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The following historical account of the Castle of Lochmahen, of which a view was given in our Magazine for August last, having been lately communicated by an ingenious Gentleman, well acquainted with the antiquities of Scotland, we now lay the fame before our readers.

THIS Castle, the last erected near Lochmaben, (as there were two others much more ancipnt) was built by the Bruces after they became Lords of Annandale; the fust of them was Robert, second son to Robert son of Adelm. The first Robert, who came into England with William, the Conqueror of that kingdom, married Agnes, daughter of Fulk de Paynel, by whom he had Adam, first of the Bruces of Skelton in England, now extinct, and the abovementioned Robert, who by Euphemia de Annan got the Lordship of Annandale in the reign os King Edgar; and in the time of King David first, with ber consent gives a fishing at Torduff in Annandale, to the monks of Holmcultram, now Abhyholm, in Cumberland, some time aster 1150. Their son was Robert, Lord of Annandale, called the Younger, who confirmed the grant of the above fishing, and gave to the See of Glasgow the churches of Moffat, Kilpatrick, Drysdale, Hoddam, and Caftlemilk. He, by Isobel, natural daughter to King William the Lyon, had William Lord of Annandale, and Robert, afterwards Lord of

Annandale. This William gives another charter to the above monks of the fishing os Torduss, reserving to himself and heirs, sturgeon, grelpies, and sea-wreck. He also, about 1190, gives a charter to Adam, son os Robert Carlisle of Kinmont.

William's son was Robert, Lord of Annandale, called Robert of Hcrtclpolc, in the cartulary of Holmcultram; this Robert confirms a donation made by his father William, and grandfather Robert Bruce, Lords of Annandale, of the churches of Annan, Kilpatrick, LochmabeD, &c. in Scotland, to the canons regular of St Mary's of Gyfhurn. This Robert died without issue, and was succeeded by his uncle Robert, who married Isobel, second daughter to David Earl of Huntington ; their son was another Robert, who married Isobel, daughter to Gilbert Earl of Gloccster; this Robert died in 1295, leaving two sons, Robert and Bernard, and a daughter Christian, married to Patrick D unbar Earl of March.

The last-mentioned Robert married Martha Countess of Carrick, and in h«r right became Earl of Carrickithjry left a son, Robert Earl of Carrick.who In 1282 married Christian, widow of Thomas de Lacells, and daughter of William de Irby in Cumberland; he is said to have died in 1303. He liad a house on the Dailliebr.ie, nigh the Mote of Annan, in the ruins of which a stone was found, now to be seen in a summer-house there, with Robert de Bras, Count de Carrick, Seigneur de Annan, 1300, upon it. He left'Robert, afterwards King of cf Scotland; Edward, King of Ireland: Niel, Thomas, and Alexander s Ifobel, married fit ft to Thomas Randolf, secondly to the Earl of Athole, thirdly to Alexander Bruce: Mary, married first to Sir Neil Campbell of Lochow, secondly to Sir Alexander Eraser, Lord High Chamberlain of Scotland. Christian, married first Gratney, Earl of Mar, secondly Sir Christopher Seton, thirdly Sir Andrew Murray of Bothwell: Matilda, married to the Earl of Ross: Margaret, married to Sir William Carlile of Torthorwald and Crunington: Elizabeth, married Sir William Dilhington of Ardross: And married

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Historical Account ^Lochmaben Crrflkt

David, Lord Brichen. King Robert's son was David' II. who died in the Castle of Edinburgh, in 1371: and the Castle of Lochmaben and Lordship of Annandale, came to Thomas Randolf Earl of Murray, and went with his sister Agnes to the Dunbars, Earls of March; after their forfeiture it went to the Douglasses, who also lost it by the same fate; and then hav. ing come to Alexander Duke os Albany, he, for rebelling against his bn> ther King James III. and plundering the fair of Lochmaben in 1484, was also forfeit. Since which time it has continued in the hands of the King, and become the great key of the west border; a garrison of 100 horse ^nd 200 foot being kept in it, who for their maintenance had the King's four towns of Hitae, Hecks, Greenbill, and Smallholm: the fishings.of

▼er of Annan,a large deer park and rab». bit-warren, a fat cow, called a lardnef mart cow, from every parish in Annandale, amounting formerly to thirty, but since the act of annexation in 1609^ now reduced to twenty; sixty needing goese, and the forest of Woodcock-air for summer forage for their horses, 300I. per ann. to the keeper of the Castle, with the st/pend, after paying the minister of Lochmaben, and all the escheats he could be certain' of before the Capt, of Annan.

