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present to the Public, open interesting cerned, and to whom they were not views of the moral economy of human indifferent. nature. As natural convulsions, says With regard to the matter; then, of he, discover the sudden strata of the the Memoirs of the late war in Asia, earth and ocean, fo violent moral fitu- it may be affirmed, without danger of ations tear up and display the passions contradiction, that it is in the highest and powers of the human soul. The degree important and interesting. An sensibility of our captive countrymen hundred thousand men, employed in was powerfully excited, and the enero daring enterprizes or courageous degy of their minds called forth in molt fence, in different parts of Hindoftan, ingenious contrivances to beguile the on the side of the English, unsupportlanguor of inoccupation, to supply con- ed by a single ally. These, opposed veniencies and comforts, and, on fome to almost all the powers of India, enoccasions, to elude sudden assassination. couraged by fuccours from France, In the prisons on the
coast of Malabar, and contending often with success, but particularly that of Seringapatam, we always with glory, against Afiatic subsee the condition of human nature, as tlety and numbers, confirmed in no it were, inverted. Man, with unbound- small degree by European discipline ed liberty, and the world for materi- and instruments of war, form a scene als, becomes acquainted with the qua. the most splendid that can well exist. lities and relations of things, and ad. The prize is the preponderating domivances in the arts by flow degrees. nion in India, the richest and the most Our countrymen, and others who fol. venerable country in the world. Coulowed their fortune, immured in a nar. rage, genius, and the pomp of war, are row prison, with a very limited com- displayed on either Gde, in the diffimand of instrumentality and matter, cult contest
. The ocean, which difupplied the deficiency of these by know- vides the Indian nations from Britain ledge and invention : The strength of and France, unites their arms : and, their fympathy with one another; the while squadron after squadron from natural connection between strong pas. Europe brings fresh fupplies of men fion and poetry ; 'the longing of the and warlike stores to the numerous circumcised Nave-boys to join their bands of Ala, fleets co-operate with countrymen, though in bonds and in armies in all the various attempts and danger of death ; that sudden impa- stratagems of war, and bring forward tience under confinement, and vehe- into important action, the valour, the ment desire of liberty which seized on abilities, and the resourees of the two the minds of all the prisoners on the greatest nations in the world. certain and near prospect of a release; The most prominent feature in this
he excitement of their joy incapable range of matter, the difficulties with of composure and carried to painful which Great Britain was forced to excess; the impression that was made contend in the East, and the means on their minds, after so long a con- by which the surmounted them, is the finement in the gloomy jail, by exter- great bond by which the writer of the pal objects, and the fair face of na- Memoirs bas given an unity of design ture : These, with other interesting to his composition, and by which he circumstances and considerations, jufti- passes, by easy transitions, from one fy the publication of a narrative whichi, scene of action to another. And while tho'it be very particular and minute, he pursues this courfe, he is at pains to is nevertheless interesting throughout. Thew all the resources of Britain on the The most trivial facts and circumstan- one hand, and the means by which ces derive an interest from their rela- Europeans were and may be opposed zion to persons in whom we are con- by Abatic enemies on thic cther. Mas. ners, characters, customs, opinions, and as General Goddard had repeatedly political interests and intrigues, fill up advised, and Mr Hastings had propothe interstices between the great out- sed in the Supreme Council, a divers lines of treaties and actions, and give fion of the troops under Sandioli from variety and relief to details which Guzzarat might have been effected by would otherwise be somewhat dry and an invasion of the province of Malva, barrea. The author has been enabled, and the chiefs with whom we con, by communications and intercourse not tended reduced to the necessity of aconly with English officers, but certain cepting terms of accommodation. But gentlemen of the French regiments in this opportunity of humbling the Ma. the service of Hyder-Ally, to bring to rattas being lost, their hoftility to our light a great number of facts highly countrymen was confirmed by the suce interesting and important. And he has cesses of Hyder-Ally's arms in the been faithful to his design of specify- Carnatic, and the exertions of Mr ing the merit and the futfering of in- Hastings were called from successes dividuals, and of relating the valour which he had not been permitted to and the address of our enemies, as improve, to the reparation of misfor, well as those of our friends and coun- tunes which he had not occafioned.” trymen.
This leads the writer to the history of While the difficulties with which the the war with Hyder-Ally, of whom English had to struggle, and the means he gives the following account: by which they furmounted them, form Hyder-Ally-Cawn was regent
of the general chain of association among the kingdom of Mysore, a dignity to the facts that enter into the Memoirs, which he had raised himself by abilithe end, or upper link of that chain, ties and by crimes ; by valour and pois Mr Hastings. His great mind is licy in arms, by intrigue, by treach-, the centre around which other agents ery, and by blood. He was the son appear in action.
