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Gincere endeavour to fulfil his laws ; fuit must depend upon the turn of ge! to conhect these, Grotius de Veritate nius and disposition. Religionis Chriftiana, Leland on Re- With regard to composition and velation, vol. II. and Clarke on the stile, the best poets are entertainment Attributes, particularly the Second for taste and imagination ; and the ePart, will be very ufeful; and on the legant Orations of Tully pro Arch. knowledge of the Deity, Maclaurin's 2 Ligari. Mar. Marcello, and others, First Chapter of the View of Sir Isaac may be read and translated: and also Newton's Philosophy, and Abernethy particular parts; as the end of the First on the Attributes, which will be ea- Book de Legibus; Catiline's Character fier than Clarke's First Part. Thus in the Oration pro M. Cælio ; Prethe foundation will be laid in a just face to the Orator; some of the Esense of the nature of God and man, pistles; but the Orator and de Oraof creation, providence, and redemp- tore should be read through. Englith tion, and the heart and understanding stile is better gotten by a few books will be formed upon found and strong than by variety, as the changes of our principles. Without entering into the language have been great, and may ology the Bible may be read, and when deceive one who is unexperienced. it is read there should be fome Com- Sherlock's Sermons, as well as others ment at hand. Patrick and Lowth that have a great deal of oratory as on the Old, and Whitby or Hammond well as matter; some of the prose wrion the New Testament, seem to me tings of Addison and Dryden ; and the best to be confulted occasionally, the nervous letters and speeches of though there is no commentator with- Statesmen fince Henry the First's out his faults.
time (excepting the pedantic writers) In reading the Scriptures a young will introduce right language to man may start at difficulties ; how they But the real formation of stile may arise you will see in Bishop At" (which is to express with method, terbury's, and Bishop Conybeare's propriety, and strength, what you Sermons on that fubject.
uitderstand clearly and correctly) will Lowth's short Tract shews you the be beft made by writing frequentprofitable reading of Scripture ; for one ly compositions on historical and po. principle ought to be laid down, and pular subjects. This will be your own kept in your mind throughout all read itile; and if it is attended to, whening relative to religion ; that is, that ever occasion calls, with a sensible ethe gracious designs of God towards locution adapted to the subject and mankind are all conditional, never fu- the audience, your public appearances perseding, but always exciting and co- will be honourable and successful, operating with the endeavours of men This should be your ambition. The as free and rational agents *. largest line of ambition in political : The study of mathematics and na- knowledge belongs to History. Boftural philosophy is useful, but the pur. fuer's Universal History, and † SleiEe 2
dan Beattie on Truth ; Wilkins on Natural Religion ; Whole "Duty of Man Scot's Chriftian Life; Pearson on the Creed ; Rotherham on Faith ; Nicholson on the Liturgy.
+ Homer, Hefiod, Theocritus, Sophocles, Euripides, Horace, Virgil, Lucretius, Ovid, Terence, Juvenal, &c. Boileau, Corneille, Racine, Moliere, &c. Shakespeare, Spencer, Milton, Waller, Cowley, Prior, &c. Barrow, Tillotson, Sharp, Clarke, Caftrell, Rogers, Addison, Dryden, Middleton's Life of Tully, Original Letters, Parliamentary History.
I Vide the French translation by Ablancourt ; Stillingfleet's Origines Sacræ ; Prideaux's Connection of Old and New Testament ; Potter's Gr. Antiquities ; Keanet's Roman History ; Vertot's Revolutions.
dan de Quatuor Monarchiis will few systems of Government, with their pros
Then persons and things may be will be empowered to see through the more accurately considered, and the whole system of ages and nations, and state of the Constitution may be ex- to judge upon great lines. Candour, plored. Foreign History is also ne- modesty, and caution, will be the receffary, and those parts which engage fult of fair inquiry, if attended with the attention will be more fully pure fair temper ; and after a due insight sued in every part of History, and in- into the present scene, a proper ambideed in every part of reading whatever, tion will be animated, and directed This method of reading History will with penetration, coolness, and vigour; shew the general events, changes, and and the man will be brought into ac
tion Mably on the Rise and Fall of the Romans, Cæsar, Paterculus, Suetonius, Cornelius Nepos, Plutarch, Polybius, Hortus R. Hift. Puffendorf's Introduction a l'Histoire d'Europe, Campbell's View of the Powers of Europe, Rapin's History and Continuation, Buchanan Chron, Hift. France Mezerai, Henault's Abridgment, Abridgment of Spain, Portugal, and Italy, Necker sur le Corps Germaniques, Sir W. Temple, Burnet, Woollaston and Locke, Bacon, Puffendorf, Montesquieu, Grotius, Duck de Jure Civili, Gravin. de Ortu et Progreffu, Institutes, Pandects, Vinnius, Heineccius, Huber, Hoppius, Voet, Zauk, &c. Erskine's Institutes of Scottish Law, Craig on the Feudal Law, Geographical Charts, Talent's 'Tables of Chronology, Maps ancient and modern, with a Syftem of Geography,
dion fully cultivated by knowledge and powers for the real service of his experience of men and things, and country. will be enabled to make use of his
An Argument used by fome Writers in Defence of the Legality of the Slave
Trade, viz. the Mixture of an Owrang-Outang awith a Female African, by which they think a Race of Animals may be produced, partaking of the Nature of each, refuted *.
