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sincere endeavour to fulfil his laws; to connect these, Grotius de Veritate Religionis Christiana:, Leland on Revelation, vol. II. and Clarke on the Attributes, particularly the Second Part, will be very useful ~, and on the knowledge of the Deity, Maclaurin's First Chapter of the View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy, and Abernethy on the Attributes, which will be easier than Clarke's First Part. Thus the foundation will be laid in a just fense of the nature of God and man, of creation, providence, and redemption, and the heart and understanding will be formed upon sound and strong principles. Without entering into theology the Bible may be read, and when it is read there should be some Comment at hand. Patrick and Lowth on the Old, and Whitby or Hammond on the New Testament, seem to me the best to be consulted occasionally, though there is no commentator without his faults.
In reading the Scriptures a young man may start at difficulties ; how they may arise you will see in Bishop Atterbury's, and Bishop Conybearc's Sermons on that subject.
JLowth's short Tract shews you the profitable reading of Scripture ; for one principle ought to be laid down, and kept in your mind throughout all reading relative to religion ; that is, that the gracious designs of God towards mankind are all conditional, never superseding, but always exciting and cooperating with the endeavours of men as free and rational agents *.
The study of mathematics and natural philosophy is ustfful, but the pur
suit must depend upon the turn os gel nius and disposition.
With regafd to composition and stile, the best poets are entertainment for taste and imagination; and the elegant Orations of Tully pro Arch. 2 Ligari. Mar. Marcello, and others, may be read and translated: and also particular parts ; as the end of the First Bookde Legibus; Catiline's Character in the Oration pro M. CaJio; Preface to the Orator; some of the Epistles; but the Orator and de Oratore should be read through. English; stile is better gotten by a few books than by variety, as the changes of our language have been great, and may" deceive one who is unexperienced. Sherlock's Sermons, as well as others that have a great deal of oratory as well as matter; some of the pose writings of Addison and Dryden ; and the nervous letters and speeches of Statesmen since Henry the First's time (excepting the pedantic writers) will introduce right language f.
But the real formation of jstile* (which is to express with method, propriety, and strength, what you understand clearly and correctly) will be best made by writing frequently compositions on historical and popular subjects. This will be yout own stile j and if it is attended to, whenever occasion calls, with a sensible elocution adapted to the subject and the audience, your public appearances' will be honourable and successful. This should be your ambition. The largest line of ambition in political knowledge belengs to History. Bossuet's Universal History, and £ Slei2 dao
, * Beattie on Truth; Wiskins on Natural Religion; Whole Duty of Man j Scot't Christian Life; Pearson on the Creed; Rothcrham on Faith j Nicholson on the Liturgy.
■f Homer, Ilefiod, Theocritus, Sophocles, Euripides, Horace, Virgil, Lucretius,' Ovid, Terence, Juvenal, &c. Boileau, Comeille, Racine, Moliere, &c. Shakespeare, 8pencer, Milton, Waller, Cowlev, Prior, &c. Barrow, Ti'.lotson, Sharp, Clarke, Caftrcll, Rogers, Addison, Dryden, Middleton's Life of Tully, Original Letters, Parliamentary History.
t Vide the French translation by Ablancourt; Stillingflect's Orlgines Same; Prideaux's Connection of Old and New Testament; Potter's Cr. Antiquities j Komct's Roman History; Vwtot'* Revolutions.
dan de Quatuor Monarchiis will (hew the great outlines. The Grecian history is best found by reading the whole, and selecting and translating the striking parts of Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon; but for want of the Greek language, it may be learned from parts of Sir Walter Raleigh's History of the World, Rollin, and the late History of Greece printed at Edinburgh, which is the abridgement of Rollin. The Roman History may be found in Rollin ; but Livy, Sallust, and Tacitus mould not be omitted, and others should be read occasionally. The Connection of Ancient and Modern History, from the dissolution of the Roman Empire to the rife of the Modern Monarchies, may be seen in the first volume of Robertson's History of Charles V. which is more succinct than that able performance of Giannoni's History of Naples, and more faithful and useful than Voltaire. The History of Britain will be interesting, but not of consequence, as to particulars, till the time of Henry VII. Rapin's Abridgement, with his Dissertation On the Laws of the Anglo-Saxons, Lord Littleton's Henry II. aad Blackstone's Commentaries, will shew ell that is necessary till Henry VII*.
Then persons and things may be more accurately considered, and the state of the Constitution may be explored. Foreign History is also necessary, and those parts which engage the attention will be more fully pursued in every part of History, and indeed in every part of reading whatever. This method of reading History will (hew the general events, changes, and
systems of Government, with their pro* petty and force at the respective times* In this course the motives of Legislation will appear, and the study of the different parts of the Roman, Civil, or Feudal Laws, will be more useful, by feeing their origin, their progress, and the different tinges and colours that they gave to the municipal laws of the different countries of Europe, under the present system. These laws and studies may be pursued in their proper course, as time, views, and inclinations may serve. That mind is the most happily formed, that is free from all narrow, contracted, and partial views; and thinks of men and things in a benevolent, impartial, and great light; and after such a puisuit of study with this extensive contemplation and reflection, the causes and effects of the different sorts of policy; the powers and manners of different nations in different ages; the check, progress, and revival of liberty ; the state of Arts, Science, Commerce, Population, Colonies, &c. will be deduced in the different æras.
