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HE varieties in the human spe. any particular region. It is of no
cies, with respect to colour, consequence whether their climate inmay be reduced to three ; black, white, clines to the excess of cold or heat, and a medium between these approach- the fame dulky hue prevails through ing to the colour of copper. This last them all. is the complexion of the indigenous In fact, there are fewer varieties ainhabitants of both parts of America. mong the Indians of America, than The appeHation they give themselves is among any other race of men.
A. that of Red Men: an appellation which mong the Negroes, for instance, we seems to be suggested by no degree of find some with fiat noses, thick and vanity, but by the simple desire of dif- prominent lips, and woolly hair. We tinguishing themselves from thofe tribes find others not less black, whose feaof mankind whose colour is different. tures are entirely different, and their Attempts have been made to investi- hair lank and smooth. We find yet gate the causes of the varieties in the others of a copper conplexion, and human species : these causes have even not a few of a fhade ftill more apbeen confidently aligned; but all the proaching to white, like that of the theories on this subject hitherto are fri- mulattos. volous and unfatisfactory. Though Among the American Indians, on the influence of climate could account the contrary, there is almost no diffor the differences in colour, (which ference in point of colour. There is is by no means admitted) it would also a general conformation of features still be altogether infufficient to exa · and person, which, more or less, chaplain the diversities of features and racterizeth them all. Their chief difgeneral conformation ; circumstances tinctions in these respects are a small not less distinctive than the different forehead, partly covered with hair to colours of the skin.
the eyebrows, little eyes, the nose thin, The Indians are paturally of a co- pointed, and bent towards the upper Jour bordering upon red. Their fre- lip; a broad face, large ears, black, quent exposure to the sun and wind thick, and lank hair ; the legs well changes it to their ordinary dulky hue. formed, the feet small, the body thick The temperature of the air appears to and muscular ; little or no beard on have ligle or no influence in this re- the face, and that little never extendfpect. There is no perceptible differ. ing beyond a small part of the chin ence in conplexion between the inha. and upper lip. It may easily be fupbitants of the high, and those of the posed that this general description canlow parts of Peru ; yet the climates' not apply, in all its parts, to every indiare of an extreme difference. Nay, vidual ; but all of them partake so the Indians who live' as far as forty much of it, that they may be easily dif degrees and upwards South or North tinguished even from the mulattos, of the equator, are not to be distin. who come nearest to them in point of guished, in point of colour, from those colour. immediately under it. In general, the Whoever has seen an Indian of any whole original inhabitants of the A- one tribe, may be considered as having merican continent resemble one ano- seen them all so far as regards comther so much, that it is next to im- plexion, features, and shape. But the posible to discriminate the natives of lame observation will not apply with
regard From Monoires Philofopbiques, Historiques Physiques concernant la decouverte de l'Ameriquc. Par Don Ulloa. - Just publáibed.
regard to stature, which varies confi- it still remains the custom of all those derably in different regions. The in- tribes who have preserved their liberhabitants of the higher parts of Peru ty. The Northern nations of Ameriare of a middle size; those of the low- ca, besides the red colour which is er parts, a little beyond it. But the predominant, employ also black, white, tribes inhabiting the countries from blue, and green, in painting their boa the fix-and-thirtieth degree fouthward, dies. toward the capes of Florida, those al- The adjustment of these colours is . fo about the thinicth degree north- a matter of as great consideration with ward, along the banks of the Milli- the Indians of Louisiana and the vast Lippi, bordering on Canada and New regions extending to the North, as the Spaini, are distinguihed by large sta- ornaments of dress among the most poture and elegance of person. This is lished nations. The buliness itself they a variety which can be ascribed to no call Mattucher, and they do not fail to difference of climate, seeing the tem- apply all their talents and allidity to perature varies as much, even in the accomplish it in the most finished man. different districts of Peru, as it does ner. It is here that their patience. in those countries which are nearest shines. It is, indeed, the only thing 10, or moit distant from the equator. that never fails to excite them to ac
The resemblance among all the A- tive exertion. The operation requires merican tribes is not less remarkable five or six hours, that is a whole mornin respect to their genius, character, ing, to be completed. No lady of the manners, and particular customs. The greatest fashion ever consulted her mismolt distant tribes are, in these re- ror with more anxiety, than the Indispects, as similar as though they form- ans do while painting their bodies. ed but one nation.
