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This education produces another ef- of it prove more than any thing I fedt, it gives the tale for letters, for could lay. . It seems, by the spirit of tetirement, and for employment ; and laws at Balle, that they would establish thence it still serves, perhaps, more to in favour of the citizens, at the time further the republican fpirit than by its when the republic was formed; a sort first effect: It removes fubjects of dis- of general and perpetual entail, of fipation; it renders home agrecable, which the effect ought to be the same and maintains that simplicity of man. as that of common entails. Not only ners—that manly and nervous turn of none are citizens; except the duscendo mind, which knows how to appreciate ants of those who formed the republic; the good, and to avoid the trifles of but it is imposible to inhabit Balle life: and it is this simplicity of man: without permission; and to become a ners, this love of retirement, this proprietor of land within the extent of contentment with home, this inatility the Canton. Tliat none can become a of dillipation, which makes, properly citizen, appears to me simple, in a despeaking, the soul of a republic more mocratical government: it would renStill, in my eyes, than knowledge, if der the sovereignty communicative; it was posible to separate them. and with the jealous; interested, and
The study of letters in a republic ever-selfish spirit of that kind of goa perpetuates, therefore, the love of its vernment, I do conceive it ; but am liberty; it produces, it is the cause not able to conceive, how an indiviä of manners analogous and necessary to dual; when he has obtained permillion such a state į and by an admirable re: to relide, has not that of becoming á action, these manners, in their turn; proprietor. It is to remove competis, give a new talte for letters where they torsit is, as it were, a monopoly of are cultivated, not by necessity of oco the citizens against themselves ; it is cupation only, but as an agteeable re- to contract the line of eitending the laxation : and if this happy habit, this principles of competition and of indusa turn of mind, is not always that which try; and, in one word, it is to deo we should call amiable, it renders men stroy the most certain effe&ts of a free simple and mild, and their minds be- goveromeñt. But it is true; that afa come more in unison with the form of ter a long habitation, permisfion is obgovernment which they love:
tained of buying a house ; but besideg This had been proved to me during its being necessary to depend on the my residence in England ; and every favour of the great council, it is only man who would read with fome atten- an exception to the general prohibition tion the works which are published of buying. I pote particularly this there, will recognize the pencil and law, because its effect is striking. An the turn of the ancients.
arpent of land in the districts least What I have said is confirmed by fought for in the interior of the cia facts, which are so extraordinary in ty, costs only 3000 livres, and about France, that they will be thought in. 10,000 in the other quatters į and credible. We have seen the third ma- this in a city, free, rich, and manugistrate; (the treasurer) who is a baker; facturing, is little to pay for building who still fells bread, and who amules ground. Estates in the country are himself with the study of the Oreek fold ać 25 to 30 years purchase ; and and Latin poets. A butcher also, has it should be remarked, that they would been named to us, who ltirs not to go pot be fo dear if they were not preto a fair for buying cattle, without a venced from purchasing in Alface by Greek poet in his pocket. It is a the effect of our ruinous forms; and, fpectacle interesting enough, that thete secondly, that in the Cantons, where exists such a taste, and two examples they pay neither the fcal Ror the hunVol. VII. No 42.
dredih dredth penny, nor any thing that in- millions of our livres, which is the creases so much the price of acquisi- third part of the whole fabric of tions in France. It seems to be im. Lyons; and such a fem, for this ar. possible to produce more characteristic ucie, appears to me sot only an exag. effects of a law, especially if we sake geration, but an ablurd boasting in, into our calculation every circumstance our neighbourhood, whom they can. that ought to enter into it.
