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ENGLAND. June j. On Saturday afternoon as the Princess Elizabeth was sitting in her apartment, her R. H. was surprised by the abrupt entrance of a stranger of mean appearance. The Princess exceedingly alarmed, precipitately quitted the room at an opposite door, and related this extraordinary circumstance to the attendants in waiting.——Mr Millar, one of the pages, immediately went to the palace and seized the man, who refused t» assign the cause of his being in the palace, or by what means he obtained admittance. When brought to the lodge, the porter asserted he had not the most remote recollection of his entrance or person. The intruder was then fullered to depart, but in a short time returned, and in preremptory terms insisted to he introduced to the Princess, —" That he might pour out the ardency of his passion, and at her feet press for an equal return."
He was then detained, and information of this singular occurrence dispatched to Lord Sydney; soon after, a serjeant and a party os the guards from the Queen's guard-house took him into custody. On being questioned, he said, he was by profession a hair-dresser, and worked with Mr Warren in Pall-Mail. Lord Sydney directed him to be taken to the Public Office, to be examined by Mr Addington : the coach stopping in its way to Bow-slreU, at Faved-alley, on the appearance os his master, he spit in his lace, and acted in a rrtanner to justify the suspicion before entertained of his being in a state of insanity.
On his examination before the magistrate, he saitl, his name was Spang; that his father was by birth a Dane, but he was born in London.
Bemjt-alked by Mr Addington, if he wu in love with the Princels,—he an-, fwered, that he was in love with all the ■#orld.
• When questioned hoV he got into the palace without being discovered, he exclaimed, "Aye, that is the question *"• —but refused to answer more on this point. He ridiculed, with .much force, the porter for not being able. to account how he obtained entrance. Mr Warren said, Spang had worked for him nearly two years, and left his service about a week ago, without previous notice j that he was always an honest industrious man, and never betrayed any marks of a disordered mind.
Spang appears to be about 17 years of age, rather short, light hair, and fair com
plexion, snauuily .Ircssed ; when sean hed nothing was found in his pocket of an offensive kind, or even a single ballpen-' ny: tears were frequently observed to steal down his checks, and he sighed in such a manner as to affect every person present.
He was committed to Tothiifieldj Bridewell, until further directions, and ordered to be kept in a separate apart* merit, and treated with the utmost tenderness.
It is supposed he got over the wall in the Green Park, inio the Queen'* gardens, and so entered the palace, but how he could escape observation, and pass directly to the Princess's apartment, excites general surprtsc.
Yesterday, Spang the maniac, who made an attempt on the Princ Is Elizabeth, was examined at Bow street, by Sir Sampson Wright, and Mr Justice Addington. He said, he was sent some years ago to Bethnal-Grcen, where there was put on him a strait waistcoat, and where he said he was confined for about a month, when, he was discharged. He was asked what brought him to the Queen's Palace? He answered, « God i" 'Had he no particular motives?' • He probably (he said) might meet the Duke of Cumberland there.' Being further questioned as to his motives, he assigned no other right of consanguinity. * Who were his relations?' The Duke of York, the Duke of Cumberland, the Duke of Gloucester, and the King of Spain.' How did he get into the Queen's Palace.' * He went in boldly sike a man as he ought.'
The whole of his conduct was strongly marked with symptoms of evident insanity; but his demeanor in this unfortunate predicament shewed that his temper was naturally mild.
Mr Tomlinsun proved, that he had been five or six days ago at St Martin'* Work-house, which the unhappy maniac mistook for as many years.
It is very remarkable, that during the whole of his examination, Spang never once mentioned the name, or seemed to have the least recollection of the Princels Elizabeth, though many collateral appeals were made to his memory by the magistrates upon the subject.
His insanity being fully established by this examination, the magistrates have determined to provide for hun, at the expellee of his parish*
The British vessel scut on discoveries in the year 1784, and to ascertain whether a north*, a ft or north-west passage toChina, W:is practicable, and now on its return to Europe fr >m Canton, went farther northward than Capt. Cooke, but coujd not double the Cape, in order to return by the sea that lies between the North Cape and East Greenland, but it is stretched out so near to the pole, that the attempt was found to be totally impracticable. Though sailing to 83 decrees, they could not find the entrance into that part where Davis's Straights communicate with the ocean on the western side of the continent of America, within the Arctic circle.
Jiwe6. H. o/C—This being the day appointed for talcing into consideration the claims of the American loyalists, .
