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- "Thefe 'enormities take place at Gu- tial loss to the kingdom. The unhappy. encavelica, Potosi, and the other con persons addicted to it, are those by Siderable mines, to a greater degree whom all the work of the mines muit than any other place. The cultombe performed, all the bufiness of parthere is to pay all the workmen, ex- turage, in a word, all the subordinate cept those called Mitagos, their week's employments of life. earnings every Sunday's afternoon at It is shocking to see the manner in four or five o'clock. At Guancave. which the Sunday is prophaned, in lica, these payments amount to about consequence of this propensity to the fum of ten thousand pefos : Of drunkenness. Instead of being a day this fum, four thousand pesos are coma devoted to peace and religious obmonly expended before the next morn- fervances, it is the day, in which all ing, in brandy and other spiritous li- the disorders that human paffions can quors ; of consequence, little work produce are seen in their utmost enoris done the fubfeqnent day. It is fel- mity. But though we cannot forbear dom, indeed, that they reserve any mo- to lament, it is not easy to devise a re, ney for the expences of the remaining medy for this abuse. The love of part of the week.

fpiritous liquors has become the ruling It is certainly desirable that some passion of all the Indian Nations. In measures could be taken to check the all treaties with them, rum or brandy progrefs of this destructive habit. The are the principal objects, without which decrease of population, which it must no negotiation can succeed. They inevitably produce,will soon be an elfen- call them the Milk of their friends.

M.

# Letter to the Authors of the Journal des Savans, coucerning M. Savary's

Letters on Egypt. By M. de S.
R MICHAELIS, equally dif- of M. Savary detive their importance

tinguished for extent of know- chiefly from the use which the author ledge, and the genuine spirit of criti- appears to have made of the description cism, began, several years ago, to pub- of Egypt by Abulfeda ; for he quotes lih in Germany, a Journal of Oriental that work frequently, and, in general, learning, under the title of Orientalische confirms the testimony of the Arabia, end exegetische Biblicthek; in which he traveller. This is a circumstance, gave an account of those works which however, which makes the work of were connected with the study of the M. Savary particularly interesting to Old and New Testament in their origi. M. Michaelis ; for it plainly appears, nal languages, and of those which serve that the edition of Aboulfeda's deto throw light on the history, the man- scription which M. Savary uses, is the Ders, the writings, the languages, and, fane which M. Michaelis published at in a word, on the whole learning of Gottingen in the year 1776, with a the East. The first volume of M. Sa- Latin version and notes : and altho", Nary's Letters on Egypt is announced for obvious reasons, M. Savary is fiin the last Volume of this work pub- lent on this article, yet he has unalished in the year 1786. The opinion wares, in one place, quoted the page in of this learned critic deserves to be which his authority is to be found ; generally known, as it is widely dif- this circumstance, therefore, joined to ferent from that of many writers both the comparison of the edition of M. at home and abroad.

Michaelis with the passages quoted by M. Michaelis observes, that the letters M. Sayary, fully demonitrate that be Vol. VII. No 37

II

confültesi vantage

consulted this edition, and not the ma. It is equally disagreeable to the reader nuscripts, which he endeavours to of less learning, who, in the relation make his readers believe he did. of voyages and travels, searches after

M. Savary's first letter is dated from what the author hath seen with his Alexandria the 14th of July 1777: eyes, not the events of former times, M. Michaelis declares he cannot believe mixed withidledeclamation, and trivial that M. Savary, being in Egypt at that remarks. time, could possibly have procured a Our critic farther observes, that when Copy of his Aboulfeda, which was pub- M. Savary speaks of an event pofterior lished only in the year 1776. He to the Christian æra, he differs a whole likewise adds, that if M. Savary had century from other writers on the fame been in possession of this book at that subject. Thus, according to him, the time, he would have turned his atten- city of Alexandria was taken by the tion chiefly towards the Delta, lince Saracens in the year 651, Rosetta was he would have discovered in that ex. built in 870; and the Turks

conquercellent work, that preceding travellers ed Egypt in the 15th century. M. had thrown least light on this part of Michaelis thinks the author ought to Egypt, and, of confequence, the nordl. have given some explanation of this ty of his observations would have ad- fingularity in a note, as the Germans ded greatly to his reputation, of which are accustomed to treat those with very at all times he seems to be fufficiently little respect who express themselves careful.

