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animais must do have considerable ing of its prey. From the mode of progressive motion; and this reafoning progressive motion, they have not the we may apply to birds ; for those which connection between the head and body foar very high have the greatest pro- that is called the neck, as that would gressive motion.
have produced an inequality inconveAlthough inhabitants of the waters, nient to progressive motion. they belong to the fame class as qua- The body behind the fins or houldrupeds, breathing air, being furnish- ders diminithes gradually to the spreaded with lungs, and all the other parts ing of the tail; but the part beyond peculiar to the economy of that class, the opening of the anus is to be conand having warm blood : for we may fidered as tail, although to appearance make this
general remark, that in the it is a continuation of the body. The different classes of animals there is ne body itself is flattened laterally; and, ver any mixture of those parts which I believe, the back is much sharper are essential to life, nor in their dif- than the belly. ferent modes of sensation.
The projecting part, or tail, conThe form of the head or anterior tains the power that produces progres, part of this order of animals, is com- five motion, and moves the broad termonly a cone, or an inclined plane, mination, the motion of which is fimi. except in the Spermaceti Whale, in lar to that of an oar in sculling a boat ; which ít terminates in a blunt surface. it supersedes the necessity of pofterior This form of head increases the fur- extremities, and allows of the proper face of contact to the same volume of shape for swimming: that the form water which it removes, lessens the may be preserved as much as poflible, pressure, and is better calculated to we find that all the projecting parts, bear the resistance of the water thro' found in land animals of the same which the animal is to pass ; probat class, are either entirely wanting, as bly, on this account, the head is lar- the externaliear; are placed internal. ger than in quadrupeds, having more ly, as the testicles; or are spread at the proportion observed in fith, the long under the skin, as the udder. fwelling out laterally at the articula- The tail is flattened horizontally, tion of the lower jaw: this may pro- which is contrary to that of th, this bably be for the better catching their position of tail giving the direction to prey, as they have no motion of the the animal in the progreslive motion head on the body; and this distance of the body. I shall not pursue this Bet ween the articulations of the jaw circumstance further than to apply it is fomewhat fimilar to the Swallow, to those purposes in the animal écoGoat-fucker, Bat, &c. ; which may nomy for which this particular direcalso be accounted for, from their tion is intended. catching their food in the fame mar . The two lateral fins, which are aner as filh ; and this is rendered still nalagous to the anterior extremities in more probable, fince the form of the the quadruped, are commonly small, mouth varies according as they have varying however in size, and seem to or have not teeth. There is, how. serve as a kind of oars, ever, in the Whale tribe more variety To ascertain the use of the fin on in the form of the head than of any the back is probably not so easy, as other part, as in the Whalebonc, Bot- the large Whalebone and Spermacevi tle-nose, and Spermaceti Whales; Whales have it not; one ihould othough in this last it appears to owe therwise conceive it intended to preits thape, in some fort, to the valt quan- ferve the animal from turning. tity of spermaceti lodged there, and I believe, like most animals, they not to be formed merely for the catch are of a lighter colour on their belly
than than on their back : in fonie they are their living and moving only iri die entirely white on the belly ; and this water, as in the stomach, liver, parts white colour begins by a regular de- of generation of both fexes, a'id in the termined line, as in the Grampus, Pi. kidneys: in these laft, however, I be ked Whale, &c. : in others, the white lieve it riepends in some degree upoa on the belly is gradually faded into their situation, although it is extendthe dark colour of the back, as in the ed to other animals, the cause of which Porpoife. I have been informed, that I do not understand. some of them are pied upwards and All animals have, I believe, a smell downards, or have the divisions of co- peculiar to themselves : how far this is lour in a contrary direction.
connected with the other distinctions; : The element in which they live I do not know, our organs not being renders certain parts which are of im. able to distinguish with sufficient acportance in other animals useless in curacy. them, gives to some parts a different The smell of animals of this tribe action, and renders others of less ac- is the same with that of the Seal, but count.
not so strong ; a kind of four smell, The puneta lachrymalia with the which the Scal has while alive; thé appendages, as the fac and duc, are in oil has the same smell with that of the them unnecessary, and the fecretion salmon, herring, sprat, &c. from the lachrymal gland is not wa
The obfervations respecting the ter, but mucus, as it also is in the weight of the flesh of animals thai Turtle; and we may fuppofe only in swim, which I published in my obser: small quantity, the gland itself being vations on the economy of certain small.
parts of animals, are applicable to these The urinary bladder is smaller than also; for the flesh in this tribe is ra: in quadrupeds ; and indeed there is ther heavier than beef ; two portions not any apparent reason why whales of muscle of the same shape, one front fhould have one at all.
the proas muscle of the whale, the oThe tongue is flat, and but little ther of an ox, when weigfied in air, projecting, as they neither have voice, were both exactly 502 grains ; but, nor require much action of this part, weighed in water, the portion of the in applying the food between the teeth whale was four grains heavier than the for the purpose of mastication, or de- other. It is probable, therefore, that glutition, being nearly similar to fish the necessary equilibriuin between the in this respect, as well as in their pro- water and the animal is produced by gresive motion.