The Chancellor os the Exchequer began with remarking, that these claims did not come before the public as a matter of strict right, but ought to be considered merely as appeals of humanity and the generosity of Parliament. It could never be expected, that the public could make compleat retribution to the loyalists for the whole amount of their losses. It would be amplv sufficient to give them a partial compensation. He proposed, that, with respect to those loyalists wlm had been deprived of their property in America to the amount of io,oool. that whole sum should be allowed them free of all deductions. As to those who had possessed from 10,000 to 30,000!. it would bear too hard upon the public to allow them the whole; he would therefore propose, that persons of this class should luhniit to a deduction, of 10 per cent, not from the total amount of their property, but from what they had poss-ssed over and above the sum of 10,0001. With regard to those whose property had been upwards of 30,oool. and had not exceeded co,oool. it was his intention to propose a deduction of Ij per cent, on the excess above io.oool. The estates of Mr Harford (heir to Lord Baltimore) were of Ib great an amount, that it would be too heavy a burden on the community to compensate his losses in an equal proportion with those of far inferior magnitude. The deductions, therefore, from this gentleman's fortune, in his opinion, ought to proceed in an increasing ratio. By this procedure, instead of his whole fortune, which had been stated to be of the value of 230,000!. he would rec ive only the sum of jo,oool. He then proceeded to
state, that he would recommend a different proportion with respect to those loyalists who had been of any profession, or had held any office in America. In lieu of the former income of persons of this description, he would propose, that, where the income did not exceed 400I. per annum, they should receive 50
Eer cent, that Is, half pay; where it ad exceeded 400I. and was not above 1500I. they should'receive 40 per cent. and from 1500I. upwards, 30. per centThere was another claim of the inhabitants of Florida, which amounted to 127,000!. and he thought no distinction ought to lie made with them. They had given up their property in such a way as tojiave the fame claims on the public, aa if their property had been eonverted to the exigencies of the public, aud therefore they ought to be paid to the full extent of their claims. 1 le proposed these claims to be paid by instalments, by emoluments of lotteries which in a number of years would be sufficient for this purpole ; and that every part of iheir claim* that was unpaid should bear interest at the rate of jj per cent, till the whole was paid. The whole amount of the sums to be paid to the loyalists, would, according to'the plan now proposed, be 1,208,1391.
Mr Burke approved of the Right Hon, Gentleman's plan for relieving this description of people, who, he laid, had a> claim on the liberality of the public. He would chearsully vote for the question, however averse his sentiments had been to the cause which they had patronised. .
Mr Fex was of opinion, that the plan now proposed was very handsome and liberal, aud that it far exceeded what had usually becu allowed on similar occasions; but he thought some addition ought to be made to Mr Harford. He observed, that the loyalists had no right to full compensation. Had they remained in America, they must have suffered that depreciation of their property which their country has in general fuss red. He complimented the minister on the wisdom and liberality of his plan.
After some - further conversation, in which several other gentlemen joined, the minister consented to augment Mr Harford's allowance to 70,000!. The sum mentioned in his first motion was consequently increased to 1,128,2391.
Thursday night a patent oassed the Great Seal at the Lord Chancellor's house 111 Onuoad-ikeet, appointing Sir
Lloyd Kenyon Chief Justice of the Court of King's Bench, in the room of William Earl of Mansfield, whose resignation was made out on Tuesday evening last.
Earl Mansfield has been Chief Justice of the Kind's Bench exactly thirty-two years, having been raised thereto in May 1756,. on the decease of Sir Dudley RydeY.
Pepper Arden, Esq ; th« King's Attorney General, comes to the Rolls Court, in the room of Sir L'.oyd Kenyon.
June 16. Wednesday, in the Court of Common Pk-as, a c^'etian was determined of considerable importance to the poor peasantry of this kingdom. The question was, u Whether the Indigent necessitous poor have aright by law to glean after harvest?", .!
The learned Judges (excepting Mr Justice Gould) fold, there were no positive laws or usage upon which a right to glean could be ascertained. The foil and the culture belonged to the farmer, and he had an exclusive claim to all the fruits *>f his own foil. The permission of the poor to glean was merely an act of humanity On the part of the farmer. It was obligatory only with respect Jo his own- conscience, but could not be claim*d is a right; for where the law gives a right, it always provides a remedy for the violation of that right; but no action •r prosecution could be~ maintained afcainst the farmer for refusing the gleanings.
• The learned J'idges then replied to the afgument in support of the prior, from the law of Moles, I,cviticus chap. *3.—-** And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not make clean fiildance of the corners of thv field, when thou reapest j neither shaft them fcather any gleanings of thy harvest; then malt leave them to the poor and the stranger." The law of Moles, the learned Judges observed, in this instance, was not obligatory on the Christian dispensation, but was a Jewish regulation, made tinder circumstances peuliar to their own political government. By the Christian system the succour of the poor was recommended as a work of religious charity, out there was no temporal taw to compel 1 man to exercise the virtues of charity; every man's conscience in this respect should be his own law. Few farmers,' it is hoped, would be so brutal as to deny to the poor the scanty gleanings of their fields ; at the fame time, there was no law to oblige them. If an usage had
ever prevailed to compel the farmer to give the gleanings to the poor for their sustenance, the 45th of Elizabeth had .iltesed the law in England, aa by the act a parochial provision was made for their better support. Upon the whole, the' Judges were ofopinon, that the gl. • ii'.igs were the property of the farmer, as his own productive industry; and that therefore the poor had iio right by law tb clean.