not rival either in taste, or the choice In spite of the removal of the citie of filk; and thongh they introduce zens for acquiring without their terrin their ribbons into France clandettinės tory, they have some poffelñons in Ale ly, I know that they fear in good care face, in the Margraviate, and in the neft not to be able to ftand against our empire in general. They become more fabrics, which they will be able yet to curious for agriculture ; and in Alsace, do a longer time than the circumstanthey have introduced the use of clover ces vould seem to allow them, on acfor artificial meadows, which will o- couut of the extent of their capitals. perate in a short time a considerable At Balle, as in all the free states, change. They harness their oxen in the voluntary charities are numerous. collars, and gain by that means a great. By them are maintained, in a great er degree of quickness in their labour. measure, the house of orphar.s, in They have turnips, which they do not which are kept the men condemned cultivate well. They have moderate to prison. There is a gradation to ploughs, with which they labour much punishments in the criminal juitice of better than could be expected; but, this city, which is perfectly ordained ; as in the part of Alsace which we trae fimple fines, imprisonment with labour, versed, they harness too many oxen, imprisonment and public works for a and make the extraordinary and su- time longer or shorter, but always li. perfluous expence of a driver; a thing mited ; the gallies of France, to which which appears incredible with the ex- they send their condemned without a. ample of some Cantons' of Alsace, ny contribution to the expence; the where I have seen them plough with pillory, the whip, and death. It bas a single horse.' Their meadows are not appeared to me, that this part of well managed, and I have been assue their legislation was perfect. They red, that they have a powerful manure have preserved the torture. The Lite in Plasterstone, or Gypsum, not burnt, tle Council has refused the abolition, but pounded to powder. An intelli- under the pretext that it might be afe. gent person, who cultivates for his a- ful in extraordinary cases: a reafoa musement, and as an amateur, told absurd and incredible is a popular gou me, that the effect was astonishing up- vernment... on clover, and in general much great. We find every where the manner in er upon light than upon strong lands: which civil justice is administered, but it is so sure, that night failures must we are not so commonly told the way not disgust. This is a thing to try in which they fertle their mortgages
They have at Balle, both commerce The security of the lenders, when they and manufactures; they have of the have not their only confidence in the latter, many objects in the city. It is person, and the character of the debe. also an entrepôt for the commodities ors, exists in a public aft, and the drawn from foreigners ; in which the priority of this act. The difficulty English haberdashery is a great article. then is to assure themselves of tbe I speak of this only to have an oppor- "priority of such act. In France, for tunity to touch upon a gasconade Ba- example, nothing prevents the fame loise. They pretend, that they manu- estate being mortgaged many times, facture ribbons to the amount of eight without there being the means of koos
ieg how many times, 'and in what or- to place bounds to the art, instead of der it has been so. Here, when a ci- advancing it. . tizen would borrow money, he indi. The second object is a curious dif. cates the fund which he proposes as covery, and which may be employed the security, and this fund is regis. to the fatisfaction of the lovers of e.. tered, and it is valued ; and if the e. lectricity. It is a barometer of an exftimate goes to twice the sum borrow. troardinary kind. A Curé, short-light. ed, the officers charged with this func- ed, who amused himself with firing at tion ratify it. It is necessary that the a mark, had thought of Itretching a estate proposed be of ewice the value wire in such a manner, as to flip the of the sum borrowed, because the tribe, mark on the wire, in order to draw it and in general the public, answers for to him, to see how he had aimed. the security. By means of this pre- He observed, by chance, that the wire caution, mortgages are secured. They founded sometimes, and gave a sound are fond of this form at Balle; but to as if it had been oscillatory; and he me, I do not know what to say of it, had obferved, that this phenomenon it might be useful, perhaps, in a state happened, when a change in the at. wholly agricultural, altho' not without mosphere was to ensue; so that he difficulties ; but in a commercial state, came to predict, with exactoesse. in which there should be great facili- nough, fine weather or rain, and him. ties of borrowing at the risque of some self to be regarded as an extraordinary frauds, this form seems rather mif. man. M h as multiplied obserchievous.
