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Jianvtrt as the Inhabitants ^Moldavia and Walachia.


dress their hair differently; somet.mei it is allowed to hang down, at other times it is'tucked up under a handkerchief, bound round the head in the form of a helmet; this is sometimes adorned with diamonds or trinkets.

The character of the fair sex in these two provinces .is softness itself. The Moldavian and Walachian women are the flaves of their parents, of their husbands, and even of their lpvers 5 they acknowledge no other liw but the supreme will of the men: though free, they go abroad but seldom, and never alone; the indolence and profound ignorance in which they are educated, are. probably the causes of their fidelity and submission. Jealousy, accordingly, has therefore rarely any occasion of exerting its fury upon them; the husband commands, and the trembling wife approaches to kiss his hand, and to implore his forgiveness.

I do not believe that any women, ■ot even the reigning princesses, at this day, in Moldavia and Walachia, eaa either write or read. The Greeks pretend that women ought to know nothing, but ' what their husbands Choose to teach them. The young women ate concealed from the eyes 9s men, till the very moment when the ceremony of their marriage is concluded, and they are laid on the nuptial couch. Before that time, they have no other employment, but to sigh far the husband that providence (hall please to destine them; till then, they enjoy only in imagination the pleasures ef love.

■ The civil contract of marriage is made before witnesses; it is signed by the parents or relations of the parties, without any other formality, among the cobles, than the signature of the prince t-r of the metropolitan. The marriages of the people are made without contract, and without other ceremony than the benediction of the priest. When the day of the marriage ceremony arrives, the young woman is co

vered with a veil of gold or silver tit sue, which descends on all sides in large folds from the top of the head to the waist. Her head is adorned with a plume of black feathers, and in this dress me is led by four women, with flow steps, to the church, like a criminal to punishment.. There the priest makes her promise love and fidelity to her future spouse; hejoins their bands, makes them both kiss his, and . then a hymn is chanted which lasts two hours j after which, the young pair are cos» ducted home, with a quicker pace and in a less solemn procession. The feaft immediately succeeds, the company get drunk, the dance lasts the whole night, and the bride and bridegroom for the first time fee one another, aed are then put to bed.

In Moldavia, there is a town called by the inhabitants Czctatc Alba, or the White City, formerly Julia AJba, by the Romans. This towo is famous for the exile of the poet Ovid, and there is still to be seen a lake called, to this day I.acui Ovidului, or the Lake of Ovid. This charming author, whose memory will always be dear to lovers and to poets, while banished to the country of the savage Getæ, (Moldavia) lived for some time at Czetat* ji(ha, but afterwards retired to a vik {age, at three leagues distance, the rains of which still remain. Near to the cottage which he inhabited is a little fountain, which still bears his name, as well as the lake above mentioned, by the brink of which he often went to walk. The inhabitants of Moldavia believe that he composed se» veral poems in their language, which still exist. The memory of this great roan has made such an impression on the people of these countries, that they value themselves upon it. They (xf from tradition, "That there came "from the banks of the Tyber an ex* "traordmary man,who was gentle as a "child,andbenevolentasafuher; thai "he sighed incessantly, and was perpe> « ,,ual]y ulking to himself; hot that


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•* when he addressed himselsto any bo■ dy.the Words flowed from his mouth ** like honey." It is surprising, that some of those sovereigns of the country, who have enjoyed a liberal education, have not erected a monument to the memory of this charming Poet, •who honoured their dismal solitudes ■with his misfortunes and his sighs. The time will surely come, when some lover of the arts and of great men, will discharge this debt.

The place where Ovid lived is formed for inspiring the deepest me* lancholy; and I could not view the scene without emotion: I thought I sawhis manes, sometimes hovering over the lake, sometimes wandering among the hills and in the neighbouring woods, sometimes sighing under a sycomore beside his favourite fountain, while a crowd of little Iovesin tears l;:y reclined in every corner of this enchanting retreat, expecting the return of their divine bard. Let a lover or poet imagine to himself, a plain enamelled with flowers, encompassing

