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For this purpose he may read Livy, may be acquainted with moral philoSallust, Hooke's Roman History; then fophy, and with the principles of the Middleton's Life of Cicero, with Ci- laws of nature and nations, should cero's Letters, in the order of time read, as there quoted.
11t, The English translation of Xc If he should chuse to read at the nophon's Memorabilia, which comprefame time any French authors for his hends the Socratic philosophy. improvement in that language, Mably 2d, Cicero's philofophical work,viz. upon the rise and fall of the Romans, De Officiis, Senectute, Amicitia, Legiof Montesquieu sur la Decadence des bus, and Tufculanz Quaftioncs. Romaines, or Vertot's Roman Revo- 3d, Seneca's Morals. lutions, will be entertaining and in- These will give him a pretty distinct fructive.
notion of the most valuable part of For Roman Antiquities, Mr Hope heathen morality. may read either Kennet's Roman An- To these may be added, tiquities in English, or Newport's in ift, Hutchinson's Moral PhilofoLatin.
phy, or any good modern treatise on Heineccius's Antiquities are necef- that subject. Then he should read fars to one who is to study civil law, Puffendorf's Devoirs d'Homme et de but they fhould be read with the In- Citoyen, par Barbeyrac, or Burlemastitutes, as will hereafter be men- qui's Droit Naturel. tioned.
2d, Montesquieu's Esprit des Loix. If Mr Hope, for his amusement or The President and Mr Solicitor improvement in the Latin language, De das are clearly of opinion, that Mo should read some of the Latin classics, Hope should be thoroughly grounded he may, by consulting good commen- in the particular studies already sugtaries, learn something of the manners' gested, before he enters upon the stuof the Romans from the poets, parti- dy of the law; and for that reason cularly Horace, Juvenal, and Ovid de they apprehend, that in his present fiFaltis.
tuation he cannot think of beginning As to the comic writers, Terence the Infiitutes before the Winter is pure and elegant ; but Plautus's lan- 1773-4. guage is difficult, his meaning often fo When Mr Hope begins the study. obscured by a prevailing turn to wit of the civil law, let him be aware at and humour, as not to be found out first of pushing farther into the science, without labour, and his characters are than merely fixing the definitions and entirely Grecian.
divisions in his memory. • When Mr Hope is reading the Ro- For that purpose Mr Solicitor would man history, a general and succinct recommend doing little more than readview of the history of the world, pre- ing the Institutes itself with some easy vious to that time, may be useful. commentary. Although Huber and This may be acquired by reading, Hopius are not so elegant and deep as
Sleidan de Quatuor Monarchiis, Vinnius, they are more proper for a Boluet's Histoire Univerfelle, young beginner.
The short History of Greece print- Although the Solicitor disapproved ed Tome years ago at Edinburgh*. of going deeply into the science at first,
Mr Gillies's sentiments are just, that he does not mean to diffùade Mr Hope in order to form liberal notions of any from casting up and perusing the capisystem in law, the ground-work should tal laws in the Corpus Juris, which be laid in the great foundations of juf- may be quoted by Huber and Hopius. tice and equity.
He does not mean to exclude Heinec With this view, Mr Hope, that he cius's Institutes, for Heineccius has Vol. VII. No 38.
collected * By W. Robertson, Esq.
collected the definitions and divifions Roman law, may read Deinkeilick's in a very methodical manner. excellent Treatise upon the Law of
Heineccius's Antiquities must also Nations, with much pleasure and itbe read at the same time, as the titles struction. in both exactly correspond.
After reading the civil law, before If Mr Hope reads with attention Mr Hope sits down to the Scouitb what is here recommended as the law, he should be acquainted with the work of one year, he will have laid à feudal system, and should also be so far good foundation, and will find the master of the history of Scotland, as study of the Pandects not only easy, to retain in his memory all those e. but agreeable.
yents which occafioned any alteration Heineccius on the Pandects, and in the constitution ; for the revolutions Voet, which is the most practical book, in that state give a tinge to the musi. must be carefully perused from begin- cipal law of any kingdom. ning to end. For any young man who For the fevdal system, and likewise desires to understand the civil law, in in order to form the connection be the view of practice, must be thorough- tween ancient and modern history, Me ly master of Voet.
Hope may read, Cujaccius is a book by much too ist, Tacitus, that most noble histo long to be read from beginning to end; rian, from whom he will receive much but in all questions of difficulty, and entertainment and instruction. likewife on any interesting subjec, re- 2d, Giannoni's History of Naples; course should be had to him as the ver and, ry best of all civilians.
3d, Robertson's History of Charles In the course of reading the Pan- V. particularly the Introduction to deats, Mr Hope Thould have much each, which contain moft excellent yecourse to the text of the Corpus Ju- fummaries of the darker cimes, and Fis itself, from which he will draw explain the rise and progress of the real instruction, and more entertain. feudal system in a very masterly man, ment than from any commentatör.
