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The appearance of flame, mention- from the interior parts of the earth is ed by the author of the aforegoing re- a very common phenomenon, it is fation, may likewise be prodaced by this which produces the bubbling we the oppolition of the jets of mud and observe in the waters of many lakes clay with the rising fun, which, if it and springs both warm and cold; these was seen through them, would appear waters never having heat enough in red. The observer, as he told me, themselves to make them boil. They was standing with his face to the sun. are frequent in Sicily, where the spout

It is also possible that the bitumi- ing waters of the Lacus Pallicorum nous matter which exilts under the are the moit remarkable. The neighmountain, as may be inferred from the bourhood of volcanoes is productive petroleum that swims on the surface of of many : such as the lake of Paterno the water in the cavities, produces in- on the fide of Ærna, that of Agnano fiammable ais during the time of the near Naples, that of the Solfatara near internal fermentation. This air may Rome, the fountain of Spina in the take fire either of itself or by the col. Duchy of Modena, and many others. lifion of the different substances when We have them likewise in France : it mixes with the atmospherical air. one other circumstance, in the place Its inflammation in the cavitics of the called Boulidon near Montpellier, mountain is impoisible, because, to pro. would have made it another Macaluduce this effect, there is a neceility for bi. The presence of a little hillock its meeting with pure air ; this cannot of clay on the place where there is be formed by the combination of the here a perpetual disengagement of fixácid with the calcareous matter which ed air, would have produced the same produces the fixed air, as in the ordi- phenomena that I have described in nary state of the mountain this burits Sicily. forth at the surface.

Different authors, both ancient and There are in the neighbourhood, modern, have mentioned this moundistant about half a mile, several other tain, but under different names, and little eminences where the same effects none of them have attempted to acare observed; but there are inconsider- count for its appearances. able, they are not subject to violent The explanation which I have gieruptions, and they have received the ven of the eruptions of Macalubi ap. diminutive appellation of Macalubette. pears to me deducible from the phe.

The sterility of the mountain Ma- nomena: I am not, however, bigotted calubi, and of those where the same to my opinion ; on the contrary, if aphenomena are observable, is entirely ny other method can be devised of acowing to the sea-salt of the spring, counting for the appearances I have which keeps the clay wet, and checks described, I shall thank the author of the least tendency to vegetation. it, and receive with gratitude the light

The existence of this singular vol. which he shall throw on the subject. cano is owing to the combination of It is sufficient for me to have made many different circumstances. For the known a natural curiosity worthy of extrication of the fixed air which issues engaging the attention of philosophers,

Traits for the Life of the late Athenian Stuart. Ames Stuart, Esq; was the son at whose death his wife and four chil. of a mariner of an inferior station, dren, of whom Mr Stuart was the elda 2 2


est, were totally unprovided for : he shaken by the most poignant difficul. exhibited, at a very early period of ties. life, the seeds of a Itrong imagination, The following fact may serve as a brilliant talents, and a general thirst of proof of his fortitude: knowledge : drawing and painting “A wen had grown to an inconvenie were his earliest occupations ; and ent size upon the front of his forehead; these he pursued with such unabated one day, being in conversation with a perseverance and industry, that, while surgeon, whose name I much regret yet a boy, he contributed very effen• the having forgotten, he asked how tially to the support of his widowed it could be removed? The surgeon mother and her little family, by design- acquainted him with the length of the ing and painting fans for the late process; to which Mr Stuart objected, Goupee of the Strand.

on account of its interruption of his Some time afier, he placed one of pursuits, and aiked if he could not cut his lifters under the care of this per- it out, and then it would be only necesfon as his Mop-woman, and for many fary to heal the part? The surgeon years continued to pirsue the same replicd in the affirmative, but mentionmode of maintaining the rest of his fa- ed the very excruciating pain and danmily.

ger of such an operation ; upon which Notwithstanding the extreme pref. Mi Stuart, after a minute's reflection, fure of such a charge, and notwith- threw himself back in his chair and said, standing the many inducements which “ I'll sit still, do it now.”—The operconstantly attract a young man of lively ation was performed with success. genius and extensive talents, he en- With such qualifications, though ployed the greatest part of his time in yet almost in penury, he conceived the those studies which tended to the per- defign of seeing Rome and Athens ; fecting himself in the art he loved. but thc ties of filial and fraternal afHe attained a very accurate knowledge fection made him protract the journey of anatomy; he became a correct till he could ensure a certain provision draftsman, and rendered himself a mal- for his mother, and his brocher and ter of geometry and ail the branches second fifter. of the mathematics, fo necessary to His mother died: he had soon af. form the mind of a good painter: and ter the good fortune to place his broit is no less extraordinary than true, ther and filter in a situation likely to that necessity and application were his produce them a comfortable support; only instructors; he has often confcf- and then, with a very scanty pittance fed, that he was first led into the obli- in his pocket, he set out on foot upon garion of studying the Latin language, his expedition to Rome; and thus by the desire of understanding what was he performed the greatest part of his written under prints published after pic: journey; travelling through Holland, tures of the ancient masters.

