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Direflhm ghtn by Rkhard II. about his Funeral.
"Dum vixit," says Walsingham, "omnes regcs orbit gloria & magnificentia superuvit;" which character in his history he greatly enlarges, contrasting his magnanimity with his affability, discretion, moderation, munificence, and the mildness of his government.
Hie eras (fays an old Chronicle in the Cottonian Library, cited by Weever) flat mundane mill', le, sub quo militare erat regnare, proficisci proficerhr, eonjligere, triumpbare. Hi; vere Ednvardus quanrais in kojles terribilis extitcrat, in subditos tamen mitifjimus fuerat £tf gratiosus, pietate & ntiferifordia armies pene sms pr#ce!!cr.s ante ceffores.
Milles fays, " It is reported that his Queen made it her dying request, that he would choose, none other sepulchre thaq that wherein her body should be layed." This he had from Froissart, who mentions two other dying requests made by her. "When the good lady knew that she must die, she sent for the king, and when he came she drew her right hand out of the bed, and putting it into his right hand, the good lady said, 'We have lived all our time together in peace, joy, and prosperity, I beg you at this parting to grant me three favours.' The king in tears replied, * Ask, Madam, and jt shall he done and granted. She then requested, « that he would discharge die money due from her to foreign merchants, that he would pay her legacies to the several churches both at home and abroad, and to her servants, and that he would choose no other place of burial, but liq by her in Westminster Abbey.' All these he promised to fulfil. The good lady then made the sign of the true cross on him, and commended the king and her youngest son Thomas, who stood by him, to God, and presently after (he resigned her soul; which, says the honest writer, I firmly believe was received by the holy angels, and conveyed to heavenly bliss! for never in her life did she do or think any thing
which should endanger her salvation !** Thus died this Queen at Windsor, <n the vigil of our Lady, in the middle of August 1369.
It is remarkable of this Prince, as well as his grandfather, that we hear of no natural children of his, though Walsingham seems to ascribe his death to some amorous indulgences of his dotage with Alice Price.
The pleasures of his youth were the chace and building, in which he passed all the time he could spare from government and conquest.
Direflions given by Richard II. aisut his Funeral. FROM the will of this unfortunate king (the first who had the permission of Parliament to make a will) it appears that he had erected this monument to himself and his beloved consort in his life-time. His directions about his funeral, the arraying of his body, and the procession, are no less, curious. It was to be celebrated more regio, -with Jour herses in four separate, places j two with five lights in the two principal churches to which his body might happen to be carried; a third jn St Paul's Church; and the fourth, in a style of superior magnificence, full of lights, in the church of Westminster. The procession was to travel fourteen, fifteen, or sixteen miles a day, as the stations suited, surround* ed by twenty-four wax torches, -diy and night, to which an hundred more were to be added when it pasted thro* London. But if he chanced to die within sixteen, fifteen, ten, or five miles of his palace at Westminster, these herses were to be set out for four days together, in four principal intermediate places ) or if there were no places that answered this description, then in four other places, as bis executors, should determine; and if he died in his palace at Westminster, then one very solemn herse for four days; but on the last day stril more honourable exeqyies. If his corpse should happen to be lost it sea, or by any other accident, which God forbid! ab hominum aspeilibus rapiatur; or should he die in a part of the world whence it could not easily be brought to England, the same directions touching bodt the funeral and monument were nevertheless to be observed; His corpse was to be arrayed in velvet or white sattin, more regio, with a gilt crown and sceptre, but without any stones j except the precious stone in the ring of his finger, more regfos of the value of twenty merles of English money. Every catholic king was to receive on the occasion a present of a gold cup of the value sis />-45 English money j and bis successor) provided he fulfilled his will, was to have all the crowns, gold, plate, furniture of his chapel, certain beds and hangings ; and the rest of his jewels and plate was to be applied towards furnishing the buildings he had begun at the nave of the abbey church at Westminster.
Death of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester.
Simon- de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, being slain at the battle of Evelham, his head, hands, feet, and prhitics cut off on the field by Roger Mortimer, and the former sent to Wigtoore castle, by leave of the king, the trunk was carried away on a weak old Ldder, covered with a torn cloth, to the abbey church of Evesham, and, wrapt in a sheet, committed to the earth, before the lower step of the high altar there, with his eldest son Henry and Hugh Lord Despenccr, who fell with him. But shortly after, some of the monks alledging that he died excommunicate and attainted of treason, «nd therefore did not deserve Christian burial, they took up his corpse, and buried it in a remote place, known to few.
