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races; they do not hide themselves astrology into repute, and this quickly from Europeans, but retire very quick- engendered the arts of magic and dily on the appearance of a Moor. vination.

Besides the imperial cities of Mo- Fez soon became the common resocco and Miquenez, that of Fez is sort of all Africa, the Mahometans. one of the chief, and should take weat thither for the purposes of devoplace of the other two, not only on tion; the affluence of strangers intrc. account of its antiquity, but because duced a taste for pleasure ; libertinism it gave its, name to the first mo- quickly followed ; and, as its progress narchy of Africa after the Moors had is molt rapid in warm countries, Fez, embraced Mahometanism. It is also which had been the nurse of sciences the only city in the empire which was and arts, became a harbour for every ever distinguished by a taste for the kind of vice. The public baths, which sciences, and for the industry of its health, cleanliness, and custom, had inhabitants.

rendered necessary, and which were This city was built in the end of every where respected as facred places, the eighth century, by Edris, a de- became scenes of debauchery; where scendant of Mahomet and of Ali, men introduced themselves in the hawhose father, in order to avoid the bit of women ; youths, in the same proscriptions of the Calif Abdallah, disguise, with a distaff in their hands, retired to the extremity of Africa, walked the streets at sunset in order and was proclaimed Sovereign by the to entice strangers to their inns, which Moors. Sidy Edris, having succeed- were less a place of repose than a coned to the throne of his father, built venience for prostitution. the city of Fez in the year 793. He The usurpers who disputed the caused a mosque to be erected, in kingdom of Fez after the fixteenth which his body was interred, and the century overlooked these abuses, and city ever afterwards became an asylum contented themselves with subjecting for the Moors, and a place of devo- the masters of the inns to furnish a zion. In the first moments of fer- certain number of cooks for the army. vour, which a new worship inspires, It is to this laxity of discipline that another mosque was built called Ca- Fez owed its first splendour. As the rubin, which is perhaps one of the inhabitants are beautiful, the Africans largest and most beautiful edifices in flocked thither in crowds; the laws Africa. Several others were succes were overturned, morals despised, and lively built, besides colleges and hos. vice itself turned into an engine of popitals, and the city was held in such litical resource. The same spirit, the veneration, that, when the pilgrimage same inclinations, the same depravity to Mecca was interrupted in the fourth still exist the hearts of all the century of the Hegira, the western Moors; but libertinism is not now enMahometans substituted that of Fez couraged ; it wears there, as in other in its stead, while the eastern people places, the mask of hypocrisy, and darcs went to Jerusalem.

not venture to thew icelf in the face When the Arabs had overspread A. of day. fia, Africa, and Europe, they brought

The Mahometans of Andalusia, to Fez the little knowledge they had those of Granada and Cordoua, miacquired in the sciences and arts, and grated to Fez during the different rethat capital conjoined, with the schools volutions that agitated Spain, they of religion, academies where philoso. carried with them new customs and phy was taught, together with medi- new arts, and perhaps some flight decine and astronomy. This last gra- gree of civilization. The Spanish dually degenerated, ignorance brought Moors carried from Cordoua to Fez D 2


the art of staining goat and sheep skins before a Christian, or a Jew, can be
with a red colour, which were then allowed to enter the city.
called Cordoua leather, and now Mo. The situation of Fez is exceeding-
rocco leather, from thar city where ly singular: it lies in the bottom of a
the art is less perfect. They manu- valley surrounded by little hills in the
facture gauzes at Fez, silk siuffs, and hape of a funnel ; the declivities are
girdles elegantly embroidered with divided into gardens planted with tall
gold and lilk, which shew how far trees, orange Ihrubs, and all forts of
their ingenuity might be carried if in- fruit trees; a river meanders along the
dustry were more encouraged. declivity and turns a number of mills,

There is ftill some talte for study which disperse the water abundantly preserved at Fez, and the Arabic lan- to all the gardens, and almost to eveguage is spoken there in greater purity ry house. The descent to the city, than in


part of the empire, which stands in the centre, is long, and
The rich Moors send their children the road lies through these gardens,
to the schools at Fez, where they are which it traverses in a serpentine di-
better instructed than they could be rection.

The gardens, seen from the city, Leo Africanus, in the sixteenth form a most delightful amphitheatre. century, gave a magnificent descrip Formerly each garden had a house in tion of this city, from which most of which the inhabitants spent the Sumthose that have been afterwards made mer. These houses were destroyed in are copied : but its situation, its the times of the civil wars, and in the schools, and the industry and great revolutions to which Fez has been urbanity of its inhabitants, are the on- subject, and few individuals have rely circumstances that give it any pre- stored them. The fituation of Fez, ference to the other cities of the em. however, cannot be healthful; moist pire. There are some pretty conve. vapours fill the air in Summer, and nient inns here conlisting of two or fevers are exceedingly common. three stories. The houses have no e. On the heighth above Fez, in a legance externally: the streets are ill plain susceptible of rich cultivation, paved, and so ftrait that two persons stands New Fez, finely fituated, and riding abreast can hardly pass. The enjoying excellent air, containing fome shops are like stalls, and have do more old palaces, in which the children of soom in them than is fufficient to serve the Emperor live, and where he fome. for the owner, who is always seated times resides himself; but in general. with his warcs around him, which he he prefers a house built by his father, thews to the paffengers. But though Muley Abdallah, about half a league the Moors' of Fez are more civilized from this place. New Fez is inhathan the rest, they are vain, superstiti- bited by some Moorish families ; buc ous, and intolerant ; and an order by a greater number of Jews, must be obtained from the Emperor