The Stewartry or District of Annandale, of which Lochmaben Caltla was the chief fortalice, is a fertile vale, 24 miles long, and about 14 miles broad: from. its vicinity to England, and the continual incursions and predatory wars of the borderers, the great' est part of it was uncultivated and common; but since the beginning of the present century, or rather within the last thirty years, all these wastes and commons have been divided and brought into culture, and the country has assumed a new appearance; which may be ascribed not only to the division of the commons, but likewise to the improvement made in the roads, and particularly in the great western road from Edinburgh to London by Mossat, Gratney, and Carlisle, running through this vale, and carried on by some gentlemen of the country, as. ter they had obtained an act of parliament for levying a toll to defray tha expence os making and keeping it in repair.

The situation of the town os Annan, near the mouth of the river of that name, which here falls into the SolwayTiith, is favourable for carrying on foreign trade, but it has as yet derived few advantages in that way from its situation. A fabrick for carding and spinning of cotton has lately been erected, and the town begins to increase. In the church-yard of Ruthwell, a few miles west from Annan,

the celebrated Runick monument.

the lochs, four sistiing-boats on the ri- described by Gordoa in his Itineras

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ffam Septemrionale, and mentioned by Pennant. It is supposed to be the only monument of the kind in Britain, except that art Bridekirk in Cumberland; and a teamed and ingenious gentleman from Carlisle, well acquainted with the Runick characters, has lately copied the inscription with much care and accuracy, and if is to be hoped will give the interpretation.

Annan dale formed a part of the Roman province of Valentia; and Severius' wall ending here, it abounds with Roman stations and antiquities. The camps at Birrens in Middlebie, and on the hill of Burnswork, are (till en' tire, and their form is preserved; and die traces and remains of a military road are now risible in different parts

of the country. The ruins of the house' or castle os Auchincass, in the •neighbourhood of Moffat, once the sent of that potent Baron, Thomas Randolph, Earl of Murray, Lord of AiKwndale, and Regent t>f Scotland, i» the minority of David II. covers above an acre of ground, and even now conveys an idea of the plan and strength of the building. The ancient castle of Cotnlongan formerly belonging to> the Murrays, Earls of Asaandale, and now to Lord Stormont, is still in a tolerable ((ate of preservation: but ex* cept this castle and that of Hoddom, most of the other old fortalices and towers are now taken down, or in

To the Publisher.

8 I R*,

YOU will oblige me by inserting, in your valuable Miscellany, the following short account of an infant musician, Sophia Hoffman. This child, when only nine months old, discovered so violent an attachment to musical hands, that, if taken out of a room ■where any person was playing on an instrument, it was frequently impossible to appease her, but by bringing her back. The nearer she was- carried to tfie performer, the more delighted she appeared to be, and would often clap ber little hands together in accurate time. Her father, who is a very industrious and ingenious musician, applied himself to the cultivation of these favourable symptoms. He taught her by a very singular process the names of the notes, and their situation on the barpfichord; and so successful were bis instructions, in aid of her natural genius, that in less than 12 months, being then not more than a year and three quarters old, (he could, with tolerable correctness, play a march, alesIon, and two or three songs, besides » fc* bars of many other tunes which fc had accidentally heard. At the

Feb. 1. time I first saw her, which was in November last, she was two years and four months old, and had been under her father's tuition about a year and a half. She played a lesson of Stamitz, a gavot, the air ofMalbrouk, La Belle Catherine, a German march, and many other tunes, with surprising correctness ; and, consideringthe weakness and diminutive size of her fingers, it is really unaccountable' how she contrived to manage very distant intervals, and to scramble through difficult passages withont interrupting the time, or deranging the connection of the harmony. I observed, that if she struck a wrong note, she did not suffer it to» pass, but immediately corrected her* self. When she had played for abour ten minutes, she seemed inclined to> quit the instrument; but, on my desi* ting her to play Malbrouk again, she readily complied, and, to my astonishment, transposed the whole, without the least hesitation or defect, into another key than that in which she first played it. Her father told me, that he had often heard her do the same by many other tunes wheu she has been

* Addrcficd to the Editor of the. Cent. Mag.

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lest alone it the harpsichord. Of this I had a proof soon after; for, while I was conversing with Mr Hoffman at the other end of the room, she transposed " God save the King" from the key of G. into the key of E. 4. and then into the key of D. Her whole stock of tunes, I believe, confisted of about sixty or seventy, besides many which she could play by fragments.