One of his hands being carried into Cheshire by the servant of one of the king's party, was, at the elevation of the host in the parish church, mi
raculously lifted up higher than the heads of all the assistants, notwithst ending it had been sewed up in a bag, and kept in the bearer's bosom. One of his feet was carried by John de Vescy, the founder, to Alnwic abbey, where continuing several months uncorrupted, the monks made for it a silver shoe. It had a wound between the little and the third toe, made either by a knife or sword in the mangling of the body. The distant sight of this foot wrought instant cures. A canon of Alnwic, who swore the Earl was a traitor, lost first his eyes, and then his life. "Think," cries out the monk of Mailros, who relates this story, " what will be the glory of this "foot at its rejunction to Simon's "body after the general judgement, "from the companion of this foot be"fore that great event, which dis"played such healing powers through "the silver shot, out of which went "invisible virtue to heal the sick." The other foot wa§ sent, as a mark of contempt, by the victor to Llewcllid. Prince of Wales, who had formed an alliance wirh this Earl, and married his daughter. Though it is not to be doubted that this also was endowed with a power of working miracles, they were not sufficiently authenticated to be recorded. His other hand was preserved with great reverence at Evesham, where it may fairly be presumed to have wrought miracles ; " for "God, continues my author, does not "so justify one part of a man by theft "powers as to leave another part with* "out the fame." This chronicler, in his enthusiasm for the Earl, compares him with his namesake Simon Peter, celebrates his exemplary vigilance and habit of rising at midnight, his abstinence, and his moderation in dross, always wearing haircloth next his skin, and over it at home a ruffet habit; and in public, blovet, ot bur net; and hie constant language was,,that he would not desert the just defence of England, which he had undertaken for God'a
fcfcr, th+ough the love of life, or the
declamations of the moderhs aqasr.4 him, it is not easy to decide whether ambition or the public good was the motive of his opposition to his fo» vereign, who had been his benefactor, and whose sister he had married. Thf chronicler osMailros appeal? lo heaven foi the justice ofhis cause, and the miracles wrought at the tomb ofhis associate Hugh Dcfpcncer, who was chief just, ice of England; and the chronicles of Waverly scruples not to call his death a glorious martyrdom for his country, and, the good of the kingdom and the church; while Garte condemns him as a traitor; and Tyrrcl lays, he and his family perished, and came to nought in a sew y^-urs. Knighton fays, he reproached his sons for having brought him to his end by their pride and presumption. Mr Philips, owner of the site of F.vesham-abbcy, digging. a foundation for a wall between the church-yard and his garden, found the skeleton of a man in armour, pro? bably one of the heroes that fell in this
1 or.itionibus religiosorum, ecclesiasti' T* cis fliagnam semper impendens reverse entiam." These a;c the words of battle. He scrupulously left it Matthew Paris, who adds, that he had toucht, and built the wall upon it. £ high opinion of bishop Grostcire. ** Ipiius consilio tractabat ardua, ten** tabat dubia, finivit inchoata, ea max"ime per quæ meritum sibi sucrescere ♦' aitimub.it i" that the bishop promised him the crown osmartyrdom for his defence of the church, and foretold that both he and his son would die the (ame day in the cause of justice and .truth. His professions of religion (for ISe and all his army received the'sacra■ment before they took the field J and his opposition to the king's oppressive measures, made him the idol of the plonks and the populace. Tyrrel fays she had seen at the end of a MS. in ■the public library at Cambridge, cerJain prayers directed to him as a faint, ,with many rhyming verses in his praise, and the Pope was obliged to re» press these extravagances. He certainly was possessed of noble qualities; J>ut amid the prejudices of antient writers in bis favour,, and the. violent
Anccdotct <f Sir John Multravers, on AJociat: in the Murder ^Edward II. THIS tnan, associate with Sir Thomas Gurney in the cruel muider of Edward II. at Berkeley castle, recei* ved his pardon for that atrocious deed on account of his services in Edward III.'s wars in France, and had the government of Guernsey conferred on him. Hollinilicd, speaking of him before thi death of Edward II. calli him John Lord Matrevers, and is author I ltd herein by the title .of Baron on his tomb, though Dugdale fays none of the family were Barons beforsi I Edward III. Rapin fays, Maltra* vers spent his days in exile in Germany, whither he retired immediately after the fact; for which Gurney was beheaded at sea three years after (153*, Ryrucr) as they were bringing him into England under arrest from Bay* «coe, Thomas d.c la Mare fays rf Mduavcrs,
M.iltravers, that diu latti't in Germany, hellion, and fled for it. It is not cer*
which is literally translated by Speed, 4 Edward III, he had judgment to be put to death wherever he could be found, for the murder of Edmond Earl of Kent, as the record alledges. It appears in Rymer, that his attainder was reverst by an act dated at Guilford, Dec. 28, 1347, because it Wa3 contrary to law, he having never been heard io his defence. He came to the King at Sloys, iz Edward III. and afterwards at London. But the reversal was on
tain whether his lands were seized for this, 5 Edward III. Dugdale confounds his and his father's wife at first, but afterwards distinguishes them; the fathe: having married Agnes widow of John Argentine and John Nerford; and the son Wentliana. Agnes was second wife to John the elder, who had by he. another son, who died 9 Richard II. leaving two daughters, of whom the younger married Hum* . phrey Stafford, whose father, Sir Hum
ly on condition he appeared at court phrey Stafford, had married her mo
when summoned. Carte says, he liv ed 26 years in Germany, and finding means to do some services to Edward III. he came and threw himself at the King's feet in Flanders, submitting his life to his disposal, and was par
ther. Agnes made her will in the parish of St John Zachary, London, 1374, by which she orders her body" to be buried near her husband, if she died in Dorsetshire or Wilts; but iF. in Hertfordshire or Cambridgeshire, at doned. Dugdale adds from the Par- Wimondley priory, to which she gave. liament Rolls, that he lost all his goods her plate after her son's death, in his services in Flanders, and suffer- The estates of this family were coned great oppression; and having ob- sideiable in Dorset; where Dugdale tain ed licence to return to England, traces them back to the time of Henry