He, amidst the of a Mahommedan soldier of fortune, changes, the confusion, and the alarms who commanded a fort on the confines of war, rides in the whirlwind and di- of Mysore, and followed, of course, rects the storm. The author having sta- the profession of arms. When he first ted the troubles of Gr. Britain in 1780, entered into the Rajah of Mysore's and traced them, without the least re- service he was distinguished by the gard to the favour or frown of any, io er- name of Hyder Naig, or Corporal Hy, sors and misconduct in all parties, pro- der. He rofe by degrees to the comceeds to give an account of the coun- mand of the Rajah's army; and, on try, the manners, the history, and the the death of that Prince, he seized the resources of the Marrattas, the most reins of government, under the title of powerful of the associates that had en- Guardian to the young Prince, whom tered into a confederate war against he confined in Seringapatam, together the English. He goes over the firit and with the whole royal family; exhibitthe second Maratta war with a clear. ing them only at certain stated seasons, ness that thews a full comprehenfion in order to soothe and please the peoof the subject. He gives an account ple. He poffesfed great vigour of boof the successful expedition, and of dy and mind: but his manners were the political as well as military talents favage and cruel ; and he frequently of General Goddard. The exertions inflamed the natural ferocity of his of Major Abington at Tellicherry are temper by intoxication. Like many also particularly described. “ Had a other chiefs in India, with whom it is detachment, the author observes, been not accounted any disgrace to be igformed in Gohud previously to the re- norant of letters, he could not either Auction of Gualiorby, Major Popham; read or write ; so that he was obliged
to make use of interpreters and secre- to render his name immortal. He taries. The method he contrived for invited and encouraged every useful ascertaining whether his interpreters and ingenious manufacturer and arti. made faithful reports of the letters fan to settle in his dominions, he inthey read, and if his secretaries ex. troduced the European discipline in pressed in writing the full and the his army, and laboured, not altogeprecise meaning of what he commu- ther without success, for the forma. nicated, displays, at once, that fuf- tion of dock-yards, and the establishpicion which was natural to his situa- ment of a pavy. tion, and that subtlety which belonged At the same time that he was fub. to his nature. He confined three lime in his views, he was capable of different interpreters in separate apart. all that minute attention which was ments, who made their respective re- necessary for their accomplishment. ports in their turns. If all the three His ends were great ; his means pru. Thould make different reports, then he dent. A regular æconomy supplied would punish them by a cruel death. a source of liberality, which he never If two should coincide in their report, failed to exercise, whenever an object, and onė differ from these two, then which he could render in any shape that one would suffer death. But subfervient to his ambition, solicited the interpreters, knowing their fate his bounty. He rewarded merit of if they should depart in one single in- every kind, but he was particularly Itance from the truth, explained, as munificent to all who could bring ima might be expected, the letters com- portant intelligence. He had his eyes mitted to their inspection with the ut- open on the movements of his neighmost fidelity. As to the method by bours, as well as on every part, and which he discovered whether his amaa almost on every person within his doouenses were faithful or no, he placed minions.--Hence he knew where to three of them, in like manner, in anticipate hostile designs, and where three separate places of confinement, to take advantages ; where to impose and to each of them apart he dictated contributions without drying up the his orders. Their manuscripts he put springs of industry; and where to into the hands of any of those that find the most proper instruments for were about him who could read, from his purposes, whether of policy or war. whom he learned whether his clerks He inspected, in person, every horsehad faithfully expressed his meaning. man or Sepoy that offered himself to When he passed fentence of death, he his service; but with every officer of was, on some occasions, like the Dey any note, he was intimately acquaintof Algiers and other barbarian de- ed. He made a regular distribution fpots, himself the executioner : for of his time : and, although he facrifithough he affected to consider bis ar- ced to the pleasures of life, as well as my as his guards, he well knew that to the pomp of state, in bufness he he reigned in their hearts, not from was equally decisive and persevering. love, but fear, mixed indeed with an With regard to the person of Hyder. admiration of his fingular address and Ally, for every circumstance relating intrepidity. The force of this man's to fo distinguished a character becomes mind, such is the advantage of nature interesting, he was of a middling staover art ! burst through the prejudices ture, inclining to coipulency, his visof education and the restraints of ha- age quite black, the traits of his coun. bit, and extended his views to what- tenance, manly, bold, and expreffive : ever European improvements he deem- and, as he looked himself with a keen ed the most fitted to secure his go- and piercing eye into every humaa vernment, to extend his empire, and face that approached him, so he judged
of men very much from their physiog- Ghutta and Bednore, acrofs the penin. Domy, connecting in his imagination fula to the territories of Palnaud and a baihful, timid, and wandering eye, Ganjam, on the coast of Coromandel, with internal consciousness of guilty and, on the Malabar sea, as far North actions, or privity of intention ; but à as Goa. bold and undaunted look, on the other The population of Hyder's domihand, with conscious innocence and nions has not been calculated on any integrity.
