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Example, of a singular Dream and .corresponding Event.


The report of the murder soon reached to Portlaw. Rogers and his wise went to die j.lace, and instantly knew the body of him whom they had in rain endeavoured to dissuade from gning on with his treacherous' companion. They at once spoke out their sufJMcions that the murder was perpetrated by the fellow-traveller of the deceased. An immediate search was made, and Caullield was apprehended at Waterford the second day after. He W,is brought to trial at the ensujpg assizes, and convicted of the fact. It appeared on the trial, amongst other circumib.nces, that when he arrived it Carrick, he hired a horse, and a boy to conduct him, not by the usual road, but by that which runs on the North side of the river Suir, to Waterford, intending to take his passage Id the first (hi]> from thfnce to Newfoundland/ The boy took notice of some blood on his shirt, and Caulsicld gave him half a crown to promise not to speak of it. Rogers proved, not only that Hickey was seen last in company with Caulsield, but that a pair of new (hoes which Ilickey wore h«d been found on the sect of Caulfield when he was apprehended s and that a pair of old shoes which he had os at Rogers's house were upon Mickey's feet when the body was found. He described with great exactness every aiticle of their cloathes. Caulfidd,on the cross-examination, shrewdly asked him from the dock, Whether it was not very extraordinary that he, who kept a public-house, (hould take such particular notice of the dress of a stranger, accidentally calling there? Rogers, in his answer, said, he had a very particular reason, but was ashamed to mention it. The court and prisoner insisting on his declaring it, he gave a circumstantial narrative of Jus dream, called .upon Mr Browne the priest, then in the court, to corroborate his testimony; and said, that his wife had, severely reproached him for permitting Hickey to leave their

house, when he knew that, in the short footway to Carrick, they must necessarily pass by the green spot in the mountain which had appeared in his dream. A number of witnesses came forward; and the proofs were so strong, that the jury, without hesitation, found the panr.el guilty.—It was remarked, as a singularity, that he happened to be tried and sentenced by his namesake, Sir George Caulsield, at that time Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench, which office he'resigned in the Summer of the year 1760.

After sentence, Caulsield confessed! the fact. It came out, that Ilickey had been in the West Indies two-andtwenty years; but filling into a bad state of health, he was returning to his native country,-Ireland, bringing with him some money his industry had acquired. The vessel on board which he took his passage was, by stress of weather, driven into Minchead. He there met with Frederic Caulsield, an Irish sailor, who was poor, and much distressed for cloathes and common necessaries. Hickey, compaflionating his poverty, and finding he was his countryman, relieved his wants, and an intimacy commenced between them. They agreed to go to Ireland together; and it was remarked on theit passage, that Caulsield spoke contemptuously, and often said, it was a pity such a puny fellow as Hickey should have money, and he himself be without a milling. They landed at Waterford, at which place they stayed some clays, Caulsield being all the time supported by Ilickey, who bought there some cloathes for him. The assizes being held in the town during that time, it was afterwards recollected that they were both at the Courthouse, and attended the whole of x trial of a sooemaker, who was cohvic-: ted of the murder of his wife. Bu$ this made no impression on the hardened mind of Caulsield ; for the very next day he perpetrated the same crime on the road betwixt Waterford

and and Carrick-on-Suir, near which town Hickey's relations lived.

3$ Supposed Blemishes in the late King ^Prussia's Charatier ?

He walked to the gallows with firm step, and undaunted countenance. He spoke to the multitude who surrounded him i and, in the course of his address, mentioned that he had been bred at a charter-school, from which he was taken, as an apprenticed servant, by William Izod, Esq; of the county os Kilkenny. From this station he ran away on being corrected for some faults, and had been absent from Ireland six years.—He confessed also, that he had several times intended to murder Hickey on the road between Waterford and Portlaw;

which, though in general not a road much frequented, yet people at that time continually coming in sight prevented him.

Being frustrated in all his schemes* the sudden and total disappointment threw him, probably, into an indifference for life. Some tempers are so stubborn and rugged, that nothing can. affect them but immediate sensation. If this be united to the darkest igno^ ranee, death to such characters will hardly seem terrible, because they can form no conception os what it is, and still less of the consequences that may follow.

Supposed Blemishes in the late King e/"Prussia'* Character\

THE extraordinary abilities of his late Majesty of Prussia, Frederick the Great, and the splendour of his reign, will probably, in all future ages, command admiration. If to this he possessed the amiable qualities of the private station, as it is now said he did in an eminent degree, it will altogether form such a character as sages and philosophers will comtemplatc on with delight: some blemishes in his conduct may no doubt be found, as nothing human can be perfect; but many circumstances, however, may appear to deserve blame from being misrepresented, or the motives misunderstood. It is on this account that I mean to state three instances of his conduct, in hopes that some person, suitably qualified, will be so obliging as to correct them where they shall appear false or exaggerated, and, by explaining his motives, extenuate the fault.