a lake, and surrounded by a chain of little hills with unequal summits, covered with horn beams, with limes, with apple trees, wild almonds, and lofty oaks, mingled together confusedly, as if vying with each other in presenting their foliage and their fnrit ta the enchanted eye of the beholder : let him contemplate, at the instant when Aurora brightens the scene, a valley* doping towards the lake, between two little hills, (haded with vines and shrubs, and there, near a little fountain which pours a clear stream in a winding course towards the lake, and encircled with a grove of lime trees, stood the cottage of the divine poet. There his enchanting lyre ottered those sounds which love and melan* choly inspired ; and there, undoubted* ly, he forgot, with cold disdain, the de» ceitful pleasutes of an ungrateful and corrupted court, where Virgil and Horace were only suffered, because they exalted to the clouds the colossus of tyianny, and bowed the knee to the tyrant.

Account of some late Foreign Publications.

*• A Discourse on the best means ofex~ citing and therishing a spirit os patriotism in a monarchicalgovermnent S by M. Mathon dc la Cour: to which the prize that had been offered for the best discourse on that subject, by the academy of Chalons-sur-Maine, was adjudged, on the 25th August 1787, has been lately published at Paris.

This subject required extensive knowledge, and considerable genius, to do it justice: And M. Mathon de la' Cour has shewn himself not unequal to the talk. He begins with enquiring into the nature of the principle of patriotism, and distinguishes between patriotism and that love os Our natate slum, our parents and connections, which attaches us to our native country. The latter, he very justly con

siders as a sentiment common to all the individuals of the human race; to the wild savage no less than to the en* lightened subject of a well-regulated* government: to the staves of despotism as well as to the members of a licen* tlous. democracy. But patriotism, a principle which appears less frequently among mankind, is, in his opinion, a desire to promote the interest'and hap* piness of our countrymen, and to sup* port that government and legislature to whose protection we arc indebted for our security. The one he regard* as a natural ajscclion, the other as a virtue. He traces those causes which, have rendered patriotism more com« mon among the members of republics than among the subjects of monarchical governments; and he even presume*


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to assert, that in republics this virtue, has, almost always, been weak or fictitious, and that true and disinterested patriotism has oftencr appeared in .monarchies than in derhocratical or .aristocratical governments. He flatters his countrymen, by pteferring a Bayard, a Crillon, and a Turrenne, to the most illustrious heroes of Sparta or of Rome. The virtues of those great men, were doubtless eminent, and highly beneficial to their country; birt that their characters were formed by circumstances peculiar to the form Of government established in France, will poffibiy not be so readily admitted. lie justly attributes the decay of tatrioti&i, among the subjects of the French government, and most of the other nations of rnodern Europe, to extent of dominion, the number of great towns, the passions and caprices which are engendered and fostered by luxury, commerce, the progress of civilisation, and the ease and security with which a Frenchman, a Briton, or a subject of any tnher state in Europe, can procure and enjoy all the comforts and. conveniencies of life in a foreign country.

In the second division of his discourse, M. Mathori de la Cour labours to revive and cherish among his countrymen, that spirit which appears so necessary to the happiness, and even to the existence of a state ; and which those causes concur to fender so. rare and so weak, in modern times.

To inspire the subjects of any government with a spirit of patriotism,' they must have reason to be content 'with their condition. And, for that purpose, a nation must be governed by wise and benevolent laws, can ied into execution by mild and prudent rulers: The increasing dissipation of manners must be restrained; tender and virtupus affections must be strengthened and encouraged in the community. M. Mathon de la Cour faither recommends to his countrymen, for the fame ends, that honours aud public

offices be carefully conferred, as th*' reward of virtue and distinguished abilities. He expresses a wish, that honors and rewards, fitch as the oaken garland of Rome, and the rose of Salency, were bestowed, as marks of dis* _ Unction, on those who display any extraordinary instances of public virtue; and, that annual festivals lhould be. celebrated, with a variety ot' gyn,n«2ic and other exercises;.at Calais*.in honour of Eustache dr Soint'Pienf; at Bourdeaux, of Mentefouru •• Of Gonjiantt de Gezeley, at Lcucatc ; of jfeanne Hachttte, . at B.-auvais } of Descartes, at La Haie in Toursine; of Corneitle, at Rouen; and of FernIon, at Cambray; at which the sovereign should occasionally preside,in person, and direct them in such a manner as to excite a noble and generous emulation in wisdom, virtue, and valour, among his subjects. - •

