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now carried on in the obscure recesses lar opinion that they become salmon, of our prolific river, by which means This idea is universally deemed illwe see brought to market, what is not founded. They are called here Whitonly in itself unwholesome, but inju- lings, and are certainly a distinct fperious to the commerce and advantages cies of fish. The proprietors of our of this corporation.
London smacks send them thither in N. B. The season is now altered; the wells of their vessels, being apart: it commences the 30th of January, ments so constructed in the bottom of and ends the 30th of October. the ship as to convey them to Billing,
Qu. IV. What is the general price gate alive. of salmon at Berwick ?
The whitlings are contracted for by Anfw. As to the price of salmon at the season with the farmers of the filha the river side; in the beginning of the ing waters, at the rate of 6d. a piece, season they are very high; a good found large and small, when they provide fish (for some at this time are not so) covers, or small hulks, full of holes, will fetch 1s. Is. 3d. and is. 6d. per to lie at the water's edge, for the full pound : if a vessel is ready to fail for ermen to keep them in, till they are London, with a fair wind, for every sent for by a double, or boat with a thing here points to the metropolis, well in it, to convey them to the the buyer will speculate very high, and smack's well, which they do not fail even advance upon is. 6d.
to do once every day, if not every tide, Most of the time that falmon is fent The whitling is like the falmon in away fresh, the prices are from gs. the scales, shape, and colour of the fish, down to 5 s. per stone, dependent on Their favour, when fresh taken, and the prospects of a fair wind for Lon- well-dressed, is most delicious; and, I don, and the plenty of fith caught. am told, much superior to any trout
When the hot season comes in, and in this kingdom ; the much-talked-of salmon can no longer be fert fresh up Fordwich trout, of the Stour, near to town, and even pickled salmon is Canterbury, not excepted. They are less in request there, we have it here thought here to be peculiar only to fold for 12d. iod. and 8d. per stone, the main body of the river Tweed, which is less than one halfpenny per and not generated in, or frequenting pound, as a stone of falmon is 181b. its branches, as they are feldom seen 10 oz. Avoirdupois; for 4 stone, or in the Whitater, the Till, or any of 561b. Avoirdupois, is only 3 Itone, or the higher branches of this river. 42 lb. fish weight. Though I must ob- There is in the Tweed another kind ferve, that this last year they were ne- of trout called the Bull trout, of a large ver less than 16d. a stone, and mostly fize, and proportionably longer than the 25. and 2s. 6d. through the year. whitling. This trout is only found in
[P. S. Jan. 1788. For some years the months of January and February ; past the Tweed Fisheries have been it is often a dozen pounds in weight, thought to be on the decline, but this and is sold in London, in these early last season has lighted up joy and chear- months, for salmon. It is inferior in fulness on the banks of the Tweed. quality to the whitling, being less firme They have taken more fish; but, for and of a paler colour. these twenty years, in a good season, From the above sketch of the history they never had better prices.] of the falmon, it would appear that he
Qu. V. Are not what we call fal- arrives at a state of perfection and mamon-trout the young falmon ? turity in twelve months. To accome
Anfw. I am now to answer your plith which, he goes down twice to inquiries on our trout, which you com- refresh and lepurate bimself in the sea; monly call Salmon-trout, from a 1924- first, as a smowe, he becomes a gilse;
secondly, fecondly, as a gilse, he becomes a fal- torrents of rain, hail, and snow, to mon.
which our northern climate is expoStudious as I am of informing my- fed in the Winter months, and during self from the old and judicious filher- which those beds of half-formed emmen, I do not find that it can be queso bryo are so liable to be swept away, it tioned, whether a fish of a year old is must be many years before our rivers not mature enough to store the river could be replenished. May not the with its own species? This at bust is bad fuasons we have formerly had be matter of conjecture only: But, were attributed to the injuries the river has it not the case, when we conlider the sustained in the Winter ?
To the Publisher.
Believe it is generally allowed by looks of my mamma, and the fourer
philosophy, that the share of each looks of a birch rod, I was encouraged mans felicity is very inferior to its con- by the falutation of " that's a good comitant mifery; but it is at the same boy;" I had my request granted, and time univerfally acknowledged, that by got a penny belides. This circumstance far the greater part of our anxieties is of of my life was fixed fo indelibly on our own creating, and that a few trifling my mind, as to furnish me with many vexations which occur daily, embitter reflections, which have proved very
ef our lives more than material misfor- sential to my happiness since I grew tunes. Whoever then attempts to cure up: I foon found I had the admirable these evils, must let the remedy be, as secret of pleasing others and of making their disease is, altogether imaginary. myself happy, or, to speak with a me
Every individual must think himself taphor, that I had the power of conhighly indebted to any other, who can verting lead into gold. When I was add any thing to the small share of his at school, I had frequent opportunities happiness; therefore I do not doubt of trying the effect of this secret, and but that I shall receive the bleshngs of used to fiatter every scholar with whom all of your readers, since they can all it was my interest to be friendly. become happier by treading in the path I wanted any thing of him I would which I have followed, and by attend- praise his generosity, but if I knew him ing to the admonition which I shall to be stingy, I'would praise bis econo, give.