III. Lechiot Maltravers seems to' have been their mansion-house.
he procured a full pardon in Parliament 25 Edward III. and again had summons to sit there, the first of his family. Next year, upon his son's death, he had the government of Guernsey, Jersey, Sark, and Aurency, and was in the expedition against
The Peacock a favourite Dish of the
France 29 Edward III. He found- that noble bird, thesodoflovers and the
ed an hospital for poor men and wo- meat of lords*'.—Few dishes were in
men at Bowes in Guernsey, and died higher fashion in the 13th century,
16 Feb. 28 Edward III. 1365 j so and there was scarce any royal or no
that as he was 30 at the death of his ble feast without it. They stuffed
father, 24 Edward I. and was knight- it with spices and sweet herbs, and
ed 34 Edward I. he must have been covered the head with a cloth, which
59 at the time of his death; and had time to reconcile* hiinself to God as well as to his Sovereign;—if any thing but the deepest contrition on his part could expiate so atrocious a crime ; for which his epitaph solicits the prayers of its readers, and their salvation for their piety. He begs hard, and offers handsomely, for the pardon of his aggravated (ins.
His son, John Maltravers, was concerned in the Earl of Lancaster's re
, Vol.. VII. No 39
was kept constantly wetted, to preserve the crown. They roasted it, and served it up whole, covered after dressing with the skin and feathers on, the comb entire, and the tail spread. Some persons covered it with leaf gold instead of its skin, and put a piece of cotton dipt in spirits into its beak, to which they set fire as they put it on the table. The honour of serving it up was reserved for the ladies most' distinguished for birth, rank, or beau
Such arc the epithets bestowed OB it by Romance -writers.
Short Hints, by Dr Robert Drummond, Archbishop of York, to Laid Deflisord, going to begin his Education at Oxford *.
N. B. Besides the books mentioned in the body of the page, those set down in the Notes may be of use.
I Should be diffident in giving my advice to a young Nobleman where my affections are concerned, for fear of drawing him into a mistaken course of study. But yet as my affections urge me strongly, I will hazard even my judgment, though I may fail, notwithstanding my earnest desire to be of some sort of service to a friend and a relation.
My judgment, as far as it goes with regard to a young Nobleman who is a stranger to public education, to Greek and composition, is this: that his ambition should be carried forward towards die greater lines of public life, by such methods of knowledge that may suit him, and yet enable him to appear with credit 10 himself and service to his country. All knowledge should be laid in principle; principle is founded on reason and morality. Without tiring a person unused to application, I would (hew him a short and yet profitable way, without a great deal of dryness and trouble.
It has always appeared to me, that
pleasure cannot arise, except the mind feels an ambition to push on to the object which is thus in view, and to enlarge its powers.
A system of morality need not be dry, but it is a necessary foundation. Burlemaqui's Droit Naturel, Puffendorf's Devoirs d'Homme et de Citoyen par Barbeyrac, and the Extracts of the Socratic Philosophy from Xenophon and Platof, for the use of Westminster school, are short books and pleasurable. In Tully and Socrates you fee all that was valuable amongst the Academics, which indeed was the only sect that carried the efforts of reason as far as it would then go. Of the other two sects (for there are but three great ones) the Stoics hurt the cause of their virtue by over-raring its power; and the Epicureans debased it.
To connect the system os natural religion as to theory and practice with Christianity, which is the perfection of morality, and that method of salvation which the Deity revealed to mankind
there can be no profitable application through Christ, that they may be aswithout pleasure in reading, and that sured of eternal happiness upon their
* Europ. Mag.
\ Oeurres de Phton, pnr Dacier, 1 vols. Xenophon's Memoirs of Socrates* Epictttus, and Aatouiaui,- HuWhhuWs Moral Philosophy.