'Mr Justice Gould regretted that he was under the necessity of differing from the learned Chief Justice on the present question. He then adduced a number of strong arguments in support of the right of the poor,"both from the law of Moses, and ufoge, .which, he said, was coeval with the constitution. He cited a number of learned authorities in support of his opinion, and particularly Sir Matthew Kale, Gilbert, arid Judge Blackstone. The old Testament, he contended, bring unifed with the New, wai obligatory, arid fdrmed part of the law of the land. He concluded a learned speech, by giving his opinion in favour of the right to* glean.
j j. H. of C—Mr Pitt made a very strong speech in support of the stavetrade regulation bill. He said the trades as proposed to be carried on by the petitioners, was contrary to every humane* every Christian principle, and to every siitirrient that ought to irsspire the brearl of man. If the trade could not be car^. ried on otherwise than".as was stated by the petitioners, he would boldly declares that he. would give his vote for the utter annihilation of a trade shocking vS hurranity, abominable, to be carried on by any nation, and which reflected the greatest dishonour on the British Senate and the.British, nation. .The House being now in possession os such information" as they never had before, he had no doubt that they would join him in extricating themselves from the gurit and remorse of having so lon£ suffered such cruelties to be exercises on human heings. He then moved a clause tc enforce the regllaticns of the presrnt bill, and t* extend it to those ships that had already failed, if it could be proved that notice was given thetn. by a Teflel .to be dispatched by the Admiralty for that purpose. The loss the merchants would sustain would be a£out 10 per cent, atnounting to 121,000!. or 15,0001. in the whole, which he supposed the House would think of no importance when the interests of .humanity were concerned; » and
and would agrwtoindemnify the merchants. ]>i(L\iil of calculating, or regretting p-nce, when the balance was to be struelt irith livesj he was sure the House would not gruJge this sum to humanity, to wipe ossa national stain, and to set an example to Europe.
Mr Pitt was highly complimented for kissentimrnts, which reflected the greatest honour on him, both as in Englishman and a man.
The House then divided,
Against it, $
Majority si The Mil was then agreed to, and ordered to be carried to the House os Lords.
16. Saturday last an action for criminal conversation was tried before Lord Kcnyon, at Westminster. Mr Erskine, as counsel for the plaintiff, -stated, that hi» client was an officer who was called abroad dn the service of his country, at the beginning »f the American war, after having been married six years; and, that the defendant, taking the opportunity of the husband's absence, had carried off his wife, and lived with her two years in France: the cafe being proved by the witnesses, Lor J Kenyon summed tip to the jury in terms that very well Vindicate the choice made of him to fill his high station. He said that these injuries, though the highest and the severest that Could be oflered or suffered, were laughed at and gloried in bymany of the present times; but that Courts ot Justice ■were not to bow to corrupt fashions, but to maintain the rights of men, and to set examples of morality, decency, and ■virtue; that the plaintiff was nothing to blame, having not relinquished the protection of his wife, but had been obliged to leave her Unprotected by the call of his country. He asked if there was Hot *« common right enough without breaking through private property?" He gave in opinion diametrically opposite to erne of Lord Mansfield, on a similar cafe. He recommended to the jury, in estimating the damages, to take into Consideration Hie rank and ability of the parties, and to treat the matter in the serious light which the evidence required. The jury found TWO THOUSAND POUNDS damages.
"June 3. Mr Sheridan, on the part of the managers for the House of Commons, A?p. to Vol. VH, No. 4a.
in the trial of Mr 'Hastings, addressed the House of Pee,rs, on the affair of the Princesses of Oude, in on elegant speech of four hours and an half continuance. He began with expressing the most profound respect for the dignity of that trU bunal before which he stood; asserted the candour and disinterestedness of the prosecutors; and vindicated the lenity, decorum, and even delicacy of all theif proceedings and language against the prisoner, from the unjust imputations of harshness and severity. He next enumerated the difficulties Which they met with in the management of the prosecu-* tion, arising frorr) the conduct of manyos the principal witnesses, on whose evw dence the several charges were to be supported, at well as from their general character and known connection with the) prisoner. He then described in pathetid terms, the present miserable, plundered, and depopulated state of the country of Oude, converted by the rapacity of Mr Hastings, from. a paradise to a desert; and mentioned with noble indignation, that the English name was now an object of horror and abhorrence all over the East: and from these circumstances, he inferred the propriety, nay, the neceflity of inflicting some punishment ort a delinquent, who had thus violated the common rights of humanity, as well as" injured and disgraced his country. But, he artfully insinuated, that the prosecutors demanded no capital punishment, nor wished any thing severer to b«i inflicted on the prisoner, than a temporary seclusion from the society of his coun* trymert, whose name he had tarnished by his crimes, and a dedudioii from the enormous spoils which he had accumulated by rapacity.