After reading the Institutes and For the Scottish history, no better Pandects in the manner above-inen-, accurs to me than Buchanan's Histo, tioned, Mr Hope may conclude with iy, Drummond of Hawthorndean's Vinnius upon the Institutes, as con. History of the five James's, and Rotaining a clear and elegant fummay of bertfon's History of Scotland. the principles of the Roman law, and The history of other countries may which, if carefully perufed, will fix as Mr Gillies observes, be very ufeful, them on his mcmory.
particularly that of England; but then Mr Gillies in his letter seems to only summaries should be put into Mo think too much time beftowed upon Hope's hands, where good may be the study of the Roman law; but up- found, that he may not be overloaded. on re-considering that opinion, he will I wish I could recommend a comalter it when he reflects that the grand pendious History of England; Rapin's principles of equity, justice, and the Abridgement, with his Differention on law of all modern nations are to be the Laws of the Anglo-Saxons; and found there ; and the deviations from the Letters from a Father to a Son the Roman law in any modern couns upon the English History may ansyer try does not arise from the disappro- Mr Hope's present purpose. bation of it, but from the manners,
Dr Goldfmith has lately publifhed circumstances, and revolutions in that an Abridgement of the English Hif country.
tory ; but as I have not read it, I can. Mr Hope, after this course of the sot venture to give my opinion about
&c. Puffendorf's Introduction a l'Hifby the number of words a man dea toire de l'Europe should be read. vours, or the pages he turns over, but
Of the History of France President only by such reading as he thoroughly Henault has made an excellent a: digests and makes his own. bridgement; and there has been late- The rules for reading all books with ly published on the fame plan a good effect and to the best advantages are adone of the History of Spain. Necket mirably laid down by Mr Locke, in a sur le Corps Germanique is account- short and most valuable tract, entitledi. ed accurate, and gives the best idea of The Conduct of the Human Understandthat constitution.
ing, printed in his posthumous works, The Modern History of all Nations and reprinted in a small volume by itself previous to the Reformation is ob- fome years ago at Edinburgh. I would Icure, fabulous, and of little import: recommend to every young man, beance. A young man who has learn- fore he enters upon any course of ed what is useful to be known of the ftudy, to peruse with attention and fix dark times from Giannoni and Robert. in his mind the directions contained son should begin his study of modern in this incomparable treatise. It will history at that period.
opea his understanding, and teach him But a Mr Hope must be content with
the greatest perfpicuity the nature for the present with a general fuper- of allent and evidence. ficial knowledge of history, both an- Distinct pronunciation, the improve cient and modern, it is not necessary ment of the ear, the modulation of the now to chalk out an extensive plan of voice, and every thing that tends to either.
render elocution agreeable, harmoni· These hints are calculated to do ous, and grateful, merits peculiar atbridge Mr Hope's studies upon every tention. subject, and to bring them within a I agree with Lord President, that narrow compass, consistent with the with this view some passages of Cicero's present disposition of his time, and the Orations should be read almost every avocations which his health requires. day aloud, and
also some passages of Mr Hope and Mr Gillies will easily one of the beft English authors. For distinguish those books which must this purpose I would recommend the necessarily be read, from those which Select Orations of Demosthenes bý are recommended to be read, in case different hands, with Toureil's prethe time permit, for amusement, or for face, which is justly admired for an improvement in the Latin and French elegant, beautiful, and correct stile. Targuages.
I would beg leave to suggest to Mr If Mr Hope's time should allow for Hope another exercise, that appears enlarging his studies upon any subject, to me to be of great importance. Mr Gillies may collect from the Arch: Whatever be the subject of his study, bishop of York's instruction to Lord whether classics, history, ethics, or law, Dekford any books he thall think most let him either write a summary or abproper.
ftract of it in English, or let him choose I agree with Lord President and some subject arising out of it, and conLord Hailes, that in law, hiftory, and nected with his reading, and compose indeed all sciences, it is most preju- a differtation upon it in English. dicial to a young man to overcharge his For instance, when he reads the memory, and to perplex his thoughts claffical authors, let him abstract a with a multiplicity of voluminous summary of the customs and manners books.
of the Romans as they occur in them All food does not turn to nourish- or their commentators. In reading ment : real knowledge is not acquired history, ancient or modern, various
subjects will present themselves : where giuning. It has been thought that the a fact is dubious, he may state the best models for the English language evidence pro and con, together with his may be found in Addison's profe own judgment upon it. If an event works, in Swifi's first pieces, particube complicated, he may enumerate par- larly that upon the dissention of Rome ticularly, and illustrate the feveral cir- and Athens, in that translation of cumstances; he may state the several Demoitbenes above-mentioned, and in judgments on both sides ; how far an Middleton's Life of Cicero. action was in the whole or in part Other excellent ones might be pointblameable, or laudable; then give a ed out among the English fermions à decision, with his reasons for it. and the late historians ; but those He may investigate the causes of any which I have mentioned may fuffice. great event or revolution, and allign Mr Hope Should perufe with care, the grounds of his opinion, why such Doctor Lowth, now Bishop of Os. caufes produced such effects. Such, ford, his Essay on English Grammar, and many other subjects will occur in and consult it frequently when he is reading History, or in ethics, or the writing. law of nature and of nations, or the These Hints, which were drawn up civil law. A question may be fettled by Lord Kinnoul, were read by him on any capital point and discuffed. to Lord President and Mr Solicitor The utility of this exercise is obvi- Dundas, and approved by them; and aus; it will digest, arrange, and fix they join with Lord Kinnoul is rein his memory what he reads ; it will commending earnestly to Mr Hope teach and habituate him to methodize a particular attention to his elocurion, his thoughts, and will improve his and to the exercise of writing English stile.
upon the subject of his studies. Every man by use will form a stile The plan for Mr Hope's study of for himself, and therefore great atten- civil law was di&tated by Mr Solicitor tion and care is necessary in the be- Dundas.