the oil, in addition to which the prinIn some particulars they differ as cipal action of the tail is such as tends much from one another as any two either to raise them, or keep them genera of quadrupeds I am acquaint- fuspended in the water, according to ed with.
the degree of force with which it aets. : The larynx, fize of trachea, and From the tail being horizontal, the #umber of ribs, differ exceedingly. motion of the animal, when impelled The cæcum is only found in some of by it, is up and down : two advanthem. The teeth in some are want, tages
are gained by this, it gives the ing. The blow-holes are two in num- necessary opportunity of breathing, and ber in many, in others only one. The elevates them in the water ; for whalebone and spermaceti are peculiar motion of the tail tends, as I faid beto particular genera : all which con- fore, to raise the animal: and that this ftitute great variations. In other re may be effected, the greatest motion of fpects we find an uniformity, which the tail is downwards, those muscles would appear to be independent of being very large, making two ridges
every in the abdomen ; this motion of the of the consistence of hog's lard ; the tail raises the anterior extremity, which external is the common train oil; but always tends to keep the body fuf- the Spermaceti Whale differs from pended in the water.
every other animal I have examined, An immense head, a small neek, having the two kinds of fat just menfew ribs, and in pany a short ster- tioned, and another, which is totally num, and no pelvis, with a long spine, different, called Spermaceti, of which terminating in a point, constitute the I fhall give a particular account. keleton of the whale.
What is called Spermaceti is found The two fins are analogous to the every where in the body in small anterior extremities of the quadruped, quantity, mixed with the common fat and are also somewhat similar in con- of the aninal, bearing a very small fruction. A fin is compofed of a proportion to the other fat. In the fcapula, os humeri, ulna, radius, car- head it is the reverse, for there the pus, and metacarpus, in which last quantity of fpermaceti is large when may be included the fingers, because compared to that of the oil, although the number of bones are those which they are mixed, as in the other parts mighe be called Fingers, although they of the body. are not separated, but included in one There are two places in the head general covering with the metacarpus. where this oil lies; these are situated
The Acth or muscles of this order along its upper and lower part : beof animals is red, resembling that of tiveen them pass the nostrils, and a molt qnadrupeds, perhaps more like vast number of tendons, going to the that of the bull or horse than any o- nose and different parts of the head.' ther animal : some of it is very firm ; The purest fpermaceti lies above and about the breast and belly it is the nostril, all along the upper part of mixed with tendon.
the head, immediately under the skin, Their muscles, a very short time and common adipose membrane. after death, lose their fibrous fructure, This spermaceti, when extracted becomc as uniform in texture as clay cold, has a good deal the appearance or dough, and even softer. This of the internal stru&ture of a water change is not from putrefaction, as melon, and is found in rather folid they continue to be free from any of- lumps. feniwe smell, and is most remarkable The spermaceti mixes readily with in the proæ muscles, and those of the other oils while it is in a fluid' state, back.
but separates or crystallises whenever The fat of this order of animals, it is cooled to a certain degree. except the spermaceti, is what we ge- What remains of the blubber, or nerally term Oil. It does not coagu- external fac of the whale, after all the late in our atmosphere, and is proba. oil is extracted, retains a good deal bly the most fluid of animal fats. It of its form, is almost wholly convertis found principally on the outside of ible into glue, and is fold for that the muscles, immediately under the purpose. kin, and is in considerable quantity. Some of these animals catch their It is inclosed in a reticular membrane, food by means of teeth, which are in apparently composed of fibres pasling both jaws, as the Porpoise and Gramin all directions, which seem to con- pus; in others, they are only in one jaw, fine its extent, allowing it little or no as in the Spermaceti Whalc; and in motion on itself, the wbole, when dif- the large Bottle-oose Whale, described tended, formning almost a solid body. by Dale, there are only two small teeth
In this order of animals, the inter- in the anterior part of the lower jay. dal fat is the least Auid, and is nearly in the Narwhale only two tulks in the VOL. VII. No 37.
fore part of the upper jaw * ; while in the arterior and posterior part of the some others there are none at all. In mouth, thy are very short : they rise those which have teeth in both jaws, for half a foot or more nearly of the number in each varies considera- equal breadths, and afterwards helve bly; the small Bottle-nose had forty- off from their inner fide until they fix in the upper, and lifty in the come near to a point at the outer : the lower ; and in the jaws of others exterior of the inner rows are the there are only five or six in each. longeft, corresponding to the termina
The teeth are not divisible into dif. tion of the declivity of the outer, and ferent classes, as in quadrupeds ; but become ikorter and shorter till they are all pointed teeth, and are com- hardly rise above the gum. In all of monly a good deal fimilar.