vations, and has found that this exa I have seen at Bale, two objects troardinary barometer is more jult, and which have fixed my attention : the more exact, and more marked in its one is the manner of printing geogra- sounds, when the wire is extended in phical maps with characters. This me- the direction of the meridian. He thod is not better than by wooden told me, that the founds were more plates ; it does not appear even to be 'or less soft, more or less continued, exact. It is impossible, at a simple according to the future changes of the view, to vary enough the form of the weather, more or less marked. It did characters for giving the variety of not appear to me, that his observations contours, and the multiplied forms were multiplied enough for clasing and which exactness demands. It would reducing the phenomena to marks suf, be necessary often to cast the type ficiently precise. He pretends, yet, iflé, for being correct ; inot her words, that the sounds of counter-tenor an. it would be necessary to cast particu- nounce fine weather; and those of the lar types for each map, or, 1°, the fix, bass, rain. But I believe they are ed characters, upon the rules of Mo.. sure only to a certain point. It is suf. faic, and in a strong case, can serve ficent to the principal phenorocnon, but to draw a certain numher of co- that it occurs ; and it seems to onen pies; for they are too voluminous, too a new career, in which observations much exposed to derange themselves, have already been attempted. The for being warehoused ; an inconveni. Professor Volta has mounted at Pavia ence not attending engraved plates. 15 chords, and it is said, that the sym29. Although they should perfect these phony is agreeable enough. It lasts characters, never will they find them more or less time, yet without there reach the perfection of the graver. being any figos which indicate what This invention, however it may prove will be the duration. the genius of the artist, seems rather :
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Thoughts on the Abolitime of the African Slave Trade, confidhred chick it
Prudential and Political View *.. SIR, A S a lover of his country, and a circumstances of the times; and, on I friend to its political and comcertain emergencies, he may find it mercial interests, a patriotic citizea indispensably neceffary to foilow the might be prompied to apologize, on dictates of policy rather tban of conthe grounds of national expediency, s@ence. The scrupulous moralist, and for the continuance of a traffic in the the rigid devotee, may object to these Iruman species: but as a citizen of the sentimears, as incompatible with the world, and a friend to the collective refined morality of the gospel; but, body of mankind, he might be indu- since it falls not within the compass of ced to helitate, rould the signature of my plan to engage in a difcuffion of this his approbation be required. Were we nature, I shall dismiss this part of the to examine the subject of the African subject as soon as poñble. Whist the commerce as an advocate for the cause incroachments of ambition, the jeaof humanity, and for the natural rights lousy of power, and the discordant in. of human kind, without any regard to terells of nations shall continue, the the condition of rival states, we might pacific and humanę maxims of Chrif. be induced to mingle with the general tianity, so well adapted to the regula. voice, and exclaim against the inhu- tion of private life, can never be re. manity of such a trafficbut when the conciled with some of the fuadamente subject is considered in a political view, al and leading principles of civil poliwhen we reflect on the situaţion of con: cy. Such has been the deprasity of Kending powers, aspiring to superiority man in all ages, and such the condiin wealth, in commerce, and in great. tion of human affairs, that the most ness, we are inclined to frame our virtuous latesman could never regulare judgments on the maxims of political his political conduct by principles de prudence, and on the views of nation: nalogous to those which peculiarly cha. al expediency. Though the actions of racterize the gofpel : on the contrary, individuals in private life should be the measures of the best adminiftragoverned uniformly by the principles tions have proceeded on the grounds of morality, the jarring intereits of ri- of necelity, of interest, and of prus val communities may render it inex. dence ; have been adjusted to the cispedieng and eveq dangerous, on some cumstances of the çimes, and have fluce occasions, to adhere invariably to thiş tuated with the conduct and situation rule of conduct in the goverpment of of Şurrounding powers. When suffi. nations. * Self-preservation is the pri- cient barriers wall have been erected mary law of nations, as well as pature; against the encroachments and disor. and, in the