of the Inhabitants of the Empire of Morocco, and their Manners and

HE subjects of the empire of The etymology of the name, and

be divided into the origin of the people of the first two principal classes, the Brebes and class, are equally unknown. Like the the Moors.

Moors, at the time of the invasion by

ghe * From the fame.


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Morocco may



the Arabs, they may have adopted the in woollen, and though they inhabit Mahometan religion, which is confo- the mountains, they rarely wear any Aant to their manners and principal thing on their heads. The men, as usages, but they are an ignorant peo- well

the women, have very ple, and observe none of the precepts teeth, and are endowed with a degree of that religion but the averfion it en- of rigour which distinguishes them joins againit other modes of worship. from other tribes. The hunting of Mahometanism has not obliterated the the lion and the tiger is their comcustoms and ancient prejudices of these mon employment, and the women people, for the eat the wild boar, and make their children wear the claw of in places where there are vineyards, a tiger, or a piece of lions skin, on they drink wide, provided, say they, their head, believing that by this they that it is of our own making. In or- will acquire courage and strength ; it der to preserve it in the southern parts is, no doubt, from the same fuperitiof Mount Atlas, they put it in earthen tion that the young women make their Fcffels, and in barrels made of the hol. husbands wear the same as a sort of lowed trunk of a tree, the upper end amulets. of which is done over with pitch ; and I shall now describe the Moors, the these are deposited in cellars, or even greater part of whom are dispersed oin water. In the northern province ver the plains, the rest occupy the of Rif they boil it a little, which ren- towns. ders it less apt to inebriate, and per- The Moors of the Plain live in haps they think that in this state they tents, and that they may allow their may reconcile the ufc of it with the ground a year's rest, they annually spirit of their law.

change the place of their encampThe Brebes are confined to the ments, and go in search of fresh paitumountains, and preserve great animo- rage ; but they cannot take this step sity against the Moors, whom they without acquainting their governor. confound with the Arabs, and consi- Like the ancient Arabs, they are ender as ufurpers. They thus contract tirely devoted to a pastoral life; their in their retreats a ferocity of mind, encampments, which they call Douand a strength of body, which makes hars, are composed of several tents, them more fit for war, and every kind and form a crescent; or they are ranof labour, than the Moors of the Plain ged in two parallel lines, and their in general are. The independence Aocks, when they return from pasthey boast of gives even a greater de. ture, occupy the centre. The entrance gree of expreslion to their counte- of the douhar is sometimes thut with dance. The prejudices of their reli- faggors of thorns, and the only guard gion make them submit to the autho, is a number of dogs, that bark incefrity of the Emperors of Morocco, but fantly at the approach of a stranger. they throw off the yoke at their plea- Each douhar has a chief, subordioate sure, and retire into the mountains, to an officer of the highest rank, who where it is difficult to attack or over- has under his administration a numcome chem.

bet, of camps, and several of these suThe Brebes have a language of their bordinate divisions are united under own; they form no alliances out of the government of a Bacha, who has their own cibes, some of which are often a thousand douhars in his devery powerful, and the Emperor keeps partment. the children of the chiefs as hostages The tents of the Moors, viewed in for their fidelity.

front, are of a conical figure ; they are They have no distinguishing dress; from eight to ten feet high, and from they all, like the Moors, go cloathed twenty to twenty-five feet long: like those of high antiquity, they resemble very nourishing, and even agreeable a boat reversed. They are made of when one has got the better of the cloth composed of goats and camels prejudices which every nation enter. hair, and the leaves of the wild palm, tains for its own customs. The com. by which they are rendered impervi- mon people eat it with milk or butter ous to water ; but at a distance, their indifferently; but those of higher rank, black colour gives them a very disa- fuch as the governors of provinces and greeable look.


lieutenants, who live in the centre of The Moors when 'encamped, live the encampments, add to it some fucin the greatest fimplicity, and exhibit culent broth, made with a mixture a faithful pi&ture of the inhabitants of of mutton, poultry, pigeons, or hedge. the earth in the first ages of the world. hogs, and then pour on it a fufficient The nature of their education, the quantity of fresh butter. These officers temperature of the climate, and the receive strangers in their tents with rigour of the gorernment, diminish the same cordiality that Jacob and La. the wants of the people, who find in ban Thewed to their guests. Upon their their plains, in the milk and wool of arrival a sheep is killed and immeditheir Aocks, every thing necessary for ately dressed ; if they are not provided food and clothing. Polygamy is al- with a spit, they instantly make one lowed among them; a luxury so far of wood, and this mutton roaited at from being injurious to a people who a brisk fore, and served up in a wood. hwe few wants, that it is a great con- en dish, has a very delicate colour and venience in the economy of those fo- taste. I have often been present at cieties, because the women are intrust such feasts, and, while I respected the ed with the whole care of the domes- fimplicity of them, I have fancied my: tic management. In their half-closed felt