them, the termination is in a kind of Some genera of this tribe have an- hair, as if the plate was split into other mode of catching their food, innumerable small parts, the exterior and retaining it till swallowed, which being the longest and strongest. is by means of the substance called The use of the whalebone, I should Whalebone. Of this there are two believe, is principally for the retention kinds known ; one very large, pro- of the food till swallowed ; and do bably from the largest Whale yet suppose the fish they catch are small, discovered ; the other from a smaller when compared with the size of the fpecies.
mouth. This whalebone, which is placed on I never found any air in the intelthe inside of the mouth, and attached tines of this tribe ; nor indeed in any to the upper jaw, is one of the most of the aquatic animals.
singular circumstances belonging to The food of the whole of this tribe, this species, as they have most other I believe, is lifh: probably each may parts in common with quadrupeds. It have a particular kind, of which it is is a substance, I believe, peculiar to fondett, yet does not refufe a variety. the whale, and of the same nature as In the stomach of the large Bottlehorn, which I shall use as a term to nose I found the beaks of some hunexpress what ,conftitutes hair, nails, dreds of Cuttle-fish. In the Graniclaws, feathers, &c. it is wholly com- pus I found the tail of a Porpoise ;
posed of animal substance, and ex- fo that they eat their own genus. In tremely elasticti
the stomach of the Piked Whale I Whalebone consists of thin plates found the bones of different fish, but placed in several rows, edcompalling particularly those of the Dog-fish. the outer skirts of the upper jaw, 11• From the size of the esophagus we milar to teeth in other animals. They inay conclude, that they do not swalstand parallel to each other, having one low fish fo large in proportion to their edge towards the circumference of the size as many fish do, that we have mouth, the other towards the center or reafon to believe take their food in the cavity. The outer row is composed of fame way : for fish often attempt to the longest plates ; and these are in pro- swallow what is larger than their stoportion to the different distances be- machs can at one time contain, and tween the two jaws, some being four- part remains in the ælophagus till the teen or fifteen feet long, and twelve rest is digested. or fifteen inches broad, but towards The blood of animals of this order
is, I call these Tusks, to distinguish them from common teeth. A tusk is the kind of tooth which has no bounds fet to its growth, excepting by abrasion, as the turk of the Elephant, Boar, Sea-horse, Manatee, &c.
+ From this it must appear, that the term bono is an improper one.
is, I believe, similar to that of quad- branous part, making externally only rupeds; but I have an idea, that the one orifice, as in the Porpoise, Gramred globules are in larger proportion. pus, and Bottle-nose. I will not pretend to determine how In the whole of this tribe, the situfar this may afilt in keeping up the ation of the opening on the upper fur. animal heat ; but as these animals face of the head is well adapted for may be said to live in a very cold cli- this purpose, being the first part that mate or atmosphere, and such as readily comes to the surface of the water in carries off heat from the body, they the natural progreslive motion of the may want some help of this kind. animal ; therefore it is to be considera . It is certain that the quantity of ed principally as a respiratory organ, blood in this tribe and in the feal is and where it contains the organ of comparatively larger than in the quad- smell, that is only fecondary, ruped, and therefore probably amounts The parts of generation in both to more than that of any other known sexes of this order of animals come animal.
nearer in form to thofe of the rumi. The heart in this tribe, and in the nating than of any others. seal, is probably larger in proportion How the male and female copulate to their fize than in the quadruped, as I do not know, but it is alledged also the blood-vessels, more especially that their position in the water is ethe veins.
re& at that time, which I can readily In our examination of particular suppose may be true ; for otherwise, parts, the size of which is generally if the connection is long, it would inregulated by that of the whole animal, terfere with the act of respiration, as if we have only been accustomed to in any other position the upper surface see them in those which are small or of the heads of both could not be at middle-fized, we behold them with the surface of the water at the same aftonithment in animals so far exceed- time. However, as in the parts of ing the common bulk, as the Whale. generation they most resemble those Thus the heart and aorta of the Sper- of the ruminating kind, it is possible maceti Whale appeared prodigious, be- they may likewise resemble them in the ing too large to be contained in a wide duration of the act of copulation, for tub, the aorta measuring a foot in dia- I believe all the ruminants are quick meter. When we consider these as in this act. applied to the circulation, and figure Of their uterine gestation I as yet to ourselves, that probably ten or fifteen know nothing ; but it is very probable gallons of blood are thrown out at one that they have only a single young one Itroke, and moved with an immense at a time, there being only two nipples. velocity through a tube of a foot dia. This seemed to be the case with the meter, the whole idea fills the mind Bottle-nose Whale caught near Berkewith wonder.
ley, which had been seen for some days The membranous portion of the po- with one young following it, and they Iterior nostrils is one canal ; but when were both caught together. in the bony part, in most of them, The milk is probably very rich; for it is divided into two ; the Sperma, in that caught ncar Berkeley with its ceti Whale, however, is an exception. young one, the milk, which was tastIn those which have it divided, it is ed by Mr Jenner, and Mr Ludlow in some continued double through the surgeon at Sodbury, was rich like anterior soft parts, opening by two cow's milk to which cream had been orifices, as in the Piked Whale ; but added. in others it unites agaio in the mem