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execution. All modern kingdoms pre- history that we find that picture of husent the fame difficulty, in their early man lociety which most interests the hiftory, and generally to a far later pe- philofopher. riod than England; but their antiqua- It is fufpected that a third reason ries have only been excited, by this why the period preceding the Con. difficulty, to exert the greater accuracy quest, by far the most important of our and care.
Our heptarchic history is hiftory, is neglected, originates from not only totally neglected ; but our the writings of an English philosopher, writers think proper to apologize for Lord Bolingbroke. In his Letters on their own indolence, by informing us History, this writer considers the earthat it is not worth writing. Mr Hume, ly history of any country as quite usesensible of the great carelessness with less, and regards the modern part, bewhich he had sketched this part of Eng- ginning at the Emperor Charles V. as lish history, quotes Milton, as saying, alone worth (tudy. This superficial othat the wars of the heptarchic ítates pinion, of a once-fashionable author, are not more important than those of had perhaps great' weight with those crows and kites. But this is like the who knew not that it is imposible to rest of Mr Hume's quotations ; for have any real knowledge of the moMilton, in that passage, speaks not of dern history of any country without heptarchic wars, but of a paltry squab- beginning the study at its fountains, ble between two noblemen of that time. in ancient events and manners. One Take his own words, p. 183, edition might as well think of building a house 1771, 460, of his History of England: by beginning at the garrets. Nay “ The same day Éthelmund at Kin- more, the foundation is only tô be beDeresford, palling over with the Wor- gun at the proper place; but, as every cestershire men, was met by Weolstan, part of the superitructure ultimately another nobleman, with those of Wilt- rests upon the foundation, this radical shire, between whom happened a great part must be examined with far more fray, wherein the Wiltshire men over- care and attention than any of the rest. came, but both dukes were Nain, no Mr Hume began his history with the reason of thir quarrel writ’n ; such bic- Stuarts, and so wrote backwards. The kerings to recount, met ofi’n in these consequence is, that he has quite mif. our writers, what more worth is it than taken the most glaring features of our to chronicle the wars of kites or crows, conftitution, and carried the despotism Aocking and fighting in the air?" The of the Stuarts along with him through fact is, that the smallest of the heptar- all our history. Nor can any problem chic kingdoms was fuperior in size and in mathematics be more certain, than power to any one of the heroic king- it is impossible either to write or read doms of Greece, whose history we read history properly by retrogression. The with so much attention ; and the whole knowledge of the ancient part is not Grecian story, till the period of Alex- only necessary in itself, but necessary ander, is not in itself more important to understand the modern. To a phior interesting than our heptarchic. The lofopher the ancient part is the most genius of the authors makes all the dif- interesting, from the strong and unference; and this genius, it is hoped, common views of human nature to be will not always be wanting in ours. found in it. Nay, to a common read Those, who think hiftory becomes im- er it must be the most interesting, portant in proportion to the size of from the greatness and fingularity of ihe country concerned, should confine its events. In early history alone are themselves to study the Asiatic em- found those great incidents, and total pires, and leave real history to those revolutions which elevate and surprize. who know its nature. It is in minute The modern history of England cone 3G
fifts merely of wars which end in no- that the former part fills half a volumes thing, and in the filthy chicane of po- the latter, seven volumes and a haif ! litics, so disgusting to every ingenuous In Mezeray, the part of French hismind. Since the eleventh century, the tory preceding the year 1066 tils iwa feveral kingdoms and states of Europe volumes and a half; that suceeding, tour remain almost the same ; and any ra. volumes and a half. This latter prodical revolutions which have happened portion is superior to ours; and we might be comprized in a few pages. might at lealt allot iwo volunies of The period of great events begins at of eight for the period preceding the the fall of the Roman empire, and lasts Conquet. As it is, every one may till the eleventh century.
judge that the former period of our The History of England, excluding history muft be miserably abridged inthat of the Romans in Britain, falls deed ; and it is much to be wilhed into two periods ; from the arrival of that some able writer would give us aq the Saxons to the Conquest ; and history of England preceding the Confrom the Conquest till now. Each guest at due length. Materials he will period contains about seven centuries. find not wanting, if he brings industry In Greek or Roman history, either peri- to discover and to use them. od would occupy much about the same
PHILISTOR. soom. But the proportion in ours is,
Extracts from Papers circulated on the part of the British Manufacturers in
Cotton, relative to the present Competition between the Callico and Muffin Manufactures of Great Britain, and the fume Species of Goods imported from the East Indies : dated London, April, 1788.