principles, by which it could be aí. With such qualities, and by such certained with any tolerable precision. arts as these, Hyder-Ally-Cawn raif- It is computed, that he could raise an ed a small itate into a powerful em- army of three hundred thousand men, pire; and converted into a race of war- and that his annual revenue was not riors, an obscure, peaceable, and timid less than five millions of British pounds. people. By alluring to his standard Emboldened by internal profperity, as military adventurers, of all nations and well as continued successes in the field, tribes, but chiefly Europeans, when- Hyder ventured to encounter, not onever it was in his power, and by train- ly the Marrattas, but the English ; his ing through their means bis Mysorean wars with whom, though not so proLubjects to the use of arms, he extenda ductive of advantage and triumph as ed his dominions, which were bound. his contests with other Indian powers ed on the East and the South by the of inferior consequence, yet improved Carpatic, and the plains of Combitore, him in the military art, and nourished and on the West and North by the in his breast a paffion for conquest.” Malabar regions, and the country of
To the Publisher. SIR, The foreign Prints, having announ- held in the highest veneration by the
ced that the sacred Standard of the Turks, and so facred, that they will prophet Mahomet has been publicly not permit any person, of any rank exposed at the gates of the Seraglio or religioo whatever, except Musul: at Constantinople, this event may men, to behold it ; for which reason, be considered as the forerunner of three days before the proceshon, herthe Grand Visir's departure to join alds are sent to proclaim in every street the army, and previous to that, the of Conftantinople, that on such a day ceremony of carrying the Standard the Standard of the Prophet will be in proceffion through the principal carried through the city, on its way street of Constantinople must take to the army; and that no persons, place. I have therefore sent not of the Mahometan religion, are to account of this solemnity, and of a be in the streets through which it passingular anecdote relative to it du- ses, or looking out into them from any ring the last war between the Turks houses, under the pain of death in case and the Russians, extracted from The of disobedience. Notwithstanding this Present State of the OTTOMAN EM- absolute prohibition, the Imperial Mi,
M. nister, unmindful of his public charac
ter, which should have made him more HE ceremony of exposing the delicate than a private person upon
Mahomet, previous to its being tran: gratify the curiosity of his wife and fported to the Camp, is a folemnity his two daughters, who were deter: Vol. VII. No 40.
mined to see this grand procession. was the Imperial Ambassador, he was For this purpose, he agreed for a instantly knocked down, and the inchamber in the house of a Moulah, ner doors being forced, they found the situated in one of the streets through Ambaffadress, whom they stripped of which it was to pass ; the price was her jewels and cluathes, and nothing fixed at fifty piattres; but, two days but her age protected her from further before the folemnity was to take place, insults. As for the young ladies, they the Minister found out a more con- had fallen senseless upon the floor in venient apartment at an inferior price, a swoon, from which they were only which he immediately took, and re- recovered by the extreme torture of linquished the first. The Moulah ia having their ear-rings torn from them vain represented that Europeans ge- with such violence, that part of their nerally keep their words, but more ears went with them ; they were likeespecially Public Minifters ; he was wise stripped to their shifts, and what refused every kind of satisfaction, and they suffered besides no mortal can tell, was dismissed with caupts, the Minister as it was reported that fome of the Jawell knowing that no tribunal would niffaries had compasion on their youth dare to proceed against him į and tho' and beauty, joined to their tears, and the order of the Moulahs have the the wretched situation to which they most powerful interest with the go. were reduced, while another party were vernment, yet their dread of offend. deaf to all intreaties; be that as it may, ing his Royal Master was fuperiot after they had plundered them, they to every other consideration. The retired, and in the evening this deplow Moulah submitted, in appearance, with rable family were secretly conveyed to out murmuring at his hard lot, but he Galaţa. secretly meditated vengeance, and on- As soon as the Grand Visir receily waited a proper opportunity to gra- ved information of the horrid outrage tify this darling passion in the breast committed on the person of the amof a Turk.
bassador and the ladies, he communiIn the very moment then that the cated it to the Grand Signor, who holy standard was passing through the condescended (though the Ambassador street in which the Ambassador, his was so much in the wrong) to send tady, and two daughters had taken a him compliments of condolance and chamber, and as it approached the excuse in his own name, accompanied house, from a window of which half with a rich pelice, which is a distin. opened they were looking at the fplen- guishing token of peace in Turkoy ; did thew, the Moulah set up a loud and as his Sublime Highness knew cry, that the holy standard was pro- that the Minister loved money, a very phened by the eyes of infidels who handfome fum was sent to him priwere regarding it through the latticed rately, and separate purses to the lawindow of such a houle. The mul. dies, belides jewels, far fuperior to titude, which was immense, as all the those the Janiffaries had taken from orders of the people attend the falem- them. Having received such ample nity, instantly took the alarm, and a indemnification the whole family feemparty consisting of ncar three hundreded perfectly satisfied, and the young enraged Janiffaries, detached them- dies being recovered from their fright, felves from the procession, and broke related the adventure to their Christian open the door of the house, determi- friends, in a manner that did no great ned to sacrifice to the prophet those honour to their modesty. daring infidels who had profaned his Had the piece finished with this act, holy itandard. The imprudent mini. all would have been well; but unfor. tter ia váin represented to them that he tunately thc Divan thoaght something