present state of things, the ders of the pallions, by exalting hurigid maxims of morality, under the man nature from imperfection to un. most virtuous administration, may some deviacing rectitude, the government of aimes be sacrificed to the claims of na: empires and the morality of the gospel cional policy and the public good. The will be every where the same ; but till lovers of justice and humanity may de the establishment of such a visionary plore the necessity of those occasional fystem, which never get existed but deviations from moral rectitude ; byt, in the productions of poetic genius, in the present situation of human af- or in the disordered imagination of fafairs, there is no alternativc. The natics, the tide of human affairs, momost virtuous statesman, when redu. ved and directed by the passions, the icçed to the neceffity of temporizing, terests, and the prejudices of mankind, must accommodate his measures to the will continue to How in its ancient
and accustomed channels. The' a. the maritime powers of Europe, toa grecable fiétions of a golden agc, a. gether with the United States of A.' dorned with the beauties of poetical merica, would concur with the Legi. defcription, may charm the admirers Nature of Great Britain in a plan for of polite literature; and the captiva. the suppression of the Slave-trade, eveting æra of .Millenniurn, celebrated in ry objection of a political and prudenthe traditions of theology, may delight tial nature might foon be obviated : the fancy of a pious devotee : but the but to relinquith a lucrative and imphilosopher, judging of the future by portant branch of commerce previous the experience of the past, discovers, to the adoption of such a measure, a in the revolutions and events of futu- commerce which our rivals on the rity, a continuation of similar causes continent would seize with acidity, and effects, the continuity of a system, and profecute to themselves with dou." varioully componnded, and infinitely ble advantage, is a fallacy in governe diversified, by gradations of excellence, ment which no enlightened admini. imperfection, and depravity. If the re- stration can adopt. What should we fined morality of the gospel were rigid- think of a minister so deftitute of po. ly adhered to in the politics of any in- litical wisdom, as to advance the prodependent community, the annihilation sperity of the ambitious and potent es of its political independence would be nemies of his country, by resigning the speedy and inevitable consequence. into their hands a branch of national These remarks are not intended to de- commerce? This would resemble the preciate the excellence of the gospel; folly of presenting an enemy with arms on the contrary, the writer holds Chrif. that would be finally employed against tianity in high estimation, and deems ourselves. Emulous of distinction by it of infinite importance to mankind; her execrations and tears, humanity but, in the present state of things, it has been proud to weep over the fate may, for the reasons above enumera- of the unfortunate African, torn from ted, be thought inadmislible, as a fix- his native country and his friends, and ed invariable rule of conduct, in the has expatiated on the imaginary an. public administration of affairs, the guish of his feelings in the mingled point for which he is now contend- itrains of indignation and of pity. ing. The object of the numerous pe. Those exaggerated pictures of distress, titions now presenting to Parliament, which eloquence and fancy have unito though founded in humanity, seems ed to embellish, are adapted to excite deftitute of political wisdom and ex- the abhorrence, and to move the compediency. Humanity without judge, pallion of the credulous and uninformmnent, like wit without discretion, slides ed. To mitigate the violence of prewithout difficultyinto extravagance and judice on this head, which these ingecaprice ; and being directed to no pur- nious but exaggerated representations pose of utility by rational principles, have produced, I shall beg leave to may be either inconvenient or benefi- cite a passage from a Voyage to the cial in its consequences. Though dif- Coast of Guinea, undertaken by a furappointed in the grand object of its geon in the royal navy, the circumhopes, the abolition of the Slave-trade, Itances of which, as the author informs humanity, on the present occasion, by us, were related from his own know.. conducting the attention of the legis ledge and personal information. “ The Nature to the subject, may prove the bulk of them,” says he, (meaning the casual instrument of a judicious and Naves for sale ) " are from the interior permanent reform in this branch of parts of the country, and are stupid in our national commerce, which is all proportion to their distance from the that can be reasonably expected. If all converse of the coast Negroes; would