It was with a good deal of trouble that (he could be prevailed on to sing; but, having once begun, she continued voluntarily, at intervals, to accompany "How Sweet in the Woodlands," ** Dans votre lit," and two or three other songs, with her voice. When she touches a note which is very much out of tune, she sometimes stops, and laughs; but, I have reason to think, her ear is not so infallibly sensible of such defects as Crotch's is reported to be: for if the dissonant note be struck by itself, or indeed if it did not occur in one os her own tunes, (he docs not seem to be aware of it, or to be affected by it. A gentleman, I remember, told me, that having put his singer one day on an organ which was out of tune, in a room where Crotch was sitting, the boy, then only three years old, turned away with looks of great uneasiness, and cried very vehemently when his brother attempted to bring him back to the instrument. He added, that his car was so exquisite as to enable him, when even an unskilful person pressed down nine or ten of the keys together, to name every note which composed the sound with great rapidity and accuracy. It would be injustice to neglected genius, were I to lose this opportunity of reminding the public, of what they seem to be ignorant of, that William Crotch is still living, and at Cambridge; and that this extraordinary boy, after maintaining a mother and brother for more than nine years, out of a life of twelve, by the exhibition of talents which nature has, it is hoped, endowed him with set nobler puposcs, is still left to

rely on precarious bounty for his support. If we consider bis origin, and his unsettled course of living, his power, must appear very wonderful. At seven years of age he became his own instructor in the mechanical part of music, and so well has h-: succeeded, that now, in his thirteenth year, he has almost finished an Oratorio, which is said to contain such marks of invention, and such sublime combinations of harmony, as promises one day to give us, what we want, an original English style. Independent, indeed, of his favourite an, he possesses, an active and vigorous mind, which, under proper cultivation, may hereafter di£ play a combination of talents rarely, if ever, found in a musician. The news-papers have lately been boasting of a laudable propensity, among the rich and noble of the present day, to musical patronage; will none of these step forward to rescue the name ©F Crotch from our already too copious catalogue of deserted genius i

But to resume the little heroine of my narrative—Sophia Hoffman is certainly more indebted to the persevering ingenuity of her fadier, than to any effort of her own natural talents, for those extraordinary powers which, she displays at so eai iy an age; at the fame time it ought to be observed, that, had nature afforded a less favourable soil, the feeds of instruction could scarcely yet have taken root, much left have produced such promising fruits from an infant mind. She appears to be perfectly well acquainted with musical notation, for, if you shew her any tune which she can play, she knows it at the first glance, and will stop, her father tells me, at a wrongly pointed note. These remarks are hastily made, after a first visit. I mean, when I go to London, to study her more accurately; and will take an opportunity of giving you mere particular information on a subject well wotthy not only os public attentiou, but of public patronage. . i'- A.

Lett*

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faster'from Lady Aigill to Col. Gordon, •written immediately on the arrival os her Son Capt. Asgill in London, •whose appearance first announced to his . Family his Release and Safety.

S I R,

IF distress like mine had left any expression but for grief, I should long since have addressed myself to you, for whom my sense of gratitude makes all acknowledgment poor indeed. Nor is this the first attempt; but you was too near the dear object of my anguish to enter into the heartpiercing subject. I earnestly prayed to Heaven that he might not add to his sufferings the knowledge of ours, fie had too much to feel upon his ovn account; and I could not have concealed from him the direful essects of his misfortunes on his family, to whom he is as dear as he is worthy to be so.

Unfit as I am at this time, by joy almost as unsupportable as the agony before, yet accept this weak effort from a heart as deeply affected by your humanity and exalted conduct, as heaven knows it has been torn with affection. Believe, Sir, that it will only cease to throb in the late moment of life with the most grateful, affectionate, and respectful sentiment to you. But a fortnight since, I was sinking under a wretchedness I could no looger struggle with; hope, resignation had almost forsaken me. I began to experience the greatest of all misfortunes, that of being no longer able to bear them. Judge, Sir, the transition—the day after, the blessed change takes place. My son is released—relieved—returned—arrived at ■y gate—in my arms. I fee him un

subdued in spirit—in health—urrreproached by himself—approved by his country—in the bosom of his family; and without any anxiety, but for the happiness of. his friend; and without regret, but for his having left him be- ■ hind. ■

Your humane feelings, that have dictated your conduct to him, injured and innocent as he was, surely must. participate every relief and joy that his safety roust occasion. Be that pleasure yours, Sir, as well as every other reward that virtue, like yours, and heaven can bestow. This prayer is offered up for you in this hour of transport, as it has been in the bitterness of my anguilh; my gratitude is sooth- . ed by the energy it has been offered with—it has ascended the throne of mercy, and I trust is accepted.

Unfit as I am, for nothing but sensibility so awakened as mine could enable me to write, exhausted by too long anxiety, my husband confined to i. bed of sickness and languor, yet I could not suffer another mail to go without this weak effort. Let it convey to you, Sir, the most unfeigned esteem and gratitude of my husband and children. You have the esteem and respect of all Europe, as an ho. nour to your country and human nature, and the most zealous friendship of, my very dear and woithy Colonel Cordon,

Your ever affectionate
and obliged Servant,
S. Asoill.

Os the true Nature and Use ^Experience.

IT is a very judicious faying of but at the fame time they are so, we Lord Bacon, and indeed most of find them very far from being useless, bis sayings are so, that " proverbs are even to the more judicious part of u the wisiiom of the common people j" mankind, as appears by the collections Vol. VII. No 38. L and

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