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Tin easily obtatn access. Arabia the Happy is divided into two parts j the Lower,called Tehama,extending from the mountains to the sea ; and the Up* per, Djabel, comprehending the range of mountains. The first containing ■Moka, Houdeida, Lohia situated* on •the shore, Zabklj and Beit-el-Fach-hi, is extremely dry, parched, and burnt up tv the heat of the fun, and bears nothing but date-trees, which thrive best tm a light, dry foil, and a few shrubs; only, Zabid is situated at the opening of a rale bearing the fame name, >rfiich is sometimes watered by rains collected on the neighbouring mountains ; and being carefully cultiTated, produces several sorts of grain for the use of man and the domestic animals. Bur through the whole of Tehama, except in the neighbourhood of Zabid, there is not the least verdure to be seen,- lave that of date-trees, which is far from being chearful, of a few cotton trees, and some sword-grafs and fruit shrubs scattered here and there. *This ,is what I observed in a journey of thirty leagues between Moka and Beit-el-Fach-hi, one of the most fatiguing that can possibly be travelled. ■The fame may be said of all Tehama, •which is the only part in which Europeans have any business, and refidej for beyond its limits they are not allowed to pass without communicating to government the motives of their removal, and the objects of their travels. From this, Sir, you perceive that, excepting the productions which I have mentioned, I can draw nothing else from Tehama to gratify your curiosity; and, that if I draw any thing from the mountains, not having it in my jiower to leave Tehama mystlf, it must be by means -of the Arabians, a set of haughty, stupid, and ignorant people, who cannot be brought to comprehend any ideas relative to the arts and science* without the greatest disculty.

Djabel, or the mountains, is very fertile, and with its productions the

inhabitants of Tehama ate suppOrterL It produces all forts of grain, whc.t, rye, millet, barley, beans, peas, kidney-beans, &c. a variety of fruit-trees, such as fig, peach, almond, plumb, apricot, and quince trees, vines, &c. potherbs, medicinal and aromatic plants, &c. It rains a good dul there in the course of the year, and the temperature of the air becomes cooler in proportion to the height of the mountains^ so that at Sana, the capital, tho' onir in the latitude of iy degrees, a pretur severe cold is felt, according to the accounts of the Arabians. Water freeZes there during the Winter nights. These are ali the natural advantages that have gamed to this part of Arabia the name of the Happy, which has been bestowed on its not on account of its possessing greater senility or beauty than the rest of the world, but from its bordering, on Arabia Pttrsea and Descrta. For Indostan, particularly towards the North, has greatly the advantage over it in point of fertility and beauty; and tho' in Ipdia they have neither peaches, apticotsi plumes, net pears, &c. yet their lose is not great, and is sufficiently made Up in other respects; for all the fruits which I have mentioned, have, in Ar rabia, a certain disagreeable wildoeif of taste and fiavoui, and never npea fully: they are sour and dwarfish, ia comparison with ours; particuiarly the peaches, which I have never eaten, even with wine, without finding them disagreeable.

It would be very useful, Sir, to a person in my situation, to be guided by the observations of some of thc!i who have formerly visited Arabia or the natural prodoctions of the country. These might enable me 19 rnake new observations, and to distinguish those plants which the Arabians gather on the mountains, and use fbf medical purposes'. Bttt I {mow not of any better description than that by M. Niebuhr, and the natural hitlers of the country is what has been leatf ike object of his attention. Tis true, that his province was the civil history, the geography, and such other things as are connected with mathematical knowledge. But as lie survived all his fellow-travellers, it would have been very useful, if he had published, ajong with his own work, with the leave of bis Danish Majesty, the Observations of MM. Forfcal and Cramer} who had been employed on the natural history of the country, and had doubtless made many important observations in their travels into the interior parts. However that may be, if those gentlemen penetiaied into the mountainous parts of Arabia, even as f.:r -as Sana, it is what they could not accomplish without encountering a Tast number of difficulties. -1 am, therefore, obliged to have recourse to the Arabians for whatever I wish to procure from the mountains, such as grains, plants, &c. without knowing whether they will be careful to execute my commission*. This I have done some clays ago, and though every thing which I have commissioned be punctually sent me, I (hall (lill have as much difficulty to know their names, their uses, and the manner in which they are cultivated, fcc. • What can you expect from people who are persuaded that the Emperor of Abyssinia is the richest poten*

jMa Robe dc Chambre."

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tate in the world; tha he is feared by all the monarchs in Europe, and that he has done the King of France the honour of giving him his daughter in marriage? Yet, they are not all equally ignorant and narrow-minded. Some true Arabians arc not quite destitute of education; that is, they are able to read, write, and calf accompts, know bow to conduct themselves with propriety in their different situations, an4 are honest, tho' no friends to ceremony. But none of them, whom I have as yet seen, has any knowledge of foreign countrie*, or any curiosity which might prompt him to inquiries concerning them; because, as they really believe their own country to be the country of the gods; they have no idca that the native country of any of the Europeans who visit them can be superior to theirs, nor the least notion of the utility of our sciences. They are content with smuukirig, drinking coffee, and reposing on carpets. And in this they differ much from the Indians, who have more activity, and less haughtiness; are indeed less firm and manly; but more social, more regular in their government and manners, and well acquainted with many conveniences of life, which are wholly unknown to the Arabians

Lxtrailisram a vjari in Muntfiript; entitled, Ma Robe de Chambre, by M.

d'Elmette,

SELF-KNOWLEDGE.

