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globe ; and these we conclude to be dies, proper traces of the manner of the effects of such a power precisely their productiop; and things which as that about which we now inquire. may be examined with all the accura.' Volcanoes are thus considered as the cy, or reasoned upon with all the light, proper discharges of a superfluous or that science can afford. As it is only redundant power ; not as things acci- by employing science in this manner, dental in the course of nature, but as that philosophy enlightens man with useful for the safety of mankind, and the knowledge of that wisdom or de as forming a natural ingredient in the sign which is to be found in nature, constitution of the globe.

the system now proposed, from unguel The doctrine is then confirmed, by tionable principles, will claim the at.' examining this earth, and by finding tention of scientific men, and may be every where, beside the many marks of admitted in our speculations with reancient volcanoes, abundance of sub- gard to the works of nature, notwithterraneous or unerupted lava, in the standing many steps in the progress bafalcic rocks, the Swedish trap, the may remain unknown. toaditone, the ragstone, and whinstone By thus proceeding upon investigaof Britain and Ireland, of which parti- ted principles, we are led to conclude, cular examples are cited, and a descrip- that, if this part of the earth which tion given of the three different shapes we now inhabit had been produced, in which that unerupted lava is found. in the course of time, from the mate

The peculiar nature of this subter- rials of a former earth, we should, in raneous lava is then examined ; and a the examination of our land, find daclear distinction is formed between this ta from which to reason, with regard mineral rock and the common volca. to the nature of that world which nic lavas.

had existed during the period of time Lastly, The extension of this theo- in which the present earth was formry, respecting mineral strata, to all parts ing ; and thus we might be brought of the globe, is made by finding a per- to understand the nature of that earth fect similarity in the folid land thro' which had preceded this ; bow far it all the earth, although, in particular had been similar to the present, in proplaces, it is attended with peculiar ducing plants and nourishing animals. productions, with which the present But this interesting point is perfe&tly, inquiry is not concerned.

ascertained, by finding abundance of A theory is thus formed, with re. every manner of vegetable production, gard to a mineral system. In this fys- as well as the several species of marine tem, hard and solid bodies are to be bodies, in the strata of our earth. formed from foft bodies, from loose Having thus ascertained a regular or incoherent materials, collected to- fystem, in which the present land of gether at the bottom of the sea ; and the globe had been firlt formed at the the bottom of the ocean is to be made bottom of the ocean, and then raifed to change its place with relation to above the surface of the sea, a questhe centre of the earth, to be formed tion naturally occurs with regard to into land above the level of the sea, time ; What had been the space of and to become a country fertile and time necessary for accomplishing this inhabited.

That there is nothing visionary in In order to form a judgment conthis theory, appears from its having cerning this subject, our attention is been rationally deduced from natural directed to another progress in the events, from things which have alrea- fystem of the globe, namely, the de dy happened ; things which have left, ftruction of the land which had preis the particular constitutions of bo« ceded that on which we dwell. Now,


great work?

Here a

for this purpose, we have the actual is hence inferred, that we cannot efdecay of the present land, a thing timate the duration of what we see constantly transacting in our view, by at present, nor calculate the period at which to form an estimate. This de- which it had begun ; so that, with ree cay is the gradual ablution of our foil, spect to human obfervation, this world by the floods of rain ; and the attri- has neither a beginning nor an end. tion of the shores, by, the agitation of Besides this physiological defcripthe waves.

tion, an endeavour is also made to If we could measure the progress support the theory by an argument of of the present land, towards its disfo- a moral nature, drawn from the conlution by attrition, and its submersion fideration of a final cause. in the ocean, we might discover the comparison is formed between the preactual duration of a former earth ; an fent theory, and those by which there earth which had supported plants and is necessarily implied either evil or animals, and had supplied the ocean disorder in natural things; and an arwith those materials which the con- gument is formed, upon the supposed struction of the present earth required; 'wisdom of nature, for the juitness of consequently, we should have the mea- a theory in which perfect order is to sure of a corresponding space of time, be perceived. For, viz. that which had been required in According to the theory, a foil adapo the production of the present land. If, ted to the growth of plants is neceson the contrary, no period can be fix- sarily prepared, and carefully prefer. ed for the duration or destruction of the ved ; and, in the necessary waste of present earth, from our observations land which is inhabited, the foundaof those natural operations, which, tion is laid for future continents, in though unmeasurable, admit of no du- order to support the system of this libiety, we shall be warranted in draw. ving world. ing the following conclusions: 1/, That Thus, either in suppofing nature it had required an indefinite space of wise and good, an argument is formtime to have produced the land which ed in confirmation of the theory, or, dow appears ; 2dly, That an equal space in suppoling the theory to be juít, an had been employed upon the construc- argument may be established for wiftion of that former land from whence dom and benevolence to be perceived the materials of the present came ; in nature. In this manner, there is lastly, That there is presently laying at opened to our view a subject interest.. the bottom of the ocean the founda- ing to man who thinks ; a subject on tion of future land, which is to appear which to reason with relation to the after an indefinite space of time. system of nature ; and one which may