in this manner. From this observation M. Michae. M. Michaelis contents himself with lis concludes that he made no use of examining the use which this traveller Aboulfeda till his return to France, makes of the Arabian writers, and and that he collected the passages of especially of Aboulfeda. He is surthis author to compare them with his prized at the facility with which be own observations ; that he did the same acquired the Arabian language, in to with the Greek and Latin authors, much, that he was taken for a native whose writings seem to have directed by the natives themselves. At the the steps of this traveller, and to have same time, the manner in which he exthrown light on his researches. He presses his quotations in French cha. agrees with M. Savary that it is of racters is altogether unlike the vulgar great advantage to a traveller, to have pronunciation of Arabic, and seems an accurare and compleat knowledge rather to have been acquired by a gramof history, and geography: but he is matical attention to the first princiof opinion, that these two lights ought ples of the language. At any rate, to go before him to dire&t him in his layshe, this method of giving the Ara. inquiries; and that when he returns, bic in French character ferves no ufe. he ought by no means to hold them ful purpose ; for in order to understand up between himself and his reader, in his quotations, I have been obliged to such a manner that, dazzled by their have recourse to the original, It gives fplendor, no person can see the truth the whole book an air of pedantry : of the facts which he relates. M. and is like the artifice of a quack, Michaelis thinks that M. Savary has who would cure his patients by the 'not been at fufficient pains to avoid learned and insignificant terms of his this error. The first letter, says he, profeffion. is crouded with ancient history and But in what manner, continues he, geography. This is a cumbersome has M. Savary made use of Aboulfeweight to the learned, who perhaps da ? It is evidently my translation and know a great deal more or at least my notes which he hath used, without more exactly, than the author himself. informing the reader that he took ad

ton.

vantage either of the one or the other. ther circumstance of a singular kind. In this respect he is not much to In translating the description of Fortat blame ; for books published in Geo- from Aboulfeda, M. Michaelis left a metry are so little known in France, passage untranslated, and informed his that he might with great safety borrow readers, that he was not able sufficientfrom ac Aboulfeda printed at Gottin. ly to comprehend it. M. Savary hath gen, and be in little danger of detec- copied the fame description, hath lett

out the fame paffage, but hath artfully The famous pillar at Alexandria, omitted to inform his readers, that it which is generally known by the name was above his comprehenfion, by giof Pompey's pillar, is called, by Aboul. ving no hint that there was such a pale feda, Åmoud alfaivari; which words M. fage in the original. Michaelis tran Nated the Pillar of Seve- M. Michaelis is also of opinion that tus. In his notes he supported this he hath taken the fame liberty with the conjecture by several proofs ; and shew- works of other travellers ; which ought ed chiefly, by a passage in Spartien, that to lessen his credit, and make him be Alexander Severus had granted many considered more as a compiler than an privileges to the city of Alexandria'; eye-witness of the facts. He even bewhich made it probable, as he thought, lieves that he did not examine several that the city had erected this pillar to of these productions till his return, the memory of that Emperor. The which ought farther to diminish the conjecture, however, has been dispu- authority of his relation. ted by many learned men ; and, at this M. Michaelis quotes several obsermoment, it is problematical with M. vations of this author, which would Michaelis himself. He is a good deal appear to him worthy of attention, surprised therefore to find, that M. Sa- were not their force 'much weaken. vary has expressed the same conjec-ed by the foregoing remarks. He ture with more boldness than he had also exposes several errors, which we ventured to do, and that he has fup- fhall pass over in silence. ported it by the same passage from He afterwards proceeds to an exSpartien. This conformity would ap- planation of a passage in Aboulfeda, pear to him extremely fingular, if he the whole merit of which belongs to had any reason to believe that M. Sa- M. Savary. I mention it the more vary had never seen his work, Men willingly, says he, because there is noof abilities and learning, and even tra- thing in the translation of this passage vellers, says the latter, have made ma- which I wish to claim, and because I ny ineffeétual efforts to discover to have an opportunity of pointing out whose memory this monument was e. M. Savary's manner when he thinks seated. The wisest have been of opi- for himself. Aboulfeda relates, that nion, that it could not be in honour of in the place where Fortat was built, in Pompey, since Strabo and Diodorus the feventh century, there formerly Siculus are filent on this subject. It stood an ancient castle, named Hafralappears to me, that Aboulfeda would schama,