T this time, when there ap- and whites) to the honour of the
pears a general endeavour a. human species, and to the glory of the mong the firec-born, inhabitants of Divine Being.” Great Britain to abolish that infernal So many able naturalists are of ocommerce carried on betwixt the pinion that such an intercourse with Welt-Indies and the coast of Africa, brutes sometimes takes place, that I which sets a price on the head of Man, cannot but believe it : I likewise beand converts him into a beast of bur- lieve, that the female may be imprego then; permit me, through the medium nated by such a prostitution ; but the of your publication, to throw my mite production of such an unnatural cominto the treasury of Humanity. My merce will be, as in the case of a mare intention is to set in a proper point of and ass, a mule, an animal incapable view a circumstance on which some of propagation. If the writer above writers in defence of the Slave-trade quoted had allowed himself a mohave founded much of its legality t, ment's reflection on the subject, he (viz.) the mixture of an Owran-Ou- would have seen, that if a creature tang with a female African; by which had been produced by the connection they think a race of animals may be of the African woman with the Owranproduced, partaking of the nature of Outang, and vice versa, capable of pro. each. One of these writers says, creation, the harmony of the animal "May it not be fairly conjectured, fyftem must have been ruined. The that the female negroes who live wan- new animal, neither brute nor human, dering in the wilds of Africa, are, might posfibly again mix with an ani. there, frequently surprized and de- mal not of its own fpecies; the confowered by the Owran-Outang, or sequence of which would be, the proother such brutes ; that from thence duction of another new creature, parthey become reconciled, as other wo- taking of the nature of both its par men who are more civilized easily are, ents, but differing effentially from one to similar attacks, and continue to co- and the other; and so on ad infinituma habit with them? If this be granted, Thus might this promiscuous inter. the colonists of the Welt-Indies are course proceed, till the whole order inftrumental in humanizing the def- of animals would be in the utmost cendants of the offspring of brutes confusion. But the all-wise Creator
(for a generation or two will change of the Universe, foreseeing that such • their nature, as much as a negro is unnatural propensities would sometimes
changed to a mulatto, multee, or take place, has guarded against their quadroon, by the intercourse of blacks effects by railing an insurmountable
barrier, * Europ Mag.
+ By the legality of the Slave-trade I mean that power delegated to man. of enNaving the animals
' lower in the scale than himself, and which those writers would extend to the native of Africa, from an idea that he has a mixture of brute-blood in his body
barrier, which is no other than render. Monf. de Buffon describes two kinds ing the offspring of such an intercourse of them, which he looks upon as a sterile. So that it is impossible a new variety in the fame fpecies ; the larrace of animals should be produced gest he calls Pongo, and the small one by the mixture of a male and female Jocko. Linnæus is supposed to de. of different species, as in the female fcribe one of them under the name of African and Owran-Outang.