Baron Trenck was born in Prussia; but, by some chance, was brought, when a boy, to Vienna; there educated; and, when of proper age, had a commission given him in the Imperial army. Being a man of respectable con

duct, he met with general esteem, and, in his turn, was promoted in rank. The Baron occasionally used to visit Prussia, to take care of his estate and familyjassairs. At the commencement of the late war he was made prisoner; he had not thought it honourable to. throw up his commission, after being permitted so long to enjoy the advantage of the service. The King of Prussia imprisoned him in a close narrow dungeon, almost entirely dark. He was chained to a feat in such a manner that, though he might stand up, he could never lie down. He remained in this situation for years, till the end of the war, when that excellent princess, the late Empress Quecn» made it zjine qui non, a first point, before she would hear of a treaty, that Baron Trenck should be set at liberty, and sent to her. The Baron, during his captivity, composed a poem, and, for want of ink, wrote it in his blood, having contrived to get a quill and some sorap of paper. This poem is published, and translated from the German into French. It has been surmised, that when he used to visit his estates, he acted as a spy, and

brought brought intelligence to Vienna. This certainly would have been dishonourable and ungrateful in the highest degree; and, if true, was probably the cause of the King's resentment: but Le should have either had the Baton tried, and sentenced to death, or set him adrift, and forfeited the estate.

Suppofid BUmiJhts in the late King e/Prussia's Characler —? yy

The next instance is so atrocious, that it is impossible to conceive how a hero and philosopher, and of so noble a mind, could have been capable of such conduct. A great lady took a fancy to a poor young Italian, an opera-dancer. She sent him a message, and an intrigue was the consequence. No irregular commerce could long escape the vigilance of Frederick. The discovery, however, was not so sudden but that the young Italian had means to avoid the danger, and fly the country. His Majesty sent for the lady; expostulated with her; reproached her severely j and then, without much bustle or exposure, ordered her into banishment, and that she should be treated with decency and humanity. The unaccountable part of his proceeding follows. His resentment seems to have risen to fury against the poor Italian ; yet surely, allowing for human frailty, his share of the criminality was most inconsiderable. The difference of rank is selfevidence that the advances were to him, and such advances are commands. No man now gains by being a Joseph; and the mode of the age would conlider it as a blemish in a man. It is Well if public sentiment be not more depraved, and even deem it a crime. The enraged monarch employs three trusty servants to go in search of the fugitive, and by every means, by force or fraud, to bring him along captive. An obscure.Italian is was not so easy to trace through Germany; but, after a long search, and never-ceasing inquiry, he was at last fouad in his native country, Venice. The trusty.servaau btgan by getting acquainted with

him, and ingratiating themselves by acts of kindness. They then took the proper opportunity to kidnap him; and having money at command, as soon as they got him out of the Venetian territory there was little difficulty in transporting him through the states of Germany to Berlin. He was then thrown into a narrow dark dungeon at Spandaw, chained in a posture that held his body doubled, his breast almost touching his knees, so that he could never lie or stretch himself. The effects of nature not removed, overspread with vermin, he languished in this condition eleven months; when the general deliverer, the universal benefactor, the friendly hand of Death, released him from tyranny and the

extreme of misery If this story be

as represented, no terms of censure can be too severe. That the criminal with die least ppssible proportion of guilt should suffer so unequally, and with such deliberate cruelty, is repugnant to every instance of justice or humanity. How un worthy a great prince, to encourage the example of insulting another sovereign, and violating the laws of hospitality, by such an attack on the personal safety of a subject! It is earnestly to be hoped that the circumstances may admit of being extenuated, and that fuller information may produce the facts in another light.

The last instance is that of a fellow who was a common soldier, who had deserted, was retaken, and condemned to hard labour at Spandaw. He contrived to get off his fetters ; murdered two of the guard, and made his escape. He came over to England; but not thinking himself in safety there, he went in the first vessel to America. He remained in that country many years, and acquired some property. Conceiving a longing to see his native country, and flattering himself that both his crime and his person would be equally forgotten, he ventured coming to PrnfBa. He there set up a shop,


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Mxperwtenls made on ihe Top of the Peak of"Teneriffe.

and remained unmolested some little time. It was impossible long to be concealed. He was seized, and confined at Spandaw; each arm and leg chained together, so that if he raised or lowered the one, the other of course must follow. Dirt and wretchedness surrounded him; and in this state he remained at the late King's death.— He, beyond dpubr, was a great criminal ; but one Cannot but admire that &e great Frederick flrould employ his thoughts dn deliberate cruelty, and refine so much as to determine to pro

long life and destroy comfort. Sortie friend, perhaps, of the illustrious Frederick may undertake his defence; ithe succeeds in the attempt) it will be the highest gratification to the writer of this letter. Yours, &c.

A. L. L.

P. .£. Baron Trenck had a print engraved representing himself in the prison. He is in chains, with i. stool, and a little pitcher, and some straw. He gave this about amongst his friends.

