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execution. All modern kingdoms pre- history that we find that pi&ture of husent the fame difficulty, in their early man fociety which most interests the hiftory, and generally to a far later pe philosopher. riod than England; but their antiqua. It is suspected that a third reason ries have only been excited, by this why the period preceding the Con. difficulty, to exert the greater accuracy quest, by far the most important of our and care. Our heptarchic history is history, is neglected, originates from not only totally neglected ; but our the writings of an English philosopher, writers think proper to apologize for Lord Bolingbroke. In his Letters on their own indolence, by informing us History, this writer considers the ear. that it is not worth writing. Mr Hume, ly history of any country as quite usesensible of the great carelessness with less, and regards the modern part, bewhich he had sketched this part of Eng- ginning at the Emperor Charles V. as lith history, quotes Milton, as saying, alone worth Itudy. This superficial othat the wars of the heptarchic Itates pinion, of a once-fashionable author, are not more important than those of had perhaps great' weight with those crows and kites. But this is like the who knew not that it is impossible to rest of Mr Hume's quotations ; for have any real knowledge of the moMilton, in that passage, speaks not of dern history of any country without heptarchic wars, but of a paltry squab. beginning the study at its fountains, ble between two noblemen of that time. in ancient events and manners. One Take his own words, p. 183, edition might as well think of building a house 1771, 460, of his History of England: by beginning at the garrets. Nay · The same day Ethelmund at Kin- more, the foundation is only to be beneresford, palling over with the Wor- gun at the proper place; but, as every cestershire men, was met by Weolstan, part of the superstructure ultimately another nobleman, with those of Wilt- rests upon the foundation, this radical shire, between whom happened a great part must be examined with far more fray, wherein the Wiltshire men over- care and attention than any of the rest. came, but both dukes were flain, no Mr Hume began his history with the reason of thir quarrel writ'n ; such bic. Stuarts, and so wrote backwards. The kerings to recount, met oft'n in these confequence is, that he has quite mis. our writers, what more worth is it than taken the most glaring features of our to chronicle the wars of kites or crows, constitution, and carried the despotism Aocking and fighting in the air." The of the Stuarts along with him through fact is, that the smallest of the heptar- all our history. Nor can any problem chic kingdoms was fuperior in size and in mathematics be more certain, than power to any one of the heroic king- it is impoflible either to write or read doms of Greece, whose history we read history properly by retrogrelhon. The with so much attention; and the whole koowledge of the ancient part is not Grecian story, till the period of Alex, only necessary in itself, but necessary ander, is not in itself more important to understand the modern. To a phi or interesting than our heptarchic. The lofopher the ancient part is the most genius of the authors makes all the dif- interesting, from the strong and unference; and this genius, it is hoped, common views of human nature to be will not always be wanting in ours. found in it. Nay, to a common readThose, who think hiftory becomes im- er it must be the moft interesting, portant in proportion to the size of from the greatness and fingularity of the country concerned, should confine its events. In early history alone are themselves to study the Alatic em- found those great incidents, and total pires, and leave real history to those revolutions which elevate and surprize. who know its nature. It is in minute The modern history of England cone • 3G 2 . "
fita merely of wars which end in co- eat the former part bike if a rolase; thing, and in the Sliby chicane o po the latter, leres FuiLDS in a bait! Luice, lo dil gulong to every iogendoos lo Mezeray, the ait of French hii. mind. Since the eleventh cet:ury, the to:y preceding the yea 1055 s tva fo:eral kis.gdoms and states of Europe rolumes nd abzir; sa foceeding, our remain almost the same; and any ra. volumes ani a hat. Tois lunce prodical revolations which have happened portion is furanor to cars; and we might be comprized in a few pages. mighe a least alio 150 vols les out The period of great events begins at of eight for the scriod preceding the the fall of the Roman empire, and laits Conqueit. As it is, cery one may till the eleventh century.