Letter addressed to the Author of The Microcosm.
HE person who has now the ho. formerly, a reflection on his horseman. ; ber of a community who, by the cour. even his personal existence. tesy of England, are like the Raccals I, Sir, am a weaver ; I feel for the of Turky, collectively involved in the injured dignity of my profeffion ; and molt indiscriminate ridicule, the most lince, thanks to my own genius, and comprehenfive contempt: I fay collec- two years and an half of education at tively, Sir, because individually we are an academy on Tower-hill, I have a
allowed to have no existence; the wick. very decent acquaintance with the claf..ed waggery of the world, judging nine fics ; that is, I know them all by name,
weavers and nine tailois requisite to and can tell Greek when I see it, any the formation of one man. Yes, Sir, day in the week; and fince, as far as to fo high a pitch have they carried Shakespeare's plays and all the mooththe difreipce in which these professions ly magazines go, I have a very pretty are held, that, in the eyes of " the phare of Englith book learning : from many,” (as the poet calls them) to these confiderations, Sir, I think myaddress a man by the appellation either self qualified to contend, not for the of weaver or tailor, implics not only, as utility and respectability valy, but for
the honour of the art of weaving. fidered the Aill employed in the texTailoring, as it is secondary to wea- ture of an epic poem and a piece of ving, will of course partake of the broad cloth ; fo parallel the qualificafruits of my labours ; as, in afferring tions requisite to throw the fhuttle and the dignity of the one, I maintain the guide the pen. credit of the other.
I was not a little pleased the other To this end, Sir, I shall not appeal day to find, in the critique of one of to the candour of my readers, but thall the most eminent writers of the presene provoke their judgment ; I shall not day, the works of a favourite poet ftyfolicit their indulgence, but, by the led a tillite. An idea then occurred force of demonstration, will claim their to me, suggested perhaps by my partiaffent to my opinion.
ality for my profeffon, which I am Poetry, Sir, is universally allowed not without some faint hope of one to be the first and noblest of the arts day seeing accomplished. and sciences ; insomuch, that it is the By a little labour and ingenuity it opinion of critics that an epic poem is might furely be discovered that the the greatest work the human mind is works of different authors bear a conCapable of bringing to perfection. If siderable affinity (like this of the tiffue) then I can prove that the art of wea- to the different productions of the loom.. ving is, in any degree, analogous to Thus, to enumerate a few instances, the art of poetry; if this analogy has without any regard to chronological been allowed by the whole tribe of order, might noç the flowery smooth critics, fo far that, in speaking of the ness of Pope be aptly enough compalatter, they have used the terms of the red to flowered fattin? Might not the former, and have passed judgment on compositions of all the poets laureate, the works of the poet in the language ancient and modern, be very properly of the manufacturer ; nay, if Poetry termed princes stuff? And who would herself has condescended to imitate the dispute the title of Homer to everlastexpressions, and to adopt the technical ing? For Shakespeare, indeed, I am terms, into her own vocabulary; then at a loss for a comparison, unless I. may I surely hope that the fanction of should liken him to those thot filks criticism may challenge the respect and which vary the brightness of their hues the flattery of poetry (for imitation is into a multitude of different lights and the highest degree of flattery) may shades. And, would orthography alclaim the admiration of mankind. low of the pun, I might say that there
First, then, with regard to criticism. are few poets but would be proud to To selet a few examples from a mul- be thought worthy of the green bays. titude of others, are we not entertain- For proof of the use which poetry ed, in the works of Longinus and the makes of the weaver's dictionary, vide Gentleman's Magazine, wich delectable ten thousand odes on Spring, where dissertations on the weaving of plots, you may catch the fragrance of the and the interweaving of episodes ? Are damask rose; listen to the rustling of we not continually informed that the the filken foliage ; or lie extended, author unravels the web of his intrigue, with a listless languor, pillowing your or breaks the thread of his narration? head upon the velvet mead; to say Besides these, a friend of mine, a great nothing of nature's loom, which is set etymologist, has assured me, that bom- to work regularly on the first of May, bait and bombalin originally spring from to weave variegated carpets for the the fame root; and fustian, every body lawns and landscapes. Now, Sir, these knows, is a term applied indifferently fimilitudes, though very pretty and veto pafiages in poetry, or materials for ry a-propos, Iowa I am not perfectly a pair of breeches. So fimilar is con- fatisfied with. The Genoefe certain