' transported by enchantment into tents, they are employed in milking the tent of a patriarch. the cows for daily uses and when the The women in their tents likewise milk abounds, in making butter, in prepare the wool, spin it, and weave picking their corn, their barley, and it into cloth on looms suspended the pulse, and grinding their meal, which whole length of the tent. Each piece they do daily in a mill composed of is about five ells long, and one and two stones about eighteen inches in an half broad; it is neither dressed diameter, the uppermost having a han. nor dyed, and it has no seam ; they dle, and turning on an axis fixed in wash it when it is dirty, and as it is the under one : they make bread like the only habit of the Moors, they wise every day, which they bake be- wear it night and day. It is called tween two earthen plates, and often Haique, and is the true model of the upon the ground after it has been heat- ancient draperies. ed by fire. Their ordinary food is The Moors of the Plain wear no. the cooscoosoo ; this is a palte made thing but their woollen stuffs ; they with their meal in the forin of small have neither thirts nor drawers. Linen grains, like Italian paste ; this coof- among these people is a luxury known coosoo is drest in the vapour of boil- only to those of the court or the city. ing soup, in a hollow dish perforated The whole wardrobe of a Moor in with many small holes in the bottom, easy circumstances consists in a haique and the dish is inclosed in a kettle for Winter, another for Summer, a where meat is boiled; the coofcooroo, red cape, a hood, and a pair of Nipwhich is in the hollow dish, grows pers. The common people, both in gradually soft by the vapour of the the country and in towns, wear a kind broth, with which it is from time to of tunick of woollen cloth, white, time moistenedThis fimple food is grey, or striped, which reaches to the middle of the leg, with great sleeves' tents, fold them up into bundles, and and a 'hood; it resembles the habit place them on the backs of their caof the Carthulians.

mels or oxen.

The old women are The women's dress in the country' then each loaded with a parcel, and is likewise confined to a baique which the young carry the children on their covers the neck and the Thoulders, shoulders fufpended in a cloth girt and is fastened with a silver clasp. round their bodies. In the more The ornaments they are fondelt of southern parts, the women are likeare ear-rings, which are either in the wise employed in the care of the form of rings, or crescents, made of horses, in faddling and bridling them; filver, bracelets and rings for the small the husband, who in these climates is of the leg; they wear these trinkets at always a despot, issues his orders, and their most ordinary occupations ; less seems only made to be obeyed. out of vanity than because they are The women travel without being unacquainted with the use of caskets veiled; they are accordingly fun-burnt, or cabinets for keeping them. They and have no pretenfions to beauty. also wear necklaces made of coloured There are, however, some quarters glass beads, or cloves (trung on a cord where they put on a little rouge: they of filk.

every where stain their hair, their feet, Besides thefe Ornaments, the wo- and the ends of their fingers, wish an Men, to add to their beauty, imprint herb called henna, which gives them on their face, their neck, their breast, a deep safron colour, a custom tha: and on almost every part of their bo- must be very ancient among the peody, representations of flowers and o- płe of Asia. Abu Beere dyed his ther figures. The impressions are made eye-brows and bcard with the same with a piece of wood stuck full of colour, and many of his successors ineedles, with the points of which they mitated hiń. The custom may have gently puncture the skin, and then lay originally been a religious ceremony, it over with a błue-coloured fubstance, which the women have turned into an or gun-powder pulverized, and the ornament ; but it is more probable that marks never wear out. This custom, the custom of painting the beard and which is very ancient, and which has hair, and that of shaving the head and been practifed by a variety of nations, using depilatories in other parts of the in Turkey, over all Alia, in the south- body, has been at first employed from em parts of Europe, and perhaps over motives of cleanliness in warm counthe whole globe, is, however, not ge- tries. geral among the Moorish tribes. The marriage ceremonies of the

The Moors consider their wives Moors that live in tents pretty much less in the light of companions than in resemble those of the fame people that that of slaves destined to labour. Ex- live in the citics. In the douhars cept in the business of tillage, they are they are generally most brilliant and employed in every servite operation : gay ; the strangers that pass along are hay, to the shame of humanity, it must invited, and made to contribute to the be owned, that in some of the poorer feast; but this is done more from poquarters a woman is often seen yoked litencfs, than from any mercenary mca in a plough along with a mule, an afs, tive. or some other animal. When the The tribes of the Plain generally Moors remove their douhars, all the avoid mixing by marriage with one men seat themselves in a circle on the another ; the prejudices that divide ground, and, with their elbows resting these people are commonly perpetuaon their knees, pass the time in con- ted; or, if they are partially healed, yerlation, while the women frike the they never fail to seyire, upon trif

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