France, &c. and stopping through ne. As his ycars incrcafcd, fo his infor- ceflity at Paris, and leveral other places mation accompanied their progress ; in his way, where, by his ingenuity as he acquired a great proficiency in the an artist, he procured fome moderate Greck language, and his unparalleled supplies towards profecuting the rest strength of mind carried him into the of his journey. familiar asfociarion with most of the sci. When he arrived at Rome, he made ences, and chiefly that of architecture. himself known to the late Mr Daw

His stature was of the middle size, kios and Sir Jacob Bouverie, whofe but athletic ; of robust constitution, admiration of his great qualities and and a natural courage invincible by wonderful perseverance secured to terror; and a bold perseverance, un him their patronage; and it was under their auspices that he went on to he seldom quitted it while there was Athens, where he remained several any thing further to be learnt or unyears. During his residence here, he derfood from it: thus he rendered became a master of architecture and himself skilful in the art of engraving ; fortification, and having no limits to likewisc of carving; and his enthuwhich his mind could be restricted, he fiaftic love for antique elegance, made, engaged in the army of the Queen of him also an adept in all the remote Hungary, where he served a campaign researches of an antiquarian. But in voluntarily as chief engineer. the midst of my display of his talents,

On his return to Athens, he applied let me not omit to offer a just tribute himself more closely to make draw- to his memory as a man. Those who ings, and take the exact measurements knew him intimately, and had oppor. of the Athenian architecture, which tunities of remarking the nobleness of he afterwards publishied on his return his soul, will join in claiming for him to England after fourteen years ab- the title of Citizen of the World ; sence; and which work, from its claf- and if he could be charged with pos. fical acouracy, will ever remain as an felling any partiality, it was to merit, honour to this nation, and as a lasting in whomsoever he found it. monument of his skill. This work, Raised by his own abilities and inand the long walk the author took in tegrity from the utmost abyss of peorder to cull materials to compofc it, nury to the most pleasing condition have united themselves as the two of respectable amuence, without fermot honourable lines of descent from vility, without chicane, without any whence he derived the title of ATHE- stratagem, but by the bold efforts of NIAN STUART, accorded to him by all unconquerable perfererance, prudence, the learned in this country,

and an independent mind! reader, can Upon his arrival in England he we refrain from his praise ! was received into the late Mr Daw. But with such a mind fo occupied, kins's family, and among the many and such an expedition in the youngpatrons which the report of his extra- er part of his life, it is no impeachordinary qualifications acquired him, ment to his feclings if they escaped the late Lord Anson led him forward so long the influence of the belle pof to the reward most judiciously calcu- fion. We have now conducted him lated to suit his talents and pursuits ; to his seventy-second year ; a time it was by his Lordlip's appointment when most men have fallen so long that Mr Stuart became Surveyor to into their own ways, as to dread the Greenwich Hospital, which he held thought of female interruption, and till the day of his death with universal content themfelves with rallying the approbation.

smiles of the world upon their fullen He constantly received the notice celibacy. Mr Stuart, on the contrary, and esteem of Lord Rockingham, and now found himself the master of a very most of the nobility and gentry of taste comfortable income, which he longed and power.

to divide with a companion, to whom Besides his appointment at Green, his long ferics of events would be vich Hospital, all the additions, and amufing, and whose smiles would add rebuilding of that part which was de comfort to his fatter days, of which stroyed by the fire there, were con- he always reflected, but did not feel ducted under his direction ; he built the approach. several other houses in London-Mr About the year 1781, being on a Anson's in St James's fquare, Mrs visit at Sittingbourne, in Kent, he beMontague's in Porentansquare, &c. came acquainted with a young lady

Whatever new project he engaged there about twenty years of age, whose ja, he parfucd with such aridity, that perfonal qualifications were the uri


versal admiration of every one who parties were foon after married, and had ever felt the happiness of seeing the lady and her father and mother her. The old Athenian having al. accompanied Mr Stuart to his house ways studied the fine arts, was a sen« in Leicotter-fields, where the parents fible judge and discriminator of the found a welcome beyond their utmost just line of beauty. Though the ex- hopes. The fruits of this marriage perience of years had increased his are four children. Mr Stuart di d knowledge, yet it had nor impaired the possessed of a considerable fortune, avigor of his robust constitution.-Dif. massed, as we have seen by upright parity of age was no obitacle with the ailiduity alone, and has left an exo lady ; and Mr Stuart, at the age of ample to his family and the world to seventy-two, felt and returned all the be for ever revered. happiness of an accepted lover. The

Account of the Institution of the Royal Society of Edinburgh *. T HE institution of Societies of the auspices of the Sovereign, to be