But as there is not in human ob- afford the human mind both informa. servation proper means for measuring tion and entertainment, the waste of land upon the globe, it

Abstract of an Essay on Instinct, read in the Royal Society of Edinburgh, upa

on the 5th of December 1785. By Mr W. Smellie. ANY theories have been in. want of success may be referred to

vented with a view to explain different causes ; to want of attention the instinctive actions of animals, but to the general economy and manners none of them have received the gene- of animals; to mistaken notions con ral approbation of Philosophers. This cerning the dignity of human nature;


and, above all, to the uniform endea- and fill them with provisions. Bees tours of philosophers to distinguish in- display various remarkable instincts. stinctive from rational motives. Mr They attend and feed the female or Smellie endeavours to shew that no queen. When deprived of her all such distinction exists, and that the their labours cease till a new one is reasoning faculty itself is a necesary obtained. They construct cells of result of instinct.

three different dimensions ; for workHe observes, that the proper me. ing bees, for drones, and for females ; thod of investigating subjects of this and the queen, in depositing her eggs, kind, is to collect and arrange the puts each fpecies into its appropriated facts which have been discovered, and cells. They destroy all the females to consider whether these lead to any but one, left the hive should be overgeneral conclufions. According to stocked. The different instincts of this method, he exhibits examples, the common bee, of the wood-pierFirst, of pure instincts : Secondly, of cing bee, and of that species which fuch instinats as can accommodate builds cylindrical neits, with rose. themselves to particular circumstances leaves, are very remarkable. and situations : Thirdly, of such as are Equally singular are the instincts of improveable by experience or observa- wasps, and ichneumon fies, which, tion : And, lastly, he draws some con- though they feed not themselves upon clusions.

worms, lay up stores of these animals By pure instincts are meant such for the nourishment of their young. as, independently of all instruction Birds build their nests of the same or experience, instantaneously produce materials, and in the same form and certain actions, when particular objects situation, though they inhabit very difare presented to animals, or when they ferent climates. They turn and shift are influenced by peculiar feelings. their eggs, that they may be equally Such are, in the human species, the heated. Geese and ducks cover up instinct of sucking, which is exerted their eggs till they return to the nelt. by the infant immediately after birth, The swallow solicits her young to void the voiding of fæces, the retraction of their excrement over the nest, and af the muscles upon the application of lists them in the operation. The spiany painful ftimulus. The love of ders, and many insects of the beetlelight is exhibited by infants, even so kind, when put in terror, counterfeit early as the third day after birth. The death. This is not, as has been suppalion of fear is discoverable in a child posed, a convulsion or stupor, but an at the age of two months.

artifice ; for when the object of terror Among the inferior animals, there is removed, they recover immediately. are numberless pure instincts. Cater- Of instincts which can accominopillars fhaken off a tree in every direc- date themselves to peculiar circumtion, turn immediately to the trunk, stances and situations, many instances and climb up. Young birds open their may be given from the human species; mouths on hearing any noise, as well but these being improveable, fail more as that of their mother's voice. Eve- properly under the third class. ry species of infect deposits its eggs in Those animals are most perfect, the situation most proper for batching whose sphere of knowledge extends to and affording nourishment to its future the greatest number of objects. When progeny. Some species of animals look interrupted in their operations, they not to future wants ; others, as the know how to resume their labours, and bee and the beaver, are endowed with to accomplish their purposes by different an instinct which has the appearance of means. Some animals have no other foresight. They construct magazines, power but that of contracting or ex

tending their bodies. But the falcon, action. The inftine of fear is often the dog, and the fox, pursue their counteracted by ambition and refentprey with intelligence and address. ment: The instinct of anger, by fear,

In Senegal, the ostrich fits upon by shame, by contempti by compassion. her eggs only doring the night, lea- Of modified, compounded, and exving them in the day to the heat of tended inftin&s, there are many esthe fun. At the Cape of Good Hope, amples. Devotion is an extension of where the heat is not so great, she fits the instinct of love, to the first Cause upon them day and night. Rabbits, or Author of the Universe. Superwhen domesticated, are not inclined stition is the instinct of fear extendto burrow. Bees augment the depth ed to imaginary objects of terror. of their cells, and increase their num. Hope is the instinct of love directed ber, as occafion requires. A wasp to future good. Avarice is the inftinct carrying out a dead companion from of love directed to an improper obje&. the nest, if he finds it too heavy, cuts Fear is likewise an ingredient of this off the head, and carries out the load attachment. Envy is compounded of