judge that the former period of our The History of Eogland, excluding buttory must be muerably abridged iathat of the Romans in Britain, falls derd; and it is much to be wished into two periods ; from the arrival of that some able writer weuld give us aq the Saxons to the Conquest ; and history of England preceding the Confrom the Conquest till now. Each quert at due length. Materials be will period contains aboar seven centuries. bod not wanting, if he brings industry In Greek or Roman history, either peri- to discover and to use then. od would occupy much about the same room. But the proportion in ours is,
Extracts from Papers circulated on the part of the Britis Manufacurers in
Cotton, relative to the present Competition between the Callico and Mufen Manufactures of Great Britain, and the fume Species of Goods imported from the East Indies : dated London, April, 1788,
T HE facilities which the manu. Lancashire about the year 1772, bat
1 facturers of Great Britain have the progress was low till within the suddenly acquired, and the immense last ten years; the quantity manufacs capitals which they have as suddenly tured has Gnce extended from about laid out in expensive machinery, and fifty thousand to ane million of pieces great and heavy establishments, for car. now made in the course of one lingle Jying on the cotton trade, are unpa- year t. ralleled in the annals of the world. British muslins were not successful | Above one million of money is at ly introduced until the year 1781, and this moment sunk in mills, hand-en- were carried to po great extent until gines, and other machines, including 1785, since which period the progress the grounds, and necessary buildings. bas been rapid beyond all example. A power is created capable of work. The acquifition of cotton wool of a ing nearly two millions of fpindles * ; fuperior quality, from Demerary aad and men, women, and children, are the Brazils, and the improvements trained and training to this business, made in spinning fine yarns upon the capable of carrying the cotton manu. mule jennies, bave given a spring to facture almost to any extent.
this branch of the cotton manufactory, British callicoes were first made in which has extended it beyond what it
was • The power of spindles now capable of being worked is estimated thus : * In the water mills
. In the hand jennies
1,951,100 fpindlese + The value of calicocs is supposed to be acarly one million and an bali ac ling. was pollible to conceive. Above half were in a moment, by a great and suda million pieces * of muslins of differ- den reduction of the prices of Eastent kinds, including shawls and band- India goods, of the same species which kerchiefs, are now supposed to be made have been recently sold above 20 per in Great Britain, and the quantity not cent. on an average, under the lowek only increases daily with the new ac- prices at which the British manufaccellion of powers that are bursting forth turer can afford to sell without loss. upon the country, but the quality is The consequence of which has been, exceedingly improved ; and since a- that an universal Magration has taken bout 300 bales of fine Eaft-India cot. place; the stocks on hand daily accuton have lately been obtained by the mulace ; the poor fpinners who work way of Ostend, yarns have been spun, upon the hand-mills are in the greatest and musins have been wove, equal to distress † ; and a great and valuable any from India, and nothing but a fine system is in danger of being broke raw material is wanted to enable the down in a moment, if some remedy British manufacturerto carry this branch cannot be applied; for unless the Brito the greatest extent: and of all others, rish market can be opened for the home it is that species of cotton goods which manufacturer l!, it is impoffible to go deserves moit to be encouraged, be. 00 : men and women trained to the cause of the immense return it makes business, at a great expence, will be for labour more than any other branch set a-drift, and the numerous children of the cotton manufactory. East-ln- sent back to the hospitals and parishes dia cotton wool has been spun into from whence they came. one pound 7 of yarn, worth five gui- The cotton manufactory has burs deas, and when wove into muslin, and forth, as it were, upon the country, afterwards ornamented by children in in a moment ; giving a spring to the the tambour, has extended to the e- industry of the people, unexampled in normous value of fifteen pounds, yield. the annals of the world g. ing a return of five thousand nine It is not above twenty years since hundred per cent. on the raw material, the whole cotton trade of Great Bri.
Such is the state of the British coi- tain did not return 200,000l. to the ton manufacture at present.-With e- country for the raw materials, comstablishments and mechanical powers bined with the labour of the people ; capable of bringing forward immense and at that period, before the water quantities of goods into the consump- machines and hand-engines were fuction, this manufacture is checked as it cessfully introduced **, the power of
the * The musins will now extend to above one million of money in value.
+ In order to assist the mind in forming a conception of the fineness of this yarn, it may not be improper to state, that a single pound of it, if stretched out, would extend to the enormous length of about 100 miles.
I Many of the poor spinners at Stockport are at present quite idle. It is the fame case with those in the towns and villages in Lancashire.
ll An eminent manufacturer of mullins in England, who gave employment to 700 weavers in this branch, has not now zoo employed. The reduction is general all over the country.
The cotton machinery in full work, is now supposed to produce as much yarn as would equal the labour of one million of persons, according to the old system of spinning upon the single wheels.
** It is perhaps not generally known, that the yarns fpun upon the water mills are hard twisted, and therefore only fit for one part of the manufacture, namely, the warps. The weft, or thute-yarns, are for the most part spun upon the hand machines, or jennies; and it is worthy of remark, that about the same period, and coeval to the invention of water mills, the discovery was made of multiplying the powers of the common hand wheels, co as to spin at first from five to ten, and from
the single wheel could not exceed fof. This immense power of machinery, ty thousand Spindles employed in fpin. (which with the necessary buildings ning the cotton wool into yarns. and other appendages, has not coft lefs
At the present moment, this power than one million sterling *) is capable of of spindles, capable of being applied spinoing into yarns above twenty mil. to the fame purpose, amounts nearly lions of pounds of cotton yearly, equal to two millions, in all Great Britain; in value to upwards of one million and and the gross return for the raw ma- one half sterling, for the raw material; terials and labour exceeds fever mile which, when so spun into the various lims sterling.