The colours are applied with the utAll the Indian nations have a pe- most accuracy and address. Upon the culiar pleasure in painting their bodies eye-lids, precisely at the root of the of a red colour, with a certain species eye-lashes, they draw two lines as fine of earth. The mine of Guancavelica as the smalleit thread ; the fanse upon was formerly of no other use than to sup- the lips, the openings of the nostriis, ply them with this material for dyeing the eye-brows, and the ears ; of which their bodies ; and the cinnabar extrac- lalt they even follow all the inflexions ted from it was applied entirely to this and finuolities. As to the rest of the purpose. The tribes in Louisiana and face, they distribute various figures, in Canada have the fame paffion; hence all which the red predominates, and minium is the commodity moft in de- the other colours are assorted fo as to mand there.
throw it out to the best advantage. I may seem singular that these na-. The neck also receives its proper ore tions, whose natural colour is red, naments; a thick coat of vermilion hould affect the same colour as an ar- commonly distinguishes the checks. tificial ornament. But it may be ob- The full time that has already been served, that they do nothing in this mentioned, is requisite for accomplishrespect but what corresponds to the ing all this with the nicety which practice of Europeans, who also study they affect. As their first attempts to heighten and display to advantage do not always fucceed to their with, the natural red and white of their they efface them and begin 2-new complexions. The Indians of Peru upon a better plan. No coquette is have now indeed abandoned the cuf- more fastidious in her choice of ortom of painting their bodies : but it nament, none more vain when the imwas common among them before they portant adjustment is finished. Their were conquered by the Spaniards; and delight and self-Satisfaction are then
fo great, that the mirror is hardly ever the brow, and cutting it round front laid down. An Indian Maftached to the ears to above the eye ; so that the bis mind is the vainest of a!l the hu- forehead and eye-brows are entirely man species. The other parts of the covered. The fame custom takes body are left in their natural state, place in the Northern countries. and, excepting what is called a Cache. The female inhabitants of both recul, they go entirely naked.
gions tie the rest of their hair behind, Such of them as have made them- so exactly on the same fashion, that it felves eminent for bravery, or other might be supposed the effect of mutual qualifications, are distinguished by fi- imitation. This however being imgures painted on their bodies. They posible, from the vast distance that introduce the colours by making punc- separates them, it confirms the suppotures on their skin, and the extent of fition of the whole of America being surface which this ornament covers is originally planted with one race of proportioned to the exploits they have people. performed. Some paint only their This custom does not take place arms, others both their arms and legs; among the males. Those of the highothers again their thighs, while those er parts of Peru wear long and flowwho have attained the summit of war- ing hair, which they reckon a great kke renown have their bodies painted ornament. In the lower parts of the from the waist upwards. This is the same country they cut it short, on acheraldry of the Indians, the devices count of the heat of the climate, a of which are probably more exactly circumstance in which they imitate adjusted to the merits of the persons the Spanierds. The inhabitants of who bear them, than those of more Louisiana pluck out their hair by the civilized countries.
root, from the crown of the head for. Besides these ornaments, the warriors wards, in order to obtain a large forealso carry plumes of feathers on their head, otherwise denied them by nad heads, their arms, and ancles. These ture. The rest of their hair they cut likewise are tokens of valour, and none as short as possible, to prevent their but such as have been thus distinguish- enemies from seizing them by it is ed may wear them.
battle, and also to prevent them froni The propensity to indolence is e- easily getting their scalp, should they qual among all the tribes of Indians, fall into their hands as prisoners. An civilized or favage. The only em- enemy's scalp is the greatest mark ployment of those who have preserved of triumph that an Indian can boast of. their independence is hunting and The operation itself is horrible. When filhing. In some districts the women it is performed on Europeans, who exercise a little agriculture, in raising commonly wear long hair, they make Indian corn and pompions, of which an incision through the skin all round they form a species of aliment, by brui- the head, and then introducing their fing them together : they also prepare fingers between the scalp and the scull, the ordinary beverage in use among tear off the hair and it together. them, taking care, at the fame time, of Notwithstanding the cruelty of this othe children, of whom the fathers take peration there have been instances of no charge.
persons who survived it. When the priThe female Indians of all the con- soner has no hair it is still more horriquered regions of South America prac- ble, the operator having no proper hold. tise what is called the urcu (a word In general, the Indians of Peru, which among them fignifies elevation.) whether civilized or savage, and those It consists in throwing forward the of Louisiana, are much addicted to hair from the crown of the head upon ctucky. The only difference aniong
the former is, that such of them as of twenty-seven minutes. Yet all this live under the restraint of law are time the patient gave no wkens of thereby prevented from following this the extreme pain commonly attending Daturai inclination as far as it would this operation : he complained only lead them; at the same time, when- as a perfon does who fecis some slight ever that restraint is withdrawn, their unealincss. At last the stone was exRatural barbarity immediately apo tracted. Two days after, he exprefpears.
