tude of facts, which shew the estimaand transcribed with the greatest care, tion which books were held in, and and established a library open to the the pecuniary value affixed to them. perufal of the public. That library From the Greeks, the author passes had become very considerable when to the Romans, who, with the same Xerxes transported it to Persia: the attachment to learning, had the same Greeks were for a long time deprived passion for the works of celebrated of it, and many revolutions took place writers. He speaks of Paulus Emibefore it was restored to them by Se- lius, of Lucullus, of Sylla, as having leucus Nicanor. The desire of pof- most conspicuously distinguished thenfelling the works of Homer became selves, not only by their military trogeneral, and towards the both olym- phies, but by the numerous collections piad, or 533 years before Christ, the of books which they brought to Rome, learned began to unite these into one and which formed the principal librawork, for before that time they had ries. He ascribes to Afinius Pollio been dispersed in various detached the honour of having first opened his poems. The transcribers among the library for the use of the public, tho' Greeks were well employed after the Julius Cæsar had before conceived the accession of Ptolomy Philadelphus to design : he mentions the two libraries the throne of Alexandria, and that of that were established at Rome by Au. Eumenes to the throne of Pergamus. gustus, that near the temple of Apollo, These two kings were both ambitious and that contiguous to the theatre of of forming valt libraries ; and they Mercellus, called Octavia, from the Carried the spirit of emulation fo far, Emperor's fifter: lastly, he speaks of that Ptolomy prohibited the exporta- the shops in Rome for the sale of tion of the Papyrus from his domni- books from the times of the first Em. Dions. Eumenes was thea obliged to perors, and of the freed men, who VOL. VII. No 38.

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were specially employed in transcribing of Europe are indebted for the restos the works of the clailic authors. He re- ration of letters and of arts. Many lates, at the same time, many particu- Greeks fled thither, carrying with lar circumstances which he finds pre- them, and introducing the knowledge served in the ancient writers, tending of their arts among the Italians, as a to confirm the opinion of the great a- reward for the protection they receividity with which the ancients collec- ved. At this time appeared Petrarch ted books, the trade carried on in and Bocaccio; manuscripts were anxithem, and the accuracy with which ously fought for amongit the rubbish they collated the copies : he mentions of libraries, and some were found, the names of several ancient booksel. This taste continued till the time of lers, points out the places in Rome Laurence de Medicis, and of Nichowhere they kept their shops, and a las V. who made many valuable acnumber of other curious particulars quisitions, and whose example was fol. with regard to this matter.

lowed by several individuals of that Afterwards, during the revolutions time, such as Marsilius Ficinus, Ane of the empire, the author marks the gelo Politianus, Francis Filelfus, Gio changes brought about at each period Tortelli, Laurentius Valla, Eneas Sylwith regard to letters and the com vius, Piccolomini, the Cardinal Bellamerce of books: he conducts the read- rione, and many others. er through the melancholy interval of With these learned investigations, the dark ages, and thews him that, in the author at last brings us down to in the midst of the universal corrup- the æra of the invention of Printing, tion, learning continued to be culti- an art that was the beginning of 2 vated, especially at the court of the new fort of commerce, and of a new Popes, and among the Monks ; and order of things, the common effect of that it is to these last that we owe the great discoveries : after which, he con preservation of the ancient writings, liders the history of the trade in books and of the most precious monuments with regard to the prices that were of ancient genius. Ignorance, how- anciently paid for them. On this suber ever, and depravity of taste, did not jeet he details many ingenious ideas, extend to the Greeks : they always which we are unable to follow in an had libraries, and a traffic in books extract. He concludes, by suggesting Hourished among them till the fero- to modern booksellers an attention to cious Muffulmans made themselves certain practices adopted by the anmasters of Conftantinople. To the cients, which made the profeffion ia ruin of the capital, the western parts those days useful and respectable.

Anecdotes of Mr Howard, in a Letter from Dr Leitfom,
N Mr Howard's return from seemed highly gratified by the fpirit of

Turkey, he refused any public the nation, and truly sensible of the honours, which put a stop to the in- grateful sense of his labours. I was crease of the fund under his name. closeted with him three hours foon Qut of fifteen hundred pounds sub- after his return; and though I have scribed, about five hundred pounds introduced to him persons of falhion, have been reclaimed. Of the appro- title, and respect, he remains impriation of the residue we cannot yet moveably fixed against all intreaties conclude. Though Mr Howard ab- to admit of public honour. He has folately refused the public honour, he not published any account of his Asiatic