qualities for the manufacture, will be About 1784, the expiration of Sir raised in value to four millions of mo Richard Arkwright's patent dissemi- ney for the yarns alone. nated the knowledge of spinning by These establishments, when in full water machines. Mills were erected work, are estimated to give employ. in every part of the country, for spin- ment, in fpinning alone, to about ning the warps; and the band engines, twenty-fix troufund men, thirty-ore or jennies, for the wefts, increased in thousand women, and fifty-three thouproportion, insomuch, that at present fand children; and in the subsequent there appears to be 143 water mills, stages of the manufacture, untůl it are and above twenty thousand hand en- rives at maturity, the oumber of pero gines in Great Britain. .
fons employed are also estimated to
amount that number to eighty threads (now the power of a single jenny) which being wrought by one man, with the allistance of a woman to prepare the cotton, and a boy or girl to tie the broken threads, gives a facility to human labour in this maze aufacture, which is scarce conceivable. • 143 Water mills, fuppofed originally to coft 6oool. on an average ; but here only averaged at 5000l...
L.715,000 350 Mule jennies, or machines, partaking of the nature both of the
water mill and common jennies, contifting of go spindles each, - 19,250 20,070 Hand jennies of 80 fpindles each, with all appendages, • 140,490 Reels, wheels, carding machines, and buildings for the whole hand machines,
L. 1,000,000 N. B. This estimate does not include the value of the looms employed, which have coft an immense sum. • Thefe 143 water mills are usefully disseminated all over the country, extending the benefits of profitable labour to every corner of the nation, as appears from the following statement, viz. Isle of Man, one mill .
| Total in England Mills in Lancashire • 41 Mills in Lanerkthire Idem in Derbyshire
Idem in Renfrewshire Idem in Nottinghamilire
Idem in Perthshire Idem in Yorkshire .
Idem in Mid Lothian Idem in Cheshire
Idem in Ayrshire Idem in Staffordshire
Idem in Galloway Idem in Westmoreland
Idem in Anandale Idem in Flintshire
Idem in Bute Idem in Berkshire
Idem in Aberdeenshire
Idem in Fifethire
Total in Scotland
amount to one hundred and thirtye extended to the astonishing height of three thousand men, fifty-nine thou- nearly eighteen millions. In 1786 land women, and forty-eight thousand there was an increase of upwards of children ; making an aggregate of one one million more, and in 1787 the hundred and fifty-nine thousand men, neat quantity exceeds twenty-two milninety thousand women, and an hun- lions of pounds. dred and one thousand children, em of this great aggregate the followployed in this branch of trade. ing estimate has been made of the pare
In the year 1784, the raw material ticular growths, which are taken in of cotton wool, (after deducting the round numbers, as it is impollble to exportation) amounted to about ele- be correct to a point. ven millions. The following year it
lb. British islands *
6,600,000 French and Spanish settlements, about
6,000,000 · Dutch settlements, about
- 1,700,000 Portuguese settlements,
2,500,000 East Indies (a small quantity obtained last year at Oftend) 100,000 The Smyrna or Turkey cotton, about . .. 5,700,000.
Aggregate Total 22,600,000 This immense quantity of cotton (according to an estimate made by intelligent manufacturers) is supposed at prefent to be applied nearly as follows:
lb. 1. To the candle-wick branch
1,500,000 2. To the hosiery branch
1,500,000 3. To lilk and linen mixtures
2,000,000 4. To the fustian branch
6,000,000 7. To callicoes and muslins, &c.
11,600,000 Total pounds of cotton 22,600,000
A Comparative Statement of the two Bills for the better Government of the Brie
tish Pollions in India, brought into Parliament by Mr Fox and Mr Pitt.
With explanatory Obfervations. By R. B. Sheridan, Esq; t. T OR upwards of four years these ed with political prejudices, we shallex
T two celebrated bills have been hibit the arguments advanced on each the Shiboleth of parties in this coun- Gde of the question, and give our opi. try. They contain, respectively, those "nion as the force of abstract and unimportant principles of India govern- biassed reason thall appear to us to de. ment which occafioned the sudden termine. fall of the last administration, and pro- Mr Sheridan introduces the Com. cured to the present that general con- parative Statement with a letter to a fidence of the people with which it gentleman in Staffordshire ; but as this seems to be still distinguished. In contains nothing else than indirect enexamining a controversy so much warp- 'comiums, of no importance to the
subsequent . * In this estimate a deduction is made from the actual quantity imported from these islands, to the extent of what is suppofed to be of foreign growths.
+ Crit. Reve