WHY mould I curiously observe the sensible properties of die objects around me? Why study the system and motions of the celestial bodies, and enquire into the uncertain rife of the winds, or the cause of the "flux and re-flux of the tides ? Why Ltbour to classify the different substances which are torn from the bowels of of the earth, or gathered on its surface? Wby analyse water into its first princj. Voi. VH. No^J. 3

pies, or examine the laws by which it operates on the bodies that are exposed to it? Will those painful researches make me wiser or happier? No, the true, the proper study of roan, is his own nature and moral obligations.

Presumptuous philosopher 1 thou tbinkest of compassing within the sphere of thy knowledge all the regions of existence; in the extravagance of thy pride, thou even flatterest thyself with K - the

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thehope of attaining the positive knowledge of infinitude; and, lust in an ocean of chimæras, thou forgettest the consideration of all that is truly interesting and im|>ortant, the knowledge ostbyftlf. •'Tis not -around thee thou fliouldest cast thy eyes; thou, eugtuest to look inward, aDd examine What passes in thy breast. Aft -thou desirous of regulating thy life? Lay aside thy books; look with an observant eye upon thyself; studythineown heart $ but beware, the study is attended with difficulties. Not pnry a few particular sentiments and actions must pass under review: accidental sallies of virtue will not constitute a virtuous man. The gale of opportunity sometimes conducts us to good 5 and sometimes we are indebted even to our vices for that accidental good.

Self-knowledge, however, is; pot acquired without indefatigable pains, and a serious attention, not only to ou« Words and actions, but, still more, to our most secret thoughts ; oor without a careful scrutiny into the life, the progress, and the duration of our pastions, as well as the fatal consequences which often flow from their indulgence.

An admonition to mankind to inmv •fkeiMsches, said Montaigne, ought surely to produce important effects.; since the God of knowledge, and of light, caused it to be inscribed on the front of his temple, as comprehending ajl the useful directions that he had tp communicate. Plato fays, that prudence is only the application of this knowledge to the regulatipn of life, and Xenophon ascribes the fame opinion to Sociatcs.

OF CARDINAL RICHLIEU.

RirmiEu was possessed of a bold and extensive genius, a solid judgment, a keen and penetratipg wit. He was revengeful,; and, to render less odious those deeds which were tjicta-ted by that spirit, he disguised his revenge under the name and garb of justice. The meanest adulation was Jure to please him. He distinguished

merit; but men't became unserviceable, and often hurtful to those who refused to fawn upon him. He was the greatest politician of his age ; at least, if we give that name to him who has displayed most skill iu the ait of gratifying Jijs ambition; which directed him to labour for the aggrandisement of himself and his master, without paying any regard to the rights and inter < (Is of the people- But if, os the other land, we give the name of a great politician, only to him who ren^ ders mankind happy, by such measures as justice and prudence prescribe, nona is lei's woithy of that name than Richelieu ; while the unanimous voice of posterity will confer that honourable title on the able minister, who esta. bliihed the liberty of the Americans by the peace of 1783.

WASHINGTON. When thou gazest on the portrait of any of our illustrious heroes, doll thou then feel thy heart beat quick I Js thine eye moistened with a few precious tears? Do thy cheeks glow r If such are thy feelings, obey the propensity of nature; thou art.born ta imitate those venerable objects of fhias admiration. But tby courage will ha of small value, unless ;o it be joined z skilful acquaintance with the differ ens, branches of knowledge which have relation tp the art of war. You must be fuber and liberal, you must join prndence to greatness of foul, you midi be grave in your conversation, and strictly faithful to your promise; for {his will greatly contribute to support your authority. You must know the interests of princes, and be able ta speak with facility of all that relates to war and politics: you must endeavour to form to yourself a solid and penerating judgment, and be quick in the execution of those enterprises which you have judiciously planned. If you' would gain the atsectioo cf tour soldiers, always wear in their » csence a foiling countenance; (hew

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A Sermon oh Alms, by Samoel Charters; Minister of Wilton; Puhliflk£ fo the Benefit of the Society hi Scotland fir fromoting Religiokr Kri<Aole&gt«« tnoftg Ut Poor.

The following extracts will give art idea of this publication.

