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this he replaced them in a glass hive, where they soon began to work as tisual. The qtieen laid eggs, which, to iiis great surprise, were impregnated; sot he imagined he had separated all the drones, or males, and therefore orritted watching them; at the end of twenty days he found several of his eggs had, in the usual course os changes, produced bees, while some had withered away, and others were covered with honey. Hence he inferred, that some of the males had efbaped his notice, ami impregnated fart of the eggs. To convince himself of this, he took away all the brood comb that was in the hive," in order to oblige the bees to provide a fresh quantify, being determined to watch narrowly their morions after new eggs should be laid in the colls. On the
• second day after the eggs were placed in the cells; he perceived the fame Operation that was mentioned before, homely, that of the bees hanging down in the form of a curtain, while others thrust the posterior part of the body into the cells. Ke then introduced his hand into the hive, broke off a piece of the comb, in which there ■were two of these insects; he found in neither of them any sting (a circumstance peculiar to the drones ;) tipon 'dissection, with the assistance of a microscope; he discovered the four ryiinrfrical bodies which contain the glutinous Kcpior, of a whitish colour, as observed by Maraldi in the large 'drones. He was therefore now untler a necessity of repeating his experiments," ih destroying the males, and even yhofe whicn might be suspected to be ftch,
• He once -more immersed the same bees in water, and when they appeared «"* senseless state, he gently pressed every "one, in Order to distingnfh those tirrrrefcl with stings from those which liad none, and which of course he sirp^ posed to be males: of these last he ■found fifty-seven, and replaced the Iwarra in a glass hive, where they im
mediately replied again to tne wOrlt of making ceils, and on the fourth of fifth day, very early in the morning, he had the pleasure to see the queen bee drtpsit-her eggs in those cells: he. continued watching most part of the" ensuing days, but could discover nothing of what he had seen before.
The eggs after the fourth dav, instead of changing in the manner of caterpillars, were found in the fame state they were the first day, except that some were covered with honey. A singular event happened the next dav, about noon j all the bees lest their own hive, and \*Jvo seen attempting to get into a neighbouring hivej on the stool cf which the queen was found dead, being no doubt stain in the egngement.' This event seems to have arisen from the great desire of perpetrating their species, and xo which end the concurrence of the malfi seems so absolutely necessary j it made them desert their habitation, where no males were left, in order to fix a residence in a new one, in which there was a good stock of them.
To be further satisfied, Mr Dcbraw took the brood-comb, wliich hik not been impregnated, and divided A into tv.'o parts; one he placed undet a glass bell,'No. i, with honey-comb for the bees food, taking tare to leave, a queen, but no drones, among the bees confined in it: the other piece of brood-comb he pLced under another glass bell, No. 2, with a few drones, a queen, and a proportionable number of common bees. • The result was-, 'that in the glass, No. I, there was: :no impregnation, the eggs remained A 'the fame state they were in when fxk into the glass; and on-giving the bees their liberty en the seventh day* they all flew away, as wa» found to be the 'case in the former experiment; whereas in tiie glass, No. 1, the very 'day 'after the bees had been put into it, 'the eggs were impregnated by the drones, and the bees did not least their hives on receiving their liberty.
Ode en th Popular Superstitions es the Highlands.
■ "The editor of the Cyclopædia fays, that the small drones arc all dead before the end of May, when the la<*cr Jjiecieiappear, andiupersede their use; and that it is not without reason, that
a modem author suggests, thawa small number of drones are reserved, to supply the necessities of the ensuing year;" but that they. are very little, if any, larger than the common bee.
Ode on the Popular Superstitions is the Highlands of Scotland. Written fythe lat: Mr William Collins*.