HE facilities which the manu. Lancashire about the year 1772, but
fuddenly acquired, and the immense last ten years ; the quantity manufaccapitals which they have as Suddenly cured has since extended from about laid out in expensive machinery, and fifty thousand to ane million of pieces great and heavy establishments, for care now made in the course of one single lying on the cotton, trade, are unpa- yeart. ralleled in the annals of the world, British mulins were not successful
Above one million of money is at ly introduced until the year 1981, and this moment sunk in mills, hand-en. were carried to no great extent until gines, and other machines, including 1785, since which period the progress the grounds, and neceffary buildings. bas been rapid beyond all example, A power is created capable of work. The acquifition of cotton wool of a ing nearly two millions of fpindles *; superior quality, from Demerary and and men, women, and children, are the Brazils, and the improvements trained and training to this business, made in spinning fine yarns upon the capable of carrying the cotton manu. mule joonies, bave given a spring to facture almost to any extent.
this branch of the cotton manufactory, British callicoes were first made in which has extended is beyond what it • The power of spindles now capable of being worked is estimated thus : In the water mills
286,000 In the hand jennies
1,951,100 fpindles. # The value of calicoes is fupposed to be acarly one million and an bal ferling. was posible to conceive. Above half were in a moment, by a great and suda million pieces * of muslins of differ- den reduction of the prices of Eastent kinds, including shawls and band- India goods, of the same species which kerchiefs, are now supposed to be made have been recently sold above 20 per in Great Britain, and the quantity not cent. on an average, under the lowek only increases daily with the new ac- prices at which the British manufaccellion of powers that are bursting forth iurer can afford to sell without loss. upon the country, but the quality is The consequence of which has been, exceedingly improved ; and since a- that an universal Magration has taken bout 300 bales of fine East-India cot- place; the stocks on hand daily accuton have lately been obtained by the mulate ; the poor spinners who work way of Oftend, yarns have been spun, upon the hand-mills are in the greatest and musins have been wove, equal to distress ; and a great and valuable any from India, and nothing but a fine fystem is in danger of being broke raw material is wanted to enable the down in a moment, if fome remedy British manufacturerto carry this branch cannot be applied; for unless the Brito the greatest extent: and of all others, tilh marker can be opened for the home it is that species of cotton goods which manufacturer !!, it is impoffible to go deserves moit to be encouraged, be. op: men and women trained to the cause of the immense return it makes business, at a great expence, will be for labour more than any other branch set a-drift, and the numerous children of the cotton manufactory. Eaft-lo- fent back to the hospitals and parishes dia cotton wool has heen spun into from whence they came. one pound † of yarn, worth five gui- The cotton manufactory has burst neas, and when wove into muslin, and forth, as it were, upon the country, afterwards ornamented by children in in a moment ; giving a spring to the the tambour, has extended to the e- industry of the people, unexampled in normous value of fifteen pounds, yield. the annals of the world g. ing a return of five thousand nine
It is not above twenty years
Gnce hundred per cent. on the raw material, the whole cotton trade of Great Bri
Such is the state of the British coi- tain did not return 200,000l. to the ton manufacture at present. With e- country for the raw materials, comstablishments and mechanical powers bined with the labour of the people ; capable of bringing forward immense and at that period, before the water quantities of goods into the confump- machines and hand-engines were fuc. tion, this manufacture is checked as it cessfully introduced **, the power of
the * The muslins will now extend to above one million of money in value.
† In order to aslift the mind in forming a conception of the fineness of this yarn,
it may not be improper to state, that a single pound of it, if ftretched out, would extend to the enormous length of about 100 miles.
| Many of the poor spinners at Stockport are at present quite idle. It is the same case with those in the towns and villages in Lancashire.
|| An eminent manufacłurer of muslins in England, who gave employment to 700 weavers in this branch, has not now 300 employed. The reducion is general all over the country.
♡ The cotron machinery in full work, is now supposed to produce as much yarn as would equal the labour of one million of persons, according to the old fyftem of spinning upon the single wheels.