Stndny Schools. ti/h stipend a slender maintairitancci

WITH a small asirtual Trim, a The priesthood, as in the days of Je~

school may be opened on the roboam, is descending to the mearieit

Lord's day for the yourlg who have of the people. Extensive knowledges

featried to read, arid are eiitering 6& and liberal mariners, seldom' fall to th'eir

labour". By this mean, their acquaint- jot. This, id a(i enlightened and Juke'-*"

ance with Scripture is retained arid in- warm age; makes the sacrifice; of the

creased. A habit dis reverencing the' Lord to be despised. It indeed bc

Sabbath is acquired', at'the time of cdrises the minister df Christ to be con'-.

Iffe when habits are formed', arid When tent with little; and to atone for pover-"

Sabbath-breaking is often the' first step ty by virtue: bat it is for the honour ahd

so that broad Way Which leadetli to interest of rcligidri, that he abounds in

destruction. A good fooridatfon is laid' knowledge" as well as goodness. While

for the time to come : memory is st'o- rio public provision is made adequate

red' With the' truths, arid laws, arid' to the expeiiee of a liberal education,

(Consolations of Crod: the tender heart' it is agood wbrfcTorrich individuals to>

receives' its first indelible impressions from the sacretl onscle: the" dperting' thind is occupied and interested with things concerning salvation, and the ^ivay of life ii chosen:

Education fir the Ministry.

furnish some With the means of knowledge, who in the next age may stand in the gap, to stem the tide of growidg profr.Tenefs arid infidelity.

Teaching the Deaf and'Dams.

, Thc-art of instructing th« deaf and To educate for'the ministry, a yourig dumb is a high and happy effort of* ifiaH of good parts and of a serious genius. It reflects honour on the unifiind, would be a valuable gift, arid, derstanding and heart of those- who in the present state osthings, very sea- practise if. It makes light to arise oB finable. They who can educate their such as sit in darkness, and calls forth lbns literally, are ajit to think a -Scot-trseir latent powers* It renders the 1 a K j f oor

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poor, who are in such circumstances, objects of efficient charity. Contributions were formerly made for the ledemption of slaves; a contribution, for instructing the deaf and dumb, nay may be considered as a ransom for the soul.

[Not:, This art is happily revived in Scotland, by Mr John Johnson writing-matter in Edinburgh.]

Mr Howard.

» Truth is preferable to fiction; it conveys knowledge with more effect, and a pure mind relishes it more. Such a book as Howard on the State of Prisons in England, interests and edifies. Misery is beheld in forms little thought «f, not fantastical, but real forms. A pattern of mercy is set •Ucfore us, not in word, but in deed. We fee the knowledge of laws and of arts, Q( religion and of the world, rendered subservient, and learn what this meaneth, "Let love abound with all knowledge." We trace the footsteps of love strong is death in its exertions and influences. Sympathetic emotions incite the powerful to amend laws less humane to prisoners in Britain than on the continent, and to check illegal impositions on the unhappy; they incite the pYivatc citizens to alleviate miseries less under the public eye, and less connected with guilt than thole of prisoners. To the devout reader, prospects of God's administration open. " From heaven God behold;, the earth to hear the groaning of the prisoner." He sends his servant the organ os his Compassion, having trained him by the sorrows of captivity from cruel men. "" Sorely the wrath of man shall praise thee, and the residue os wrdth wilt thou restrain."

Mr Firm In. .

, Thomas Firmin, a citizen of London, a name consecrated to humanity, among other memorable labours of love, erected a warehouse for employing the idle. To many hundreds he furnish-'^ ed materials for work, and purchased

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the product, accounting the loss sustained in the disposal os it to be gainw He laid up coals and corn to insure them in dearth against cold and hunger. He distributed a Scripture Catechism to instruct them in pnre religion. Thus, wifely considering the cafe of the poor, of th?ir bodies, and of their fouls, he honoured the' Lord with his substance, and left an example os judicious alms, which, by many, might be imitated on a smaller scale.

CharaHen of a Bad and of a C: d Landlord.

One, living on a rich inheritance without child or brother, who (hews no kindness to his relations, whose tenants often feel the rigour of justice unqualified by equitable and humane considerations, whose mercy never extends to the poor on his estate, who abandon's his domestic servants in age and sickness, who contributes nothiug to public plans of beneficence, >nd whose scanty offering in die house of God is a reproach; this man has the appearance of evil; an hospital rising on his ashes is not an atonement.

One, in similar circumstances, who puts on bowels of mercies is lovely and of good report. He is a city set on a hill which cannot be hid. His Wealth is known, and the symptoms os:t are observed; but with the know* ledge and observation of his wealth, are combined the knowledge and observation of his public spirit and humanity. His devotion and alms in the house of God are exemplary. The plenty and peace in, his own house, with goodness and mercy following his domestics all their lives, reeder it desirable to be a hired servant there. On his estate, the remains of bondage are absolithcd, and his terrams secured in long and peaceable possession. To such as are oppressed he is a refuge. Boor families, whom the cruel are so eager "to thrust out, he plants in houses, and institutes employment for then children In ail his improvements, ari in al) his om«

ccr.'c,

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