Experiments made on the Top of the Peak s/Teneriffe, 2^ib August 1785. By

M. Mongcz *. 1

TH E crater, of the peak of TcnerifFe is a true sulphur-pit, similar to those of Italy. It is about fifty fathoms long and forty broad, Vising abruptly from East to West.

• At the edges of the crater, particularly on the under side, are many spiracles, or natural chimneys, from Which there exhale aqueous vapours fend sulphureous acids, which are so hot make the thermometer rife from 90 to 34°. The inside of the tracer is covered with yellow, red, or White, argillaceous earth, and blocks t)f lava partly decomposed. Under these blocks are found superb crystals of sulphur; these are eight-sided rhombo'dal crystals, sometimes an inchin le^gr'i, and, 1 suppose, they are the "finest crystals of volcanic sulphur that ■have ever been found.

The water that exhales from the spiracles is perfectly pure, and not in the least acid, as I was convinced by several experiments.

• The elevation of the Peak above the level of the sea is near 1900 toises, which induced me to make several chemical experiments in order to •tompare the phenomena with those

* Journal

thn occur in our laboratories. I shall here confine myself merely to the tcsuits.

The volatilization and ccoling of liquors were here very considerable; Half a minute was sufficient for the dissipation of a pietty strong dose of æther.

The action of acids on metals, earths, and alkalies, was flow; and the bubbles which escaped during the effervescence were much largei thap ordinary. The production of vitriols was attended with very singular phenomena. That of irou assumed all at 'once a very beautiful violet colour, and that of copper was suddenly precipitated os a very bright blue colour.

I examined the moisture of the air by means of the hygrometer, of pure alkali, and of vitriolic acid; and 1 thence concluded, as well as from the direction of the aqueous vapours, that the air was very dry; for at the end of three hours the vitriolic acid had suffered hardly any change either in ^colour or weight; the fixed alkali remained dry, except near the edges of the vessel that contained it, Where it was a little moist; and Saussure's hygiomctej it Pbvfique,

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gfotrtcfcr pointed to 64O as nearly as the impetuous wind which then blew would permit us to judge.

Liquors appeared to us to have loft nothing of their smell or strength at this height, a circumstance which contradicts all the tales that have hitherto ken related on this head j volatile alkali, ether, spirit of wine, retained all ther strength ; the smoking spirit os Boyle was the only one that seemed to have lost any sensible portion of its energy. Its evaporation, however, was not the less quick; in thirty seconds, a quantity which I had poured into a cup Was entirely volatilized; and nothing remained but the sulphur which tinged the rims and the bottom. When I poured the vitriolic acid on this liquor, there happened a violent detonation, and the vapours that arose had a very sensible degree of heat.

I tried to form volatile alkali by decomposing sal ammonia." with the fixed alkali ; but the production was flow and hardly sensible, while at the kvd of the sea this process, made with the fame substances, in the fame

froportions, succeeded very readily »<l in abundance.

As I was curious to investigate the fcature of the vapours that exhale from the'crater, and to know whether they Contained inflammable air, sited air, and nurine acid, I made the following experiments: I exposed on the edge 6s one of the spiracles, a nitrous solution of silver in a cup; it remained more than an hour in the midst of the vapours which were confiHunlly exhaling, bat without any sensible alteration; which sufficiently shews, that no vapours of marine acid exhale from the crater. I then poured into it some drops of marine acid, when a precipifttion of luna cornea immediately ensued {• but instead «f being white, as that precipitate generally is, it was tf a fine dark violet colour, which sickly became grey, and it alTumed Vol. VII. No 37.

* Equal to i;8

the form of small scaly Crystals, such as were observed by M. Sage. These were very dilHnct when looked at with a glass, and they were even visible to the naked eye. I think myself justifiable in attributing this alteration of colour to the vapours of inflammable air, according to some experiments that I have made on the precipitation: of lunea cornea in such air. Lime water, exposed for three hours on the margin of the crater, and in the neighbourhood of a spiracle, was not covered with any calcareous pelhcle, noteven hardly with any filmy appearance; Vrhich proves, in my opinion, not only that no vapours of fixed air exhale from the crater, but that the atmospheric air which rests upon it. contains very little of that air, and that the inflammable vapours and sulphureous acids alone are sensible and considerable.

The electricity of the atmosoher* was pretty considerable, fof Sausturc's electrometer, when held in the hand at the height of about five feet, indicated three degrees, while on the ground it pointed only to one and & half. The electricity was positive.

The violence of the wind prevent ed me from making, at the crater it-*self, the experiment with boiling water; but when I had descended to the icy fountain, it continued to boil when the thermometer plunged in it stood at 71° of Reaumur * ; the mer* Cuiy in the barometer at this place wa9 19 inches 1 line.

I here found a great variety of vol* eanre schorls, very variously crystal* Uzed.

tttmarkt an the Island of Goree. 2fc M. eb Preston.

THE Island of Gorce consists of a steep mountain and. t croukF ed

• of Fahrenheit.

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