fed a desire for food, and on the eight In their exhibitions of bull-fights day from the operation he quitted his for instance, their great pleasure is to bed, free from pain, although the ruh at once, to the number of fix or wound was not yet thoroughly clofed. eight, against the animal ; each of The fame want of sensibility is obferthem armed with a long lance pointed ved in cases of fractares, wounds, and with iron, with which they transfix other accidents of a similar nature. In him all at the same time. No sooner all these cases their cure is easily effece is he brought to the ground by this ted, and they seem to suffer less present united affault, than they cut off the pain than any other race of mene muzzle, the tail, and pieces of the The sculls that have been taken up thighs, which they take a pleasure in in their ancient barying-grounds are devouring, even before the creature be of a greater thickness than that bone dead. Always prompt to engage in is commonly found, being from fix to any act of cruelty, the eagernels and seven lines from the outer to the in sivacity which they display on such per superficies. The same is remarks occafions shew how much they are de- ed as to the thickness of their skins. lighted with them. Hence it is na- . It is natural to infer from hence, tural to conclude, that if the restraints that their comparative insensibility to of law were withdrawn, they would pain is owing to a coarser and stronger exercise the fame cruelties towards organization, than that of other das men that they now do towards brute- tions. The case with which they enAnimals. What is most marvellous dure the severities of climate is anof the whole is, that they are deliber- other proof of this. The inhabitants ate in all this cruelty, which seems of the higher parts of Peru live amidst to be neither heightened by anger, nor perpetual frost and snow. Althougtr mitigated by compassion ; but to be a their clothing is very slight, they sup cool and uniform system, from which port this inclement temperature with they never deviare.
out the least inconvenience. Habit, The whole race of American In- it is to be confesled, may contribute dians is diftinguished by the want of a good deal to this, but much also is beard, and of hair on any part of their to be ascribed to the compact texture person, exceptiog the head. They are of their skin, which defends them also distinguished by thickness of fin from the imprellion of cold through and hardness of fibres, circumstances their pores. which probably contribate to that in- The northern Indians resemble thing fenfibility to bodily pain for which in this respect : the utmost rigours of they are remarkable. An instance of the winter feafon do not prevent them this insensibility occurred sin an Indian from following the chace almost nakwho was under the necessity of sub- ed. It is true, they wear a kind of mitting to be cut for the stone. This woollen cloak, or sometimes the kin operation, in ordinary cases, seldom of a wild bent, upon their shoulders ; lits above four or five minutes. Un- but besides that it covers only a fmall favourable circumstances in his case part of their body, it would appear prolonged it to the uacommon period ihat they, ul: it rather for ornament.
than warmth. In fact, they wear it country, especially in the rallies of indiscriminately, in the severitics of Ica, Pisca, and Nasca, has of late introWinter and in the sultriest heats of duced the use of brandy; the destrucSummer, when neither Europeans not tive influence of which is already ve Negroes can suffer any but the flight- ry visible. The fame propensity is re. eft cloathing. They even frequently marked in the favage nations to the throw aside this cloak when they go a North, as far as the Europeans have hunting, that it may not embarrass ever penetrated. These have been acthem in traversing their forests, where customed to that pernicious indulgence they say the thorns and undergrowth both by the Britith colonies in Newwould take hold of it; while, on the England, and by the French in Louicontrary, they slide smoothly over the fiana and Canada. But it is an indula surface of their naked bodies.
which has already greatly lessen... all times they go with their heads un- ed the population of those regions. covered, without suffering the least in- Their paflion, however, for this be convenience, either from the cold or witching poison is so great, that, to from those coups de soleil, which in procure it, they will attempt the molt Louisiana are so often fatal to the na- difficult enterprizes, and perpetrate the tives of other climates.
most horrible crimes. It has beca The Indians of South America dis- known more than once in Louisiana tinguish themselves by modern dresses, that an Indian, seemingly of the most in which they affect various tastes. mild and faithful temper, has bafely Those of the high country, and of the murdered his master, either on a jour vallies in Peru, dress partly in the ney or hunting party, merely to get Spanish fashion. Inltead of hats they poffefion of his dalk of brandy. He wear bonnets of coarse double cloth, has waited for this pun osetill deep gave the weight of which neither seems to him an opportunity to strike the perfidiincommode them when they go to ous blow, and the empty flask has been warmer climates, nor does the acci- found by the side of the dead body. dental want of them seem to be felt in It is very common in the higher situations where the most piercing cold parts of Peru to see upon the highreigns.
the bodies of Indians who have Their legs and feet are always bare, died of intoxication. Unable to pro if we except a sort of sandals made of ceed farther, they lie down in their the ikins of oxen. These emit a most drunkenness, the rigour of the atmofabominable smell as often as they are phere benumbs them, and there they wet upon their feet; and, to complete remain. But there warnings have no this disagreeable circumstance, they effect on others. At Quito, the wives never put them off, but wear them do not partake in this vice of their night and day as long as they can husbands, but only attend them for hold together : an evidence, among the sake of giving them their affit. many others, that might be produced ance. At Peru, on the contrary, the of their disregard to cleanlincss, and women drink to equal excess with the infenfibility to things altogether dif- men, and thereby prevent the possibigufting to other men.
lity of mutual aslistance. Thi toft The Indians are naturally addicted shocking circumstance of all is, that to intoxication, and prefer always the they will take their very infants from strongeit liquors they can procure. It the breast and pour these poisonous is not many years since those of Peru liquors down their throats, thus trainmade use of Chica as their common ing them to habits of drunkenness be
beverage. But the interest of certain fore they have wrived at the use of proprietors of vineyards in the low reason.