Nocturnal Man. But the size of the From this, I presume, it appears animal he describes does not agree that no such change can be effected in with the Pongo; and the Jocko, tho' the animal descended from the human it is of the fame size as the Nocturnal and brute species, if any are brought Man, differs from it, says Buffon, in to the Welt-Indies, as these writers every other character. I can affirm, speak of. That a generation or two adds the fame author, from having will change their nature as much as several times seen it, that it not only the negro is changed to a mulatto, does not express itself by speaking or &c. by the intercourse of the whites whistling, but even that it did not do and blacks, cannot be. The negro of a single thing but what a well-instrucAfrica is a branch of the same stock ted dog could do. This celebrated with the European, whether English naturalist (Buffon) even doubts the or French, a Spaniard or a Portuguese: existence of the Nocturnal Man, an the difference in the colour of his animal which in description comes skin, perhaps, is the effect of climate ; very near human nature. Those, therethe poorncis of his intellectual facul- fore, who have formed their notions of ties may rise from the fame cause; the Owran-Outang from Linnæus's but still he is as much a human crea- description, it should seem have been
ture as the most refined European. milled; the travellers from whom he And the strongest argument to prove has his authorities having in all pro. this assertion is, that the product of an bability imperfectly described a white European and an African is an ani. Negro, or Chacrelas. mal fruitful as its parents. The ani- The Pongo, or, as it is called in mals these writers speak of (if fuch Guinea, the Barris, is probably the there are) as being humanized in a creature which is supposed sometimes few generations, exist but in them- to cohabit with the women of the felves; and if my reasoning is admit- country. He is described by Battel, ted, they have no procreative powers ; as being of a gigantic stature, and of fo that the species, if I may be allow- astonishing strength; his body, extered to give it that appellation, begins nally, scarce differing from that of man; end ends in the fame individual ani- except that he has no calves to his mal; and the prospect of a change legs. He lives upon fruits, and is no taking place in such monsters, for ways carnivorous. The want of the monsters they certainly are, similar to muscles which form the calves of the that effected by a mixture of European legs, constitutes an essential difference and African blood, is merely ideal. from the human species; as well as
But left it may be fuppofed that the his living only on vegetables : for effinity between the negro and the man is by nature a carnivorous aniOwran-Outang is nearer than I ima- mal, as may be demonstrated by the gine, I shall endeavour to bring fomé structure of his teeth and digestive er: authorities to prove that the chalm be- gans. The Pongo, from this writer's twixt the two is so large as to render account of him, does not appear to them of distinct fpecies. Owran-Ou- have any thing like a language, as in tang is the name by which this ani- the animal described by Linnæus, but mal is known in the East-Indies. is to all intents a brute, endowed with
fomewhat Comewhat a greater degree of instinct which prove, that the organs in the than his fellow-brutes. Tyson, who human frame destined to the purposes has given an accurate anatomical de- of articulation, are in this brute fo fcription of the Pigmie (Jocko), de- formed as to render it totally incapamonstrates a great difference between ble of speech: I repeat, if these obthe internal structure of that animal fervations are taken collectively, they and man, fufficient, I think, to prove abundantly prove this animal nearer them of distinct species. And Pro- allied to brutes than to man. Though fessor Camper, by a dissection of the the Owran-Outang is not in my opilarinx, &c. of the Owran-Outang, nion fufficiently allied to man to proand several other species of monkeys, duce an intermediate- fpecies, yet I. has clearly demonftrated the imposti- believe he may be the link which bility of their speaking.
connects the rational creature to the If we take the observations I have brute. From the united authority of: cited collectively, they amount to a able naturalists, there is not a doubt. positive proof of the Owran-Outang but man and the Owran-Outang are being very far removed from the hu- of distinct and widely-separated species. man species. In the first place, Buf. Therefore, the few folitary animals. fon afferts that it is not capable of do- produced by this unnatural mixture, ing more than a well-taught dog; fe- said to have been brought to the Westcondly, it universally wants the gaf. Indies, and which I believe are introcnemii muscles, a striking character capable of procreation, afford no argu-. in the human frame; and its teeth ment in favour of a commerce fraught, and organs of digestion are such as the with the blackest acts of treachery, granivorous animals are known alone and teeming with practices the bare re: to possess; and, thirdly, the demonftra- lation of which makes human nature. tions of Camper (a competent judge), shudder.
Three autographical Letters. The first from the Wife of Dryden, the other two from that great Poet himself ; addressed to the famous Dr Bulby.
Ascention-day (1682). in confidirasion both of his health and HONNOURED SIR,
cleanliness : you know, Sir, that promo,
ment to you in excuse of my sonn mothers, will never faill to be cald upfor not coming to church to Westmin. on; and thear I will add noe more fter then this, that he now lies at but that I am, at this time, your ré. home, and therefore cannot esiilly goe membrancer, and allwayes, foe farr backwards and forwards. His Honnard Sir, your humble servant, father and I will take care that he shall
E. DRYDEN, ducly goe to church heare, both on holydayes and Sundays, til he comes Wednesday Morning to be more nearly under your care in HONNOURD SIR, [1682.] the college. In the mean time, will you pleas to give me leave to accue! WE bare, with much ado
, recoyou of forgetting your promis consern. came home extreamly fick of a violent · ing my eldest sonn, who, as you once cold, and, as he thinks himselfe, a chine affured me, was to have one night in cough. The truth is, his constitucion a weeke alowed him to lie at home, is very tender; yet his desire of learn