I learned men, who have united the best remedy for that defcét, he has their labours for the cultivation of Phi. given, in his fanciful work of the New lofoplay, or of Literature, is of an an- Atlantis, the delineation of a Philofocient date in several polished nations phical Society, on the most extended of Europe. It is, however, for the plan, for the improvement of all arts honour of Great Britain to have set and sciences; a work which, though the first example of an institution for written in the language, and tinctured these purposes, incorporated by char- with the colouring of romance, is full ter from the Sovereign, and carrying of the noblest philosophic vicws. The on its researches under his patronage. plan of Lord Bacon, which met with A hint of this kind, to the Prince little attention from the age in which then reigning, is found in the works he lived, was destined to produce its of Lord Bacon, who recommends, as effect in a period not very diftant. one of the opera verè basilica, the elta. The scheme of a Philosophical Coliige, blishment of Academies or Societies by Cowley, is acknowledged to have of learned men, who should give, from had a powerful influence in procuring time to time, a regular account to the the eltablishment of the Royal Society world of their researches and disco- of London, by charter from Charles veries. It was the idea of this gicat II. ; and Cowley's plan is manifeftly philofoplier, that the learned world copied, in almost all its parts, from Thould be united, as it were, in one that in the New Atlantis. The io. immense republic, which, though con- ftitution of the Royal Society of Lon. Gisting of many detached states, should don was soon followed by the efta. hold a strict union, and preserve a mu- blishment of the Royal Academy of tual intelligence with each other, in Sciences at Paris ; and these two have every thing that regarded the common served as models to the Philosophical interest. The want of this union and Academies of highest reputation in the intelligence he laments as one of the other kingdoms of Europe. chief obitacles to the advancement of In Scotland, similar aifociations for science ; and, juftly considering the the advancement of science and of inftitution of public societies, in the literature bave, even without the be different countries of Europe, under nefit of Royal patronage, and with no

ocher * Proace to the Tranfa&ions of the Society, Vol. I,

other fupport than the abilities of their some of the most distinguished men of members, attained to no common de- letters in Scotland at that time. gree of reputation.

A few years after the Society had In Edinburgh, a Society was insti- received its new form, its meetings tuted in 1731, for the improvement were interrupted, for a considerable of medical knowledge, by colleaing space of time, by the disorders of the and publishing Erlays and Observa- country during the rebellion in 1745; tions on the rarious branches of Me, and no sooner was the public trandicine and Surgery, written by the quillity re-established, than it fuffered members themselves, or communica- a severe loss by the death of Mr ted to them. The Secretary of this Maclaurin, whole comprehensive geSociety was the eldct Dr Alexander n'us, and ardour in the pursuits of Mooro, the firit profeffor of Anatomy science, peculiarly qualified him for in the University of Edinburgh, and conducting the business of an instituthe founder of the medical school tion of this nature. The meetings which has since attained to such emi- of the Society, however, were renewnetce and celebrity. Under his care, ed about the year 1752 ; and the new the Tran actions of this Society were Secretaries, who were the celebrated publimed at different periods, in five Mr David Hume and Dr Alexander volumes 8vo; with the title of mīedical Monro, junior, were directed to arEfts and observations, &c.; a work range and prepare for the press such which has undergone many editions, papers as were judged worthy of being which has been translated into many submitted to the public cye. The first foreign languages, and is honoured voluine of the Transactions of the with the encomium of Haller, as one Philofphical Society of Edinburgh was of the most useful books in the sciences accordingly published in 1754, under of Medicine, Anatomy and Surgery, the title of Efanus and Olfervations,

Soon after the publication of the a- Physical and Literary; the second bove-mentioned volumes of Medical volume was published in 1756, and Efsays, viz. in 1739, the celebrated the third in 1771. Mr Maclaurin, professor of Mathe. It has been always obferred, that matics in the University of Edinburgh, institutions of this kind have their inconceived the idea of enlarging the tervals of languor, as well as their plan of this Society, by extending it periods of brilliancy and activity. Eveto subjects of Philosophy and Litera. ry associated body must receive its vitore. The institution was accordingly gour from a few zealous and spirited new-modelled by a printed ser of laws individuals, who find a pleasure in that and regulations, the number of mem. fpecies of business, which, were it left bers was increased, and they were disa to the care of the members in general, tinguished, from that time, by the title would be often reluctantly submitted of The Society for improving Arts and to, and always negligently executed. Sciences, or, more generally, by the title The temporary avocations, and, fill of The Philir phical Society of Edin- more, the deaths of such men, have burgh. They chose for their President the most sensible effect on the societies

James Earl of Morton, afterwards Pre- to which they belonged. The prin'fident of the Royal Society of Lon- ciple of activity which animated them, don : Sir John Clerk of Pennycuik, if not utterly extinguished, remains one of the Barons of Exchequer, and long dormant, and a kindred genius Dr John Clerk, were elected Vice- is required to call it forth into life. presidents ; and Mr Maclaurin and From causes of this kind, the PhiDr Plummer Secretaries of the insti- lofophical Society of Edinburgh, tho' tution. The ordinary members were its meetings were not altogether dif


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