in two portions. In countries infeft- love, avarice, ambition, and fear. Symed with monkies, birds, which in o- pathy is the initinct of fear transferred ther countries build in bushes or clefts into another person, and reflected back of trees, suspend their nests at the end upon ourselves. In this manner all of flender twigs. The nymphæ of the modified, compounded, or extendwater-moths, which cover themselves ed passions of the human mind, may with cases of straw, gravel, or shells, be traced back to their original incontrive to make their cases nearly in Itincts. equilibrium with the water : when too The instincts of brutes are likewise heavy, they add a bit of wood or straw; improved by observation and experiwhen too light, a bit of gravel. A . ence. Of such improvement, the dog, cat, when shut into a closet, has been the elephant, the horse, the camel, afknown to open the latch with its ford numerous and Itrong instances. paws.

From these and other examples, The third class of instincts com- given of the different classes of instinct, prehends all those that are improve- Mr Smellie argues, that instinct is an able by experience and observation. original quality of mind, which, in

The fuperiority of man over the man, as well as in other animals, may other animals, seems to depend chiefly be improved, modified, and extended, on the great number of inftin&ts with by experience. which he is endowed. Traces of every Sensation implies a fentient principle instinct which he possesses are discover- or mind. Whatever feels, therefore, able in the brute-creation, but no par. is mind. Of course, the lowest fpeticular species enjoys the whole. On cies of animals is endowed with the contrary, most animals are limited mind. But the minds of animals to a small number. This appears to have very

powers ;

and these be the reason why the initinets of powers are expressed by peculiar acbrụtes are stronger, and more steady tions. The structure of their bodies in their operation than those of man, is uniformly adapted to the powers of and their actions more uniform. their minds; and no mature animal

Most human instincts receive im- attempts actions which nature has not provement from experience and obser- enabled it to perform : The instincts,

vation, and are capable of a thousand however, of animals, appear often pre- modifications. One instinct counter- viously to the expansion of those inacts and modifies another, and often struments which dature intended they extinguishes the original motive to Jaould employ. This view of inftinét

The first pe

is simple: It removes every objeétion the individuals to cominunicate their; to the existence of mind in brutes, wants to each other; and some aniand unfolds all their actions by refere mals understand in part the language ring them to motives perfectly fimi- of man. The language of infants is kar to those by which man is actuated. nearly on a par with that of brutes. There is perhaps a greater difference Brutes, without some portion of rea. between the mental powers of some fun, could never make a proper use of animals, than betwee those of man their senses. But many animals are and the most fagacious brutes. In- capable of balancing motives, which is stincts may be considered as so many a pretty high degree of reason. Young internal senses, of which fome animals animals examine all objects they meet have a greater, and others a smaller with, and in this investigation they Dumber. These leares, in different fpe- employ all their organs. cies, are likewise more or less ductile; riods of their life are dedicated to stuand the animals poífelling them are, of dy. When they run about and make course, more or less susceptible of im- frolicsome gambols, it is nature sportproving, and of acquiring knowiedge. ing with them for their instruction.

The notion that animals are ma. Thus they gradually improve their fachines, is therefore too absurd to me- culties, and acquire an intimate know, sit refutation. Though not endowed ledge of the objects that surround them. with mental powers equal to those of Men who, from peculiar circumstanman, they possess, in fome degree, ces, have been prevented from mingo every faculty of the human mind. ling with companions, and engaging Sensation, memory, imagination, the in the different amusements and exer. principle of imitation, curiosity, cun- cises of youth, are always aukward in ning, ingenuity, devotion, or respect their movements, cannot use their orfor superiors, gratitude, are all difco- gans with ease or dexterity, and often verable in the brute-creation. Eve- continue, during life, ignorant of the ry species too has a language, either most common objects. of sounds or gestures, sufficient for


Description of the Grotto of the Fairies at St Bauzile, near the town oft

Ganges, in the Cevennes. By M. Marfollier *
ATURE present so many which teaches him how little he

beautiful objects to our view, knows. that we never consider those she con- Of those objects that most deserve ceals from us as worthy of our atten- the attention of the curious observer, tentioa. Avarice, indeed, with un- mountains seem to be the chief; those ceasing eagerness ransacks the bowels vast reservoirs that attract and imbibe of the earth; and the Naturalist, with the waters of the clouds, that purify powearied industry, explores the hid- and transmit them through a thouden recesses of the globe. Folile sand fubterraneous channels ; thuse fhells, petrified wood, and volcanoes, bare and barren rocks, the deformity are sources from which we draw new of which seems to announce the de additions to our knowledge ; and it is crepitude of nature, afford ample scope by the continued exertions of these for observation. Who would believe labours and useful researches, that man that thele interesting objects sometimes las attained that degrec of wisdom conccal others still more interesting ? Vol. VII. No 39.

* Recueil amiffant de voyages en vers & en prose,

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