AT a meeting of the Literary Class leting many lines and words, and sub*
of the Royal Society, held on stituting others, which are written a
Mondiv 19th April 1784, the Rev. bove them. In particular, the greatt
DrC-irlyle read an ode, written by the" eft part of the twelfth stanza is new-,
late Mi Wm. Collins, and addressed modelled in tliat manner. These va»
to John Home, Esq; (author of Dou- nations I have marked in'nates on the
glas, Sec.) on his return to Scotland in 1749. The committee appointed to superintend the publication of the Society's Transactions having judged this ode to be extremely deserving of l place in that collection, requested Mr Alex. Fiaser Tytler, one of their number, to procure from Dr Catlyle every'degree of information which he could give concerning it. This information, which forms a proper iir.roductton to the poem itself, is contained in the two following letters.
i^lter from Mr Alex. Fraser Tytler , /3 Mr John Robisen, General Se~ cretary of the Royal Society ^"Edinburgh.
AT,' the desire of the Committee for publishing the Royal Society's Transactions, I wrote to Dr Car
copy which is inclosed, and I think they should be printed: for literary people are not indifferent to infbrma* tion of this kind, which shews the progressive improvement of a thought in the mind of a man of genius.
This ode is, beyond all doubt, the poem, alluded to in the Life of Collins by Johnson, who, mentioning a visit made by Dr Warton and his brother to the poet in his kstillness, fays", "He shewed them, at the fame time, "an ode, inscribed to Mr John Homej "on the superftirions of the High* "lands, which they thought superior' "to his other woiks, but which no "search has yet found." Collins himself, it appears from this passage, had kept a copy of the poem, which, con(iL dering the unhappy circumstances that attended his last illness, it is no won* der was mislaid or lost; and, but sot lyle, requesting of him an account of that fortunate hint given by Johnson, all such particulars regarding Mr Col- it appears fiom DrCarlyle's setter, thaip
lins's poem as were known to him, ftnd which were,-in his opinion, proper to be communicated to the public. I received from him the inclosed answer, and he trjtnj&nittcd to me, at the same time, the original manuscript in Mr Coliins's handwriting. It is evidently the prima curn of the poem, as you will perceive from the alterations made in die manuscript, by de
th'.- original manuscript would, in aH probability, have undergone the same fate.
Struck with the singular beauty of this-poem, of which, 1 Jbc.lie.ve no man of taste will fay that Dr Warton and his brother have over-rated the merit, I could not help rcgr.-ttihg the mutilated form in which it i>j peared; and, in talking on that subject to my
friend • Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
friend Mr Henry Mackenzie of the Exchequer (a gentleman well known to the literary world by many ingenious productions) I proposed to him the task of supplying trie fifth stanza, and the half of the sixth, which were entirely lost. How well he has executed that talk, the public will judge; who, unless warned by the inverted commas that distinguish the supplemental verses, would probably never have discovered the chasm. Several hemistichs, and words left blank by Mr Collins, had before been very happily supplied by Dr Carlyle. These arc likewise marked by inverted commas. They are a
Ode on the Popular Superstitions
That it was hastily composed and incorrect; but that he would one day find leisure to look it over with care. Mr Collins and Mr Home had been made acquainted by Mr John Barrow (the cordial youth mentioned in the first stanza,) who had been for some time at the University of Edinburgh, had been a volunteer along with Mr Home in the year 1746, had been taken prisoner with him at the battle of F.ilkirk, and had escaped, together with him and five or six other gentlemen, from the castie of Down. Mr "Barrow resided in 1749 at Winchester, where Mr Collins and Mr Home proof that this poem, as Dr Carlyle were, for a week or two, together on
a visit. Mr Barrow was paymaster in America in the war that commenced in 17 0, and died in that country.
I thought no more of the poem till a few years ago, when, on reading Dr Johnsou'slifc of Collins, I conjectured that it might be the very copy of verses which he mentions, which he fays was much prized by some of his friends, and lor the loss of which lie expresses regret. I sought for it among my papers ; and perceiving that a stanza and a half were wanting, I made the most diligent search I could for them, but in vain. Whether or not this great chasm was in the poem when it first came into my hands, is
has remarked, was hastily composed;
To Alex. Frascr Tytler, Esq.
I Send you inclosed the original manuscript ofrMr Collins's poem, that, by comparing with it the copy which I read to the society, you may be able to answer most of the queries put to me by the Committee of the Royal Society.