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tour, as it must be illustrated with at parture, as he would inevitably be dislealt thirteen plates; and he remained covered if he remained at Lyons all here scarcely a month before he fet off night. He therefore departed hastily, for Ireland, in which kingdom he is and got to Nice. now employed in visiting the prisons ; When he arrived at Paris, it was but his papers, he informed me, were almost eleven o'clock at night. He , ready for the press. Happily he had had concluded to depart at three in duplicates of his remarks, and these the morning by the Brussels stage, and were kept in different trunks. With to the inn he sent his baggage, and, these he travelled safely through differ. hoping to get an hour or two's Neep, ent regions, till he arrived in Bithopf- he went to bed. He had scarcely fal. gate-street, London; and just as he got len asleep, before his room-door was out of the stage to take a hackney- forced open, and in stalked a formalcoach, into which he was removing his dressed man, preceded by a servant trunks, one was stolen, and haş never bearing two lighted candles, and sosince been recovered : besides a dupli- lemnly interrogated him in French to cate of his travels, it contained twenty- this purpose :-" Are you John Howfive guineas and a gold watch. A ard ?”“I am,” replied the Eng. friend of mine, who visited Newgate lishman.

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travel with such the next day, was told by a convict a person !”—“ I do not know any (such intelligence and communications thing of him,” said Mr Howard. The have they) that the papers were all question was again repeated; and the burnt. Of the Lazaretto at Marseilles same reply, but with some warmth, he had no duplicates, and luckily the was given to it. The personage left drawings were in the preserved trunk. the candles on a table in the room, Mr Howard told me, he valued them and departed. Immediately Mr Howfơ highly, that, had they been stolen, ard 'dressed himself, and stole to the he would have returned to Marseilles to Lyons hotel: he heard of two mefacquire new ones. To enter this place sengers in pursuit of him ; but he ar. is forbidden by strangers ; and it was rived at Brussels undiscovered. by a singular stratagem that he got in “ At Vienna he proposed to remain nine days successively, without being two days; but the Emperor Joseph, discovered. Having heard at Mar- hearing of his arrival, desired to see seilles, that an English Protestant was him: but as he had found his prisons confined in a prison at Lyons, into upon a bad plan, and badly conducted which the intrusion of a stranger was by persons in high trust, Mr Howard always punished with confinement to evaded an interview at first; but Jothe gallies for life, the difficulty of ac- seph fending him a message, that he cess only stimulated the enthusiasm should chuse his own hour for an inof Mr Howard. He learned, as well terview, the Englishman consented to as he could, the different turnings and the Emperor's request. The moment windings that led to the prisoner he Mr Howard's name was announced, more particulatly wished to visit. How- he quitted his secretaries, and retired ard is a little man, of extenuated with him into a little room, in which features, who might pass for a French- there was neither picture nor lookingman. He dressed himself like one, glass. Here Joseph received a man with his hat under his arm, and passed who never bent his knee to, nor kissed hastily by twenty-four officers, and en- the hand of any monarch; here he tered the very apartment he wished to heard truths that astonished him; and see, without suspicion. He disclosed often did he seize hold of Mr Howthe secret to an English minister at ard's hand with inexpressible satisLyons, who advised his immediate de- faction and approbation. “ You have

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prisoners,”

prisoners," said Mr Howard, “ who make a compensation for the violated have been confined in dungeons with rights of humanity.” To the honour out seeing day-light for twenty months, of this great Prince, let it be rememwho have not yet had a trial; and, bered, that alterations were made in fhould they be found innocent, your the prisons before Mr Howard's deMujefty has it not in your power to parture.

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Account of the Manners and Customs of the Moors.-[Concluded from our luft.]

N the cities, the Moorish women there are tribes who confider it as a

stay much at home, and when they duty of hospitality to offer their wogo abroad, which is but once in the men to a traveller ; perhaps fome woweek, they are always veiled : the old men devote themselves to this practice women cover themselves up with great as to an act of benevolence; for it is care ; but others, who have an interest impossible to mark all the shades that in beeing seen, are more indulgent, vary human opinions, or to trace the particularly to strangers, for they anxi- wanderings in which the human ima. ously conceal themselves from the gination is apt to indulge. Moors. Husbands do not know their The women who inhabit the towns wives on the streets, and it is even un- are here, as every where else, more civil in them to eye any woman as she solicitous about their dress than thofe paffes ; so different are the customs of that live in the country: but as they nations!