my; if fullen, I would praife, his fo; In the earlier ages of infancy, when lidity; if a billy, his courage ; and if I might be supposed to act, as it were, idle, his jovial temper, always endeaonly by instinct, I remember to have vouring to adapt my baits to the fish I becn whipt by my mamma, for not would with to catch. making use of the word please, when As I always endeavour to please I asked something of her. I was sure thers by flattery, so I cannot always prised that the omifion of one word avoid being pleased with it myself; for should be attended with such disagree. I cannot at this day help reading any able consequences, and resolved to say book that is addrelied to the candid, please an hundred times rather than benevolent, learned, or pious reader, una experience the like again. Accord- less it be some musty folio or quarto, and ingly the next time I had occasion to even then my vanity prompts me to, make any request to her, I did not fail read the part thus dedicated. to premise that fearful word, when, I am withal very charitable, and happily for me, instead of the four make it a material point never to speak
ill of any one, unless it is in the com. For this purpofe I became acquainced pany of ladies, or a rival, and even with a young lady of family, fortune, then I am very cautious, for I let and understanding, but who differed them begin the bander, and then I am from us in religious principles: it is sure it is only good breeding to fay true, I never thewed her any marks jes to what they say. If any one of of peculiar fondness, but I avispered my neighbours buys any thing, I praise it about as a mighty secret to two or his judgement extravagantly; an in. three female acquaintances, hoping by Itance of it occurred of one who bought these means it could come to my faa horse: “ Ah, ncighbour (says I) I ther's ears : meanwhile I looked de find you have cut your lind teeth.” jccted, and spoke but little in the old If I go to the shop of a mechanic, I gentleman's presence, and counterfeitpraise his ingenuity, and always ex-ed the symptoms of love as well as I press particular wonder at any contri- posibly could. My father at length vance I know to be his own.
heard of it, and thought the news altronomer I can talk in raptures of confirmed by my behaviour. It was the stars ; to a musician of the powers with a great deal of concern that he of sound ; and even the barber of the aiked me the truth of it: I pretended village looks upon me as a man of valt I could not deny ; but, as an excufe, penetration, because I once observed I praised her beauty and mental acto him, that he handled his razor with complishments, and hoped that he apamazing dexterity.
proved of my choice. He answered, But above all things I lay it down No—that the difference of religion was as a rule ever to be observed, to an unsurmountable objection. I beglaugh, or at least smile, at every piece ged leave to retire, promising to retura of wit I hear, although heard an hun- in an hour. I went out, and having dred times before; and to lend an at- adjusted my countenance to the deeptentive ear to every anecdote or story eit despair, and appeared before bin that is told me, even if it should be again at the expiration of the time, I the story of Joseph and his brethren, told him, I consented to resign all preor the smart speeches of Buchanan tensions to the lady, rather than give the king's fool." I mention, that this him any uneasiness ; since the renecrule is one of my mott valuable ones, tion of ingratitude to a tender and afas it procured me the privilege of be- fectionate parent would damp all the ing fet down in black and white, in a happiness I could hope to enjoy with certain piece of parchment, carefully her. This had nearly staggered the kept by a good old uncle of mine. old gentleman's refolution, for he de
But there is one picce of fattery clared he would scarcely deny any which I once commitied, that I look thing to such a loving dutiful fon; and upon as my master-piece, as it excels at length his rigidity gave way to his every thing or piece of deep contri- paternal affection, and he consented vance that I am matter of, and which that I should marry the young lady, I honestly confefs I relate as much provided the acted up to the principles from motives of vanity as from a de- of her own religion. This last bad fire to benefit mankind by it. I be- nearly ruined all ; yet I pretended to long to a fect of Christians who look be overjoyed at his condescenfion. I upon.it for
any of their mem- resolved, however, to try whether i bers to intermarry with those of any could not gain her affections, in which other persuasion : my father coincided I happily fucceeded, by a vigilant perin this opinion with the greatest strict- severance, and a liberal use of my feness : I perceived it, and determined cret. Her father was next to be at. tp make my greateft advaatage by it. suched. 1.forit gained his love by my
repeated and well-timed affeverations ing the least injury to any individual. of my respect for him, and I afterwards Thus, Sir, I have given you a few gained his consent to our union by a anecdotes of my life, which more fully few compliments on his universal cha- confirms my assertion, that flattery is rity. This is the artifice that united a more useful and necessary means of me to my dear Sophia, who is one of happiness, than all the fine-fpun arguthe finest and worthiest of women. I ments of logic, with which I acknowhave pleased my father by such an un- ledge I am not well acquainted ; and doubted proof of my filial love and I am so assured of the innocence of duty; I have obtained a genteel com- pleasing others by it, that I would petency from him, and now rest assu- even attempt to flatter you, were it not red of his entire love and confidence that I know you are too wife to be in me. And, finally, by these innocent dattered. I am, Sir, means, I have procured happiness for
Your humble Servant, four worthy perions, and without do
True Original Letters from Dr Johnson to Mr Baretti, when at Milan.