Such are the plan and 'spirit of this d'seourse; in which M. Mathon de la Cour displays an accurate knowledge of his subject, and shews himself ac be warmly animated with those generous sentiments which he labours 10 revive and cherish among his countryn-.en. • II. No department'of literature i«, at present; more generally or eagerly cultivated, among the nations of En* rdpe.tlianllistory. In Italy; in France, and in Britain, a number of eminent historians have appeared, scarce iBsefior to those who nourished in metre* Greece and Rome. And that mode of writing has of late, become £> i.-.fhionable, that men of learning aud genius have found'it prudent to attract the attention of the public on several o» ther parts of knowledge,, rather noesav nected with it, by interweaving tbesa with history, or at Jeast giving then the name ot historical A hue literary Journal of Rome announces an Italian translation of the First Volan* «s a* History of 'Spain, from'the earliest tiart, by Gidn Francesco Masdeju This'volume treats of the history ot'mtxinJ Spain, comprehend :ng' a period as - k!" 'xcpo

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iyod years from the deluge, till the 300th year before the Christian sera( at which period the armies of Rome first penetrated beyond the Byfennets. •The early history of Spain, like that of most other countries, has been dis* figured and obscured by fable. The Titans, several of the lory fabulous heroes known under the common name of Hercules, the Argonauts, Ulysses, the Milesians, the Carians, and the Messenians, as well as many others of the celebrated nations and heroes of the ancient world, have been represented by various authors, either as Aborigines of Spain, or as having landed on the coasts) or made expeditions into the country, and having there established settlements, or performed some notable exploits. M. Mafdcu has canvassed the ptetensions of those nations and heroes to a place in the early history of Spain, and has rejected them as groundless. He is disposed even to dimimln the number of the labours and adventures of Hercules; nor will he allow any adven* Hirer of thai liam* to have vanquished Geryon, or extended his travels to the famous Pillars. Hi.- blames the ignorance or credulity of foreign historians, for disgracing, the annals of his country with soch inconsistent and in* credible fables? and asserts.thatthewell-. known veracity and honour of his couw. trymen have always rendered them incapable of attempting to magnify the glory of their country by such gross and extravagant fictions.

But though M. Mafdeu has judiciously rejected those fabulous tales of antiquity, yet he does not presume to offend the pride of the Spaniards, by calling them creatures of yesterdayj He traces their descent from the family of Japhet, the sou of Noah. Japhet had a numerous family; and it has been keenly disputed among the learned, which of his sons the Spaniards ought to respect as their great progenitor. M. Mafdeu is induced, by a number of authorities, to think

Vot. VII. Nt ♦»< %

that he must have been either Tubal, or Taisi, to whose lot Spain fell in the partition of the globe. The language spoken by the colony of Tubal, or Tarn, must have been that which the vocal organs of him and his family had been supernatu rally directed to Articulate fit the confusion of tongues; and that language must have formed the ground-work of the Iberian, and the Celtic. From a mixture of those two languages the Celtiberian was produced, of which several Vestiges may still be traced in the Gascon idiom.

With regard to the Celts, M. Mas* deu advances a new and singular opinion. He thinks that their original settlement was not in Gaul, but. in Spain. He places them in the most western parts of Spain, while he makes the Iberians to have, at the fame time, successively occupied the rest of the country, a! far as the Pyfennees. But about the beginning of the 15th cen-» tury, before the Christian Sera, the Celts, gradually advancing towards the North and South of Spain, expel' led the Iberians; who, in the course of the next century, entered France^ and having traversed that conntry, penetrated into Italy, which they over' tan about the 8,700th year of the world. They, in all probability, were the founders of Rome; and to them the Etruscan language seems to have been indebted sot its origin.

This author also gives an account of the religion, the government, the manners, and the military police of the ancient Cettiberians. He is of opinion, that they were indebted fat their civilization, arts, and laws, to the Phœnician colonies Which settled among them; and that, before the ar* rival of the Greeks or Carthagenians, they had become an ingenious, polished, and industrious people.

This short and imperfect account of"" the Contents of his first volume, may give our readers some idea of M. Mas« deu's plan. He endeavou: s to discuss critically every obscure ox dubious sect*

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