feldom go abroad oftener than one day There are some fine women among in the week, they are but rarely seen the Moors, especially in the interior in their best apparel. As they do not part of the empire : those towards the receive vifits from men, they are, when North are deficient in gracefulness and occupied in household affairs dressed beauty; but for this no physical cause in the lighteft difhabille, often wearcan be afligned. As the women of ing nothing befides a shirt, and a coarser warm climates come foon to maturity, one over it bound with a girdle ; their they likewise soon fade. It is proba- hair is disposed in treffes ; they have a bly on this account that polygany has bonnet wi their head, and sometimes been fo generally adopted in these nothing at all. When they are in countries.

dress, they have a wide shirt of fine The women in general are not very linen, embroidered at the breast with reserved ; the climate, which has a gold; a caftan of rich stuff, of cloch great effect on the temperament, ren- or velvet, also embroidered ; their ders them peculiarly disposed to gallan- head is surrounded with one or two try: but this vice produces not among folds of gauze, striped with gold or them fuch cruel effects as it does a Glk, which they tiebehind, and the ends, mong other people, which is owing to being interlaced with the treffes of the the heatof the climate and their sobriety hair, fall down to the girdle. Some and moderation in other respects. In have a ribbon over this about two inthe Southern parts, the women are in ches broad, which is embroidered with general handsome : they are faid to be gold or pearls, and encompasses the so circumspect, and so watchful, that head like a crown. They wear on even their relations, of the other sex, their caftan a belt of crimson velvet do not enter their houses or tents: embroidered, or of the knit-fuff manubut such are the various customs of factured at Fez, held fast by a gold or mankind, that in these very provinces filter buckle. The women wear yel

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low flippers, a fort of stockings made face, so that they can see without be of very fine linen somewhat full, tied ing seen. When they travel, they below the knee and at the ankles : wear straw hats to defend them from thefe ftockings are not so much in- the fun : in fome provinces they put tended to adorn the leg, as to enlarge on these bats when they make visits ; il, for plumpness is one of the charac- but this is peculiar to those tribes that teristics of beauty among the Moors. have come from the South and have They take infinite pains to become preserved their customs ; for the Moors fat, and when they are marriageable never forsake those usages which they they are fed with a food particularly have once adopted, and that multipliprepared, a certain quantity of which city of fathions which, in Europe, fucis given them daily : in short, the ceed one another with so much rapiMoors take as much pains to increase dity,'is utterly unknown to them. the felh of their young womed as we Betwecn the Moors and the Jews, do to fatten poultry. The reason of who compofe the bulk of inhabitants this perhaps may be, that from the in the empire of Morocco, there is Dature of the climate, and the quality an intermediate class of men, who, of their food, the inhabitants are like amphibious animals, seem to have conftitutionally of a dry temperament. a connection with both elements ; I What is called in Europe a delicate mean the renegadoes, those who have shape, or well-turned leg, would be renounced their own religion for Ma. imperfections in this part of Africa. homecanism. In that class of Yubjects,

The Moors give their women trink- a great number of them have been oets of guld, silver, or pearls ; few of riginally Jews ; they are held in little them are in poletion of precious eltimation by the Moors, and would ftones. They wear rings and ear- be held in abhorrence by the Jews, if rings of gold or silver in the shape of a they durs freely express their avercrescent,

five inches in circumference, fion. These apostares intermarry only and in thickness like the point of the with one another: for, as an old, Chrif. little finger. In order to fashion the tian in Spain would think himself deear for this ornament, after it is pier- graded by giving his daughter to a ced, they introduce a roll of paper, new convert, so a Moor of the old which is every day increased, till at stock would never consent to take a last the perforation is large enough renegado for his son-in-law. The fa. to contain the kernel of a date of the milies of apostate Jews are very nufize of the ear-ring. They have brace. merous, and are called Tournadis; as lets of solid gold and silver, and rings they have never mingled with the of Glver, sometimes of great weight, Moors, their blood has not degeneraround the small of the leg.

ted; and one can distinguish, merely A few of the women improve their by the countenance, the descendants complexion with a little rouge, but of those who have anciently embraced never use any other paints they, how. Mahometanism. The Christian reneever, tinge their eye-brows and eye- gadoes are not numerous ; they consist lalhes, which gives their countenance almost entirely of fugitives from the more expression, and their eyes more Spanish governments, or of persons fire. They stain their feet, the palm who have exposed themselves to disof the hand, and the points of the grace, and who, hurried by miscone fingers, with the fafron-coloured juice duct, or driven by despair, have passed of the benna. When they come a- from a state of unhappiness to the most broad, or make visits, they wrap them- despicable and deplorable of all fituaselves up in a neat and fine cloak, with tions : there is not one of them that 2 hood which covers the head and does not repent of having turned Moor,

and

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