London, July 20. 1762. My vanity, or my kindness, makes SIR,
me flatter myself, that you would rather Owever justly you may accuse hear of me than of those whom I have
me for want of punctuality in mentioned ; but of myself I have very correspondence, I am not so far loft in little which I care to tell. Last Winnegligence, as to omit the opportunity ter 'I went down to my native town, of writing to you which Mr Beau- where I found the streets much narclerk's passage through Milan affords rower and shorter than I thought I me.
had left them, inhabited by a new race I suppose you received the Idlers, of people, to whom I was very little and I intend that you shall soon re known. My play-fellows were grown ceive Shakespeare, that you may ex. old, and forced me to suspect that I plain his works to the ladies of Italy, was no longer young. My only reand tell them the story of the editor, a- maining friend has changed his prinmong the other strange narratives with ciples, and was become the tool of which your long residence in this unpredominant faction. My daughterknown region has supplied you.
in-law, from whom I expected most, As you have now been long away, and whom I met with sincere benevaI suppose your curiosity may pant for lence, has lost the beauty and gaiery some news of your old friends. Mifs of youth, without having gained much Williams and I live much as we did, of the wisdom of age. I wandered Miss Cotterel still continues to cling about for five days, and took the first to Mrs Porter, and Charlotte is now convenient opportunity of returning to big with the fourth child. Mr Rey, a place, where, if there is not much
gets fix thousands a year. Le- happiness, there is at least such a divet is lately married, not without much versity of good and evil, that night suspicion that he has been wretchedly vexations do not fix upon the heart. cheated in his match. Mr Chambers I think in a few weeks to try anois gone this day, for the first time, the ther excursion ; though to what end? circuit with the judges. Mr Richard. Let me know, my Baretti, what has son is dead of an apoplexy, and his fe- been the result of your return to your cond daughter has married a merchant. own country: whether time has made VOL. VII, No. 40. Ii
alteration for the better, and whe- tions about peace and war. The good ther, when the first raptures of falu- or ill success of battles and emballies tation were over, you did not find extends itself to a rery small
of your thoughts confessed their disap- domestic life: we all have good and pointment.
evil, which we feel more fenfibly than Moral sentences appear ostentatious our petty part of public mifcarriage ar and tumid, when they have no great. prosperity. I am sorry for your diser occalions than the journey of a wit appointment, with which you seem to his own town : Yet such pleasures more touched than I should expect a and fuch pains make up the general man of your resolution and experience mass of life ; and as nothing is little to have been, did I not know that geto him that feels it with great sensibi, neral truths are seldom applied to pare lity, a mind able to see common inci. ticular occasions; and that the fallacy dents in their real state, is disposed by of our self-love extends itself as wide very common incidents to very serious as our interest or affections. Every contemplations. Let us trust that a man believes that miltrefies are untime will come, when the present moe faithful, and patrons capricious ; but inent Thall be no longer irksome: when he excepts his own mistress and his we shall not borrow all our happiness own patron. We have all learned that from hope, which at last is to end in greatness is negligent and contemptudisappointment:
ous, and that in courts life is often lan, I beg that you will shew Mr Beau- guished away in ungratified expectas clerk all the civilities which you have tions ; but he that approaches greatin your power; for he has always been ness, or glitters in a court, imagines kind to me.
that destiny has at last exempted him I have lately seen Mr Stratico, Pro- from the common lot, fessor of Padua, who has told me of Do not let such evils overwhelm your quarrel with an Abbot of the you as thousands have suffered, and Celestine Order ; but had not the par- thousands have surmounted ; but turn ticulars very ready in his memory. your thoughts with vigour to fome oWhen you write to Mr Martili, let ther plan of life, and keep always in him know that I remember him with your mind, that, with due submission to kindness.
Providence, a man of genius has been May you, my Baretti, be very hap- feldom ruined but by himself. Your py at Milan, or some other place near. patron's weaknefs or insensibility will er to, Sir,
finally do you little burt, if he is not Your most affectionate affitted by your own paffions. Of your
humble Servant, love I know not the propriety, nor can Sam. JOHNSON. estimate the power; but in love, as in
every other passion, of which hope is SIR,
Dec. 21, 1763. the effence, we ought always to reOU are not to suppose, with all member the uncertainty of events.
your conviction of my idleness, There is indeed nothing that so much that I have passed all this time with- feduces reason from her vigilance, as out writing to my Baretti, I gave a the thought of palling life with an a. lerter to Mr Beauclerk, who, in my miable woman ; and if all would hap opinion, and in his own, was halten- pen that a lover fancies, I know noe ing to Naples for the recovery of his what other terrestrial happiness would health ; but he has stopped at Paris, deferve pursuit : but love and marriage and I know not when he will proceed. are different states. Those who are Langton is with him.
to suffer the evils together, and to sufI will not trouble you with specula- fer often for the sake of one another,