It is perhaps not generally known, that the yarns fpun upon the water mills are hard twisted, and therefore only fit for one part of the manufacture, namely, the warps. The weft, or fhute-yarns, are for the most part spun upon the hand machines, or jennies ; and it is worthy of remark, that about the same period, and coeval to the invention of water mills, the discovery was made of multiplying the powers of the common hand wheels, so as to spin at first from five to ten, and from the single wheel could not exceed fif This immense power of machinery, ty thousand spindles employed in spin- (which with the necessary buildings ning the cotton wool into yarns. and other appendages, has not coft less
At the present moment, this power than one million sterling *) is capable of of spindles, capable of being applied spinning into yarns above twenty milto the same purpose, amounts nearly lions of pounds of cotton yearly, equal to two millions, in all Great Britain ; in value to upwards of one million and and the gross return for the raw ma- one half sterling, for the raw material; terials and labour exceeds seven mil. which, when to fpun into the various Lions Sterling
qualities for the manufacture, will be About 1784, the expiration of Sir raised in value to four millions of mo Richard Arkwright's patent diffemi- ney for the yarns alone. nated the knowledge of spinning by These establishments, when in full water machines. Mills were erected work, are estimated to give employin every part of the country, for spin- ment, in fpinning alone, to about ning the warps; and the band engines, twenty-fix thoufand men, thirty-sk or jennies, for the wefts, increased in thousand women, and fifty-three thouproportion, insomuch, that at present fand children; and in the fubfequent there appears to be 143 water mills, stages of the manufacture, until it ar. and above twenty thousand hand en- rives at maturity, the oumber of pergines in Great Britain.
fons employed are also estimated to
amount that number to eighty threads (now the power of a single jenny) which being wrought by one man, with the allistance of a woman to prepare the cotton, and a boy or girl to tie the broken threads, gives a facility to human labour in this maaputacture, which is scarce conceivable.
143 Water mills, fuppofed originally to cost 6oool. on an average;
L. 715,000 550 Mule jennies, or machines, partaking of the nature both of the
water mill and common jennies, contifting of 90 spindles each, 19,250 20,070 Hand jennies of 80 fpindles each, with all appendages, 140,490 Reels, wheels, carding machines, and buildings for the whole hand machines,
N. B. This estimate does not include the value of the looms employerl, which have coft an immense sum.
These 143 water mills are usefully disseminated all over the country, extending the benefits of profitable labour to every corner of the nation, as appears from the following statement, viz. Ife of Man, one mill
Total in England
123 Mills in Lancashire
Mills in Lanerkshire Idem in Derbyshire
Idem in Renfrewshire Idem in Nottinghamilire 17
Idem in Perthshire Idem in Yorkshire
Idem in Mid Lothian Idem in Cheshire
8 Idem in Ayrshire Idem in Staffordshire
Idem in Galloway Idem in Westmoreland
Idem in Anandale Idem in Flintshire
Idem in Bute Idem in Berkshire
Idem in Aberdeenshire
Idem in Fifethire
Total in Scotland
143 Idem in Gloucestershire Idem in Cumberland
amount to one hundred and thirty. extended to the astonishing height of three thousand men, fifty-nine thou- nearly eighteen millions. In 1786 fand women, and forty-eight thousand there was an increase of upwards of children; making an aggregate of one one million more, and in 1787 the hundred and fifty-nine thousand men, neat quantity exceeds twenty-two milninety thousand women, and an hun- lions of pounds. dred and one thousand children, em- Of this great aggregate the followployed in this branch of trade. ing estimate has been made of the pare
In the year 1784, the raw material ticular growths, which are taken in of cotton wool,' (after deducting the round numbers, as it is impollible to exportation) amounted to about ele- be correct to a point. ven millions. The following year it
1b. British islands *
6,600,000 French and Spanish settlements, about
6,000,000 Dutch settlements, about
1,700,000 Portuguese settlements,
2,500,000 East Indies (a small quantity obtained last year at Oftend) 100,000 The Smyrna or Turkey cotton, about
Aggregate Total 22,600,000 This immense quantity of cotton (according to an estimate made by intelligent manufacturers) is supposed at prefent to be applied nearly as follows:
Ib. 1. To the candle-wick branch
1,500,000 2. To the hosiery branch
1,500,000 3. To silk and linen mixtures
2,000,000 4. To the fustian branch
6,000,000 9. To callicoes and mullins, &c.
A Comparative Statement of the two Bills for the better Government of the Brie
til Pollions in India, brought into Parliament by Mr Fox and Mr Pitt. iVith explanatory Observations. By R B. Sheridan, Esq; + OR upwards of four years these ed with political prejudices, we shallex
two celebrated bills have been hibit the arguments advanced on each the Shiboleth of parties in this coun- fde of the question, and give our opi. try. They contain, respectively, those nion as the force of abstract and unimportant principles of India govern- biassed reason thall appear to us to dement which occafioned the sudden termine, fall of the last administration, and pro- Mr Sheridan introduces the Comcured to the present that general con. parative Statement with a letter to a fidence of the people with which it gentleman in Staffordshire ; but as this seems to be still distinguished. In contains nothing else than indirect enexamining a controversy so much warp- comiums, of no importance to the
subsequent * In this estimate a deduction is made from the actual quantity imported from these islands, to the extent of what is suppofed to be of foreign growths.
+ Crit. Reve