I used the word as a proper have extricated them from this diffi- name, says M. Michaelis ; and I obserculty. He calls it expressly the pillar ved in a note, that I could with no of Suverus ; and history informs us, propriety seek for its signification in that this Emperor, &c. Here follows the Arabian language, as M. Reiske a pretty long extra& from M. Micha- had done, because it was given to this eļis's translation. M. Savary seems castle before the Arabians had entered not only to have been ignorant of the Egypt., M. Savary must have read objections made to this part of the tran. this reflection, but he either has not Dation and the notes, but there is ano. been convinced that the name, on this

H 2

account, account, must be derived from the Arabian citadel, which he himself. hrag Greek or Coptic languages, or he was discovered to be a temple of fire, built not able to relift his inclination for e. 2300 years ago by Cambyses. M. MiItablishing facts on mere etymology. chaclis concludes this part of his obHe explains the word Schama by the servacions, by asking, Whether a book Arabian language, and translates this that contains such miltakes deserves to proper name the Castle of Lights. It be road or criticised? was there, says he, that Cambyses, He proceeds to expose another erwhen he conquered Egypt, Built Ba- ror of the author of the Letters on E. bylon, the situation of which has been gypt, to shew the confidence which the subject of so much controverfy a ought to be placed in him, when he mong geographers. This then, Sir, quotes Arabian writers, or pretends to (thefe are his own words) is the for- give something new to the learned tress Babylon, which has been an ob- world. Elmacin, says M. Michaelis, ject of inquiry, and of error, to a great has the honour very frequently to be number of learned men. The Perfi- quoted by M. Savary, but it is because ans, worshippers of the Sun, kept a the Arabian is acconpanied with a Laperpetual fire in this place, and there- tin translation. He endeavours, from fore the Arabians named this fortress the testimony of this author, to prove the Castle of Lights. M. Michaelis that Rosetta was built in the eighth does not deny that Babylon stood here, century. Sicard, Pocock, Niebuhr, but to admit this application of the and other writers, fays he, have not word Schama, it is necessary, first, to been able to inform us when this city fuppofe, that it fignified, at that time, was begun to be built; although Elwax tapers ; and again, that these were macin, (p. 153.) hath expressly said, used by the Perfians in preserving this that it was built under the direction of perpetual fire : both of which fuppofi- the Caliph Mutawakkil, from the time tions are improbable

and extravagant. of the patriarch Coimas, to the year Cambyfes entered Egypt 523 years 870. M. Michaelis obferves, on the before the Christian aera ; and the A. contrary, that Elmacin informs usa Tabians, according to M. Savary, pene. that at this time Rosetta, and many otrated into the same country 640 years ther towns, were surrounded with walls, after it. Thus the temple built by but Icaves us altogether in the dark Cambyfes continued 1160 years, al. whether it was built then, or many athough no ancient writer, not even ges before. It is difficult indeed to Strabo, takes the least notice of it; conceive how Mutawakkil, who died and thus there existed, at that period, in the year 861, could build or fortify a temple of the worshippers of fire, a city in the year 870. M. Savary called, on that account, the Temple of was not able to folre this difficulty, Lights, which had fubfifted under the because he could not calculate the Grecian Kings, and continued to fub- years of the hegira, and was unaclift under the Christian. M. Savary, quainted with the books which would it is true, mentions a passage of Stra- have furnished him with the calculacion. bo; but this author speaks not of a The only method he takes is to add temple, but of a fortress, called Baby- the years of the hegira ta 622 without lon. He does not fay that it was built reducing the lunar into solar years. by the Persians and Cambyses, but by There, says the German critic, in fome fugitive Babylonians, to whom finishing his remarks, there is the man the Kings of Egypt had granted an who has been so much extolled in our asylum. M. Savary does not content news-papers, which indeed are but en himfelf with this discovery. He blames Choes to those of France, and whose M. Niebahr for miltaking this for an project of a journey into Alia has been