The memory will be methodised by the help of plain Chronology and Geography; the imagination will be fired with persons and actions; and the mind will be empowered to fee through the whole system of ages and nations, and to judge upon great lines. Candour, modesty, and caution, will be the result of fair inquiry, if attended with iair temper; and aster a due insight into the present scene, a proper ambition will be animated, and directed with penetration, coolness, and vigour; and the man will be brought into action will be enabled to make usi
* Mahly on the Rife and Fall as the Romans, Cæsar, Paterculus, Suetonius, Cornelius "Nepos, Plutarch, Potybius, Hortus R. Hist, ruffendorf's Introduction a 1'IIistoirc d'Eiirope, Cainpbell'9 Vitw of the Powers of Europe, Rapin's History and Continuation, Buchanan Chron, Hist. France Mczerai, Henault's Abridgment, Abridgment of Spain, Portugal, and Italy, Necker fur 1c Corps Germaniques, Sir W. Temple, Bumet, Wooilaston and Locke, Bacon, Puffendorf, Montesquieu, Grotius, Duck de Jure Civili, Gravin. de Ortu et Progreffu, Institutes, Pandects, Vinnins, Heineecius, Huber, Hoppius, Voet, Zauk, &c. Erikine's Institutes of Scottish Law, Craig on the Feudal Law, Geographical Charts, Talent's Tables of Chronology, Maps ancient and modern, with a System of Geography.
Refutation osar. Argument in Defence of tie Slave-Trade. list)
tfon fully cultivated by knowledge and powers for the real service of his experience or men and things, and country.
and of his
An Argument used by some Writers in Defence of the Legality of the SlaveTrade, viz. tie Mixture of an Owrang-Outang •with a Female African, by •which they think a Race of Animals may be produced, partaking of the Nature of each, refuted *.
AT this time, when there ap- * and whites)' to the honour of the pears a general endeavour a- human species, and to the glory of the mong the firec-born. inhabitants of Divine Being."
Great Britain to abolish that infernal commerce carried on betwixt the Well-Indies and the coast of Africa, which sets a price on the head of Man, and converts him into a beast of burthen; permit me, through the medium of your publication, to throw my mite into the treasury of Humanity. My
So many able naturalists are of opinion that such an intercourse with brutes sometimes takes place, that I cannot but believe it: I likewise believe, that the female may be impregnated by such a prostitution; but the production of such an unnatural commerce will be, as in the cafe of a mare
intention is to set in a proper point of and ass, a mule, an animal incapable
view a circumstance on which some Writers in defence of the Slave-trade have founded much of its legality f, (vie.) the mixture of an Owran-Outang with a female African; by which they think a race of animals may be
of propagation. If the writer above quoted had allowed himself a moment's reflection on the subject, he would have seen, that if a creature had been produced by the connection of the African woman with the Owran
produced, partaking of the nature of Outang, and vice versa, capable of pro'
each. One of these writers fays, *' May it not be fairly conjectured, that the female negroes who live wandering in the wilds of Africa, are, there, frequently surprized and deflowered, by the Owran-Outang, or pther such brutes; that from thence they become reconciled, as other women who are more civilized easily are, to similar attacks, and continue to cohabit with them? If this be granted, the colonists of die West-Indies are instrumental in 'humanizing the def
* cendants of the offspring of brutes
* (for a generation or two will change
* their nature, as much as a negro is
creation, the harmony of the animal system must have been ruined. The new animal, neither brute nor human, might possibly again mix with an ani» mal not of its own species; the consequence of which would be, the production of another new creature, partaking of the nature of both its parents, but differing essentially from one and the other; and soon adinfinitum. Thus might this promiscuous intercourse proceed, till the whole order of animals would be in the utmost confusion. But the all-wise Creator of the Universe, foreseeing that such unnatural propensities would sometimes
* changed to a mulatto, mustee, or take place, has guarded against their 'quadroon, by the intercourse of blacks effects by raising an insurmountable ■ barrier,
* Europ Mag.
t By the legality of the Slave-trade I mean that power delegated to man. of enslaving the animals lower in the scale than himself, and which those writers would extend to the native of Africai from an idea that he hat a mixture of brute-blood is his body.
Refutation of an Argument in Defence of the Slave-Ti ade.
barrier, which is no other than rendering the offspring of such an intercourse Jierile. So that it is impossible a new race of animals should be produced by the mixture of a male and female of different species, as in the female African arrd Owran-Outang.