The manuscript is in Mr Collins's more than I can remember at this dishandwriting, and sell into my hands tance of time.
among the papers of a friend of min* As a curious and valuable fragment, and Mr John Home's, who died as I thought it could not appear with long ago as the year 1754. Soon after more advantage than in the Collection J found the poem, I shewed it to Mr of the Royal Society. Home, who told me that it had been I am, Sir,
addressed to him by Mr Collins, on Your most obedient servant,
his leaving London in the year 1749: Alex. CArlyLf.
——, thou retum'st from Thames, whose Naiads long
Shall melt, perhaps, to hear thy tragic song.
Whom, long endeat'd, thou leav'st by Lavant's side;
See the preceding letter from Dr Carlyle.
Together if the Highlands ./Scotland. 395
Together let us wish him lasting troth,
And joy untainted with his destin'd bride.
My fhort-liv'd bliss, forget my social name;
I met thy friendship with an equal flame!
Shall prompt the poet, and his song demand:
Thou need'st but take the pencil to thy hand, 1
And paint what ail believe who own thy genial land.
There must thou wake perforce thy Doric quill,
'Tis Fancy's land to which thou sett'st thy feet )
Beneath each birken (hade on mead or hill.
To the swart tribes their creamy bowl allots i
While airy minstrels warble jocund notes.
How, wing'd with fate, their elf-ihot arrows fly |
Or, sti etch'd on earth, the heart-sinit heifers lie.
Nor thou, though learn'd, his homelier thoughts neglect.
These are the themes of simple, sure effect,
Zv'n yet prcstrv'd, how often may'st thou hear,
Where to the pole the Boreal mountains run,
Strange lays, whose power had charm'd a Spencer's ear.
Old Runic bards shall seem to rise around,
Their matted hair with boughs fantasticcrown'd:
• The choral dirge that mourns some qhieftain brave*
And strew'd with choicest herbs his scented grave;
Thou hear'st some sounding tale of war's alarms;
The sturdy clans pour'd forth their bony swarms.
* First written, relate. .f A kind of hut, built for a Summer habitation to the herdsinen, when the cat* lie arc scot to graze in dillant pasture*.
!•• G^e ca tit Popular Superstitions
• iv. . ••• .
*T5s thijJe to ftng, how framing hideous spells
In Sky's lone) Hie the gifted wizzard "sits *,"
Or in the depth t of Uist's dark forests dwells i
With their own visions oft astonisti'd § droop,
They fee the gliding ghosts unbodied troop.
Their " piercing ||" glance some fated youth descry*
And rosy health, Hull soon lamented die. .
Their bidding heed **, and at their beck repair.
And heartless, .oft like moody madness stare
•f f " Or on some bellying rock that (hades the deep,
"They view the lurid signs that cross the Iky, tt Where, m the West, the brooding tempests lie,
"And hear their first, faint, rustling pennons sweep. » M Or in the arched cave, where deep and dark
"The broad, unbroken billows heave and swell, ** In horrid musings rapt, they (it to mark
"The labouring moon ; or list the nightly yell ** Of that dread spirit, whose gigantic form
"The seer's entranced eye can well survey,
* Through the dim air who guides the driving storm,
* Or him who hovers, on his flagging wing,
•' O'er the dire whirlpool, that, in ocean's waste,
* Draws instant down whate'er devoted thing
"The /ailing breeze within its reach hath plae'd—
* The distant seaman hears, and flies with trembling hast<,
*• Or, if on land the fiend exerts his sway,
"Silent he brnods o'er quicksand, bog, or fen,
* Far from the (hek'ring roof and haunts of men,
** And (hrouds each 'star that wont to cheer the night}
* Collins had written, seer
f Collins had written, Lttig'd in the vimtry cave ivilb—and had left tie line imperfect: Altered ami the chai'm supplied by Dr Carlylc.
I First written, gloo>n. „ _ tim^ t »
." J First written, affliSeA.
W A blank in the manuscript. The word piercing supplied.by Dr CarlyJe... ^ .. First written, mart. ■ . .'
'ff A leaf of "Ac manuscript, Containing tbe fifth stanza, and one half of tbq sixth, u uei-e lost. Tie chasm is supplied by* Mr Mackenzie.-''" * "• *** *J* *r