represented representcd as full of great hopes, and ing the Latin version of Erpinius, I worthy of the attention of the learned. found the words Olitores vendentis olus

Before I conclude, I thall mention one viride, which have the fame significaof M. Savary's errors which has escaped tion with the Arabic. From this cirM. Michaelis, The French traveller, cumstance I discovered, first, that M. withing to give an idea of the inhabi- Savary had not consulted the Arabian tants in Alexandria, when the Arabic text; and it is difficult to assign a reaans entered Egypt, makes Elmacin fay, fon for his por doing so. Secondly, that there were 12,000 sellers of freih that he had not even taken the trouble oil in that city. The fingularity of of looking into a Latin dictionary. this expresfion made me bave recourse He would there have found, that the to Elmacin, and I found, that in this word clitor does not signify an oil-merplace he deither speaks of fresh oil, chant; and that oil is called, in Latin, nor of those who told ii, but of those oleum, and not clus. who fold pot-herbs and roots, the word Several other instances might be bakkal having this fignification. I was given of similar mistakes in his work, naturally led to inquire into the reason but I shall content myself with those of this fingular mistake, and in consult- already noticed.

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The fort and fimple Annals of the Poor.

GRAY. A Tale. From the Olla Podrida PEING on a tour to the North, I was temples, whilft the lines of misfortune at the entrance of a {mall hamlet, by ,nance. Time had softened, but could breaking the fore-wheel of my phạton. not efface them.--On seeing my broken This accident rendering it impracticable cquipage, he addressed me; and when he for mne to proceed to the next town, from began to speak, his countenance was ilwhich I was now sixteen miles diftant, lumined by a smile. I presume, Sir, I directed my steps to a small cottage, at * faid he, that the accident you have just the door of which, in a woodbine arbor, expericnced, will render it impossible fat a man of about sixty, who was fola- . for you to proceed. Should that be the cing himfelf with a pipe. In the front case, you will be much diftreffed for of his house was affixed a small board, lodgings, the place affording no accomwhich I conceived to contain an intima- ' modations for travellers, as my parish. tion, that travellers might there be ac- 'ioners are neither willing nor able to commodated. Addresling myself there. Support an alchouse; and as we have fore to the old man, I requested his af- few travellers, we have little need of fiftance, which he readily granted; but

one; but you will accept the best ac. on my mentioning an intention of re- 'commodation my cottage affords, it is maining at his houfe all night, he regret. much at your service.' _After exprefted that it was not in his power to re- sing the fente I entertained of his good. ceive me, and the more fo, as there was nels, I joyfully accepted fo desirable an no inn in the village.-It was not till now offer. As we entered the hamlet, the that I discovered my error concerning the fun was gilding with his departing beams board over the door, which contained a the village fpire, whilft a gentle breeze 'notification, that there was taught that refreshed the weary hinds, who, seated useful art, of which, if we credit Mrs beneath the venerable oaks that overBaddeley's Memoirs, a certain noble Lord Madowed their cottages, were repofing was fo grossly ignorant. In short, my themselves after the labours of the day, friend proved to be the schoolmaster, and and listening attentively to the tale of an probably the secretary to the hamlet. old soldier, who, like myself, had wanderAffairs were in this situation when the ed thus far, and was now diftreffed for a Vicar made his appearance. He was one lodging. He had been in several actions,

of the most venerable figures I had ever in one of which he had lost a leg: and * Been; his time-Silvered locks Haded his was now, like many other brave fellows,

Doorn'd

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