From this, I presume, it appears that no such change can be effected in the animal descended from the human and brute species, if any are brought to the Well-Indies, as these writers speak of. That a generation or two will change their nature as much as ■the negro is changed to a mulatto, &c. by the intercourse of the whites and blacks, cannot be. The negro of Africa is a branch of the fame stock with the European, whether English, er French, a Spaniard or a Portuguese: the difference in the colour of his skin, perhaps, is the effect of climate; the poorness of his intellectual faculties may rife from the fame cause; ■but still he is as much a human creature as the molt relined European. And the strongest argument to prove this assertion is, that the product of an -European and an African is an animal fruitful as its parents. The aniimals these writers speak of (is such there are) as being humanized in a few generations, exist but in themselves; and'if my reasoning is admitted, they have no proercative powers; £> that the species, if I may be allowed to give it that appellation, begins find ends in the fame individual animal; and the prospect of a change taking place in such monsters, for monsters they certainly are, similar to that effected by a mixture of European and African blood, is merely ideal.
But lest it may be supposed that the affinity between the negro and the Owran-Outang is nearer than I imagine, I shall endeavour to bring some authorities to prove that the chasm betwixt the two is so large as to render them of distinct species. Owran-Outang is the name by which this animal is known in. the East-Indies.
Mons. de Buffon describes twoTundS of them, which he looks upon as a ■variety in the fame species; the largest he calls Pongo, and the small one Jocko. Linnæus is supposed to describe one of them under the name os Noclurnal Man. But the size of the animal he describes does not agree with the Pongo; and the Jocko, tho' it is of the fame size as the Nocturnal Man, differs from it, fays Buffon, in every other character. I can affirm, adds the fame author, from having several times seen it, that it not only does not express itself by speaking or whistling, hut even that it did not do a single tiling but what a well-instructed dog could do. This celebrated naturalist (Buffon) even doubts the existence of the Nocturnal Man, an animal which in description comes very near human nature. Those, therefore, who have formed their notions of the Owran-Outang from Linnaeus's description, it should seem have been misled; the travellers from whom he has his authorities having in all probability imperfectly described a white Negro, or Chacielas.
The Pongo, or, as it is called in Guinea, the Barris, is probably the creature which is supposed sometimes to cohabit with the women of the country. He is described by Barrel, as being of a gigantic stature, and of astonislung strength; his body, externally, scarce differing from that of mao, except that he has no calves to his legs. He lives upon fruits, and is no ways carnivorous. The want of the muscles which form the calves of the legs, constitutes an essential difference from the human species; as well as his living only on vegetables: for man is by nature a carnivorous animal, as may be demonstrated by the structure of his teeth and digestive organs. The Pongo, from this writer's account of him, does not appear to have any thing like a language, as in the animal described by Linnæus, but is to all intents a brute, endowed with somewhat
Original Letters, fy DryAeti $2B
femcwhat a greater degree of instinct which prove, that the organs in the
human frame destined to the purposes of articulation, are in this brute so formed as to render it totally incapable of speech: I repeat, if these observations are taken collectively, they abundantly prove this animal nearer allied to brutes than to man. Though the Owran-Outang is not in my opinion sufficiently allied to man to produce an intermediate- species, yet I believe he may be the link which connects the rational creature to the brute. From the united authority of able naturalists, there is not a doubt but man and the Owran-Outang are ofdistinct and widely-separated species. Therefore, the few solitary animals, produced by this unnatural mixture, said to have been brought to the.WestIndies, and which I believe are in* capable of procreation, afford no argu-. ment in favour of a commerce fraught > with the blackest acts of treachery,, and teeming with practices the bare re- i lation of which makes human nature, shudder.
than his fellow-brutes. Tyson, who has given an accurate anatomical description of the Pigmie (Jocko), demonstrates a great difference between the internal structure of that animal and man, sufficient, I think, to prove them of distinct species. And Professor Camper, by a dissection of the larinx, &c. of the Owran-Outang, and several other species of monkeys, has clearly demonstrated the impossibility of their (peaking.
If we take the observations I have cited collectively, they amount to a positive proof of the Owran-Outang being very far removed from the human species. In the first place, Buffon asserts that it is not capable of doing more than a well-taught dog; secondly, it universally wants the gastrocneimi muscles, a striking character in the human frame; and its teeth and organs of digestion are such as the granivorous animals are known alone to possess ; and, thirdly, the demonstrations of Camper (a competent judge),
'Three autegraphical Letters. The first from the Wife of Dryden, the other, two fie-m that great Poet hiinfdf; addressed to the famous Dr Busby. ,
Asccntiori-daj . Homnoured Sir,
I Hope I need use noe other argument to you in excuse os my sonn for not coming to church to Westminster then this, that he now lies at home, and therefore cannot efiilly goe foe farr backwards and forwards. His father and I will take care that he shall duely goe to church heare, both on hplvdaycs and Sundays, till lie comes Jo be more nearly under your care in the college. In the mean time, will yon plea* to give me leave to accuse yon of forgetting your promis conserntrig my eldest sonn, who, as you once assured me, was to have one night in a weeke alowed bun to lie at home,
in confidirafion both of his health and
WE have, with much ado, reco-_' vered my younger sonn, who came home extreamly sick of a violent cold, and, as he thinks himselse, a chine, cough. The truth is, his constitution is very tender; yet his desire of learn