After this artful exordium, he proceeded to review the evidence, and state the nature and degree of the proof which it afforded. He mentioned the prisoner'* own defence at the bar of the House of Commons, as affording considerable evidence against himself, and reprobated the shuffling manner id which he had aft terwards laboured to evade its forces He next launched out into a splendid and particular description of the character and circumstances of the Begums of Oude, ot the veneration with which the mariners of the East directed such ladle* to be treated, of the filial gratitude and tenderness due from Sujah low I ah to his mother, of the horror and anguish which he erpressd at being compelled by the English, 10 violate the tig of" na* 1 tar*
sure, an<1 the obligations of duty by robbing and plundering one so deservedly dear to him. He next entered particularly into the evidence of that treaty, by which the Company hzd solemnly engaged to secure the Begums in the quiet possession of their property, oil their payIhg the sum of 560,0001. and traced the subsequent transactions by which Mr Hastings and his agents, on the most trifling pretences, and by a series of the basest artifices, and most unjustifiable acts of violence, had engaeed the Nabob to countenance them with his name and authority in plundering and starving the" unfortunate Begums. Air Sheridan proved his assertions, by reciting the different parts of the evidence in the course of his speech ; and after speaking for four hours And an half, during the whole of which Jic fully commanded the attention of his audience, he fat down, and the Court adjourned till Friday.
"June 6. Mr Sheridan resumed his ipeech. This day he was chiefly engaged in reading the evidence, to prove the positions which hehad laid down inhisspeech en the 3d inst. He gave a lively and affecting description of the barbarous treatment which the Princesses of Oude'and she women of Zenana had suffered. A pretext of rebellion fad been fabricated against them; disturbances, which had been occasioned by the oppression of the English, had been attributed to them; and en this pretence they had been robbed of their property, abused by ruil« and wanton violence, and even denied the necessaries of life. By the evidence before him, he was enabled to exculpate them entirely from the guilt of fomenting rebellion against the English government •—and to shew, that all the injuries which they had suffered had been occasioned, ftot by their guilt, but by their wealth, which had tempted Mr Hastings to form a plan for robbing and ruining those innocent women. He took occasion to throw out a number of severe reflections on the conduct of Mr Middles on, Sir Elijah Impey, and late Col. Hannay, who had concurred with Mr Hastings, and acted as his agents and instruments in that infamous business. Mr.Sheridan finding himself much exhausted and unable to proceed, found it necessary to crave the indulgence of the House for a further day, which was readily granted.
"June 10. Mr Sheridan Tesumed his iusuning up oi .the second charge—the
subject of the Begums. He spoke for two hours. His object vu to prove* thir the resumption of the Jaghires, which hid been imputed to the Nabob, as an act of his own, had been forced on him by Mr Hastings, through the medium of Mr Middle ion. He here laboured to expose the inconsistency and implautibility of those pretences by which Mr Hastings' adherents had endeavoured to justify their conduct on that occasion. He said, that in the management, of great affairs' under Mr Hastings' government, there were three principals and three subordinates, who lived together in apparent friendship, being connected by the bands of mutual interest, but were, in truth, governed by fear, jei* lousy, and avarice. The principals were, Mr Hastings, Mr Middleton, and Sir Elijah impey; the subordinates, Major Davy, Col. Hannay, and Ally Khar, a confidential servant of the Begums. This knot of robbers and oppressors, in a manner highly worthy of their characters, had alternately cheated and suspected one another. He went into a minute detail of their proceedings with regard to the resumption of the Jaghircs. He was pro-' et riling to read extracts from the correspondence between Mr Hastings and Mr Middleton on that occasion, when finding himself indisposed, the reading was committed to Mr Adam. Soon alter, Mr Fox informed the House, that Mr Sheridan was taken so ill as to be unable, at present, to do justice to the cause. The Court adjourned to the i,;:h inst, to the great disappointment of a must numerous and spltndid audience.
June 1.;. Mr Sheridan again made his appearance in the House of Peers, and after making an apology for the additional trouble which his indisposition had obliged him to give their Lordships, proceeded to the summing up of the evidence, by pointing out thole parts which tended most directly to criminate the prisoner. He charged Mr Hastings with suppressing part of the correspondence, which had passed between him and the agents and sufferers, in the oppressive resumption of the Jaghircs; particularly a letter from the Nabob, expressing iris unwillingness to engage in that measure. However, bv the letters which had passed between Mr Middsetoa and Mr Hastings, and were produced, be was enabled to prove, that the Nabob bad been forced to that measure, and that though he had persisted in reiuEstt