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driven on with redoubled force. The system of finance here suggested may be easily realized.

Let the constitution of Missouri be maintained, and the statute only amended, granting the privilege of individual banking with a certain safe proportion of public securities, private responsibilities and gold and silver. Let the capitalists of Missouri issue notes protected by this three-fold security, that by these notes the credit of the State and its gold and silver may come home to and co-operate with the credit of the people; and, together with the establishment of such a system, let the absolute law of interest be repealed, and the cause of manufactures promoted; then credit, gold and silver will all be realized in more abundance by all the people of the State, and every germ of their prosperity grow with new impulses of life.

These are intended only as general suggestions of relief arising from the oppressive wants of the people. This suvject will be discussed pro and con more thoroughly in some future number of the JOURNAL.

ARTICLE VI.

Manufacture of Stone.
By Louis S. ROBBINS, Esq., OF NEW YORK.

The preparation of stone for building houses and other elegant and substantial structures, has for ages been both a difficulty and a desideratum.

Stone is the most natural and the most endurable material for architecture.

The temples and the pyramids of Egypt are venerable witnesses of the superiority of this material over wood or clay, corroborating by their testimony, what the common sense of mankind freely acknowledges.

But the mechanic arts of the Egyptians were more mysterious than their hieroglyphics. Their writings have been deciphered, but their science in architecture remains inscrutable.

The principles on which they prepared, and especially by which they raised the solid rock of obelisk, like a tower piercing the clouds, and by which they built the mountain like monuments of their splendor, were lost with the people who employed them, and have not yet been re-discovered, even among the astonishing inventions of modern civilization.

The spirit of discovery in the present age has been directed to the invention of machinery to meet present wants. Thoughts of the distant future, of the erection of material monuments, which will tell throughout all ages with a single glance the condition of refinement in society at the present time — these thoughts are all overclouded by the passion for immediate gain and amusement,

But the time has come when more liberal and enlightened views should be taken, when at least future good should be considered in intimate connection with present gain, when firm stability should be appreciated as strongly as fair appearance, when the principles of solidity and grandeur should be exemplified in architecture as well as in intelligence, at the expense both of affectation and of stucco.

Stucco in architecture and affectation in intelligence are both ephemeral; they cannot stand the test of time, and although they are tinsel ornaments, they are at the same time indications of a dawning taste for a more brilliant and substantial refinement, as the first faint rays of the morning give promise of the glorious day approaching

The day has now dawned when stucco in architecture must fade away in the broad light of brilliant and substantial stone structures. In fact brick itself, with or without stucco, must yield the palm to stone.

Within the fire limits of cities, wood is already superceded. Brick and stone are, by virtue of law, arising from the danger of wood, left as the sole rival building materials. On account of the primary cheapness of brick, and the passion for the highest immediate income from buildings, brick has heretofore been almost universally employed and stone neglected in architecture. But a greater foresight is now being awakened, a better feeling is now being cultivated, a stronger regard for ultimate profit, and a finer taste for elegant stability is now really entertained ; and, with all these evidences of progress in the Fine Art of Architecture, cheapness of price in the preparation of stone for building purposes, which is now obtained by the aid of inventions in machinery, must give additional impulse to the public mind for the demand of stone as a building material. The good sense and the fine taste of the community must become a law unto itself, by virtue of which brick as well as wood must be supplanted, within the elegant and substantial limits of cities, by varied stone, polished marble and indestructible granite.

The Pacific Railroad is now ready to bring the sand stone and marble from the Meramec, and soon the Iron Mountain Railroad will be ready to bring the sand stone and marble from along its route, and also granite and porphyry from the St. Francis to the doors of St. Louis, where marble buildings are already erected by private enterprise, which are ornaments of the city, and objects of admiration to both citizens and strangers.

Soon public buildings, a custom house, a city hall, additional churches, colleges, hotels, &c., will be in process of construction. These buildings will of course be made of the most elegant and substantial material, and they will be new incentives to the erection of private residences of a kindred order.

While thus the good sense and the fine taste of the people is turning to the importance of grand and beautiful buildings, while great varieties of excellent material abound around St. Louis, while the railroads will soon be bringing it to hand in profusion with reasonable prices, it is a source of gratification to learn that the difficulty of the preparation of the raw material for the finest use has been overcome, and the desideratum realized.

The Empire Stone Co. of St. Louis, lately organized, expect soon to furnish stone planed and prepared for use, by aid of machinery recently invented, at a price which will accommodate both the purse and the taste of the people, and which, while promoting the fortune and the refinement of the community, must return an extraordinary amount of profit to the company.

The people of St. Louis, and indeed the whole Mississippi valley, feel an interest in this enterprise. Its commencement gives encouragement to the spirit of manufacturing, the importance of which needs no discussion. Its operations necessarily result in adding those substantial and desirable improvements already established in most of the Atlantic cities where great private and public profit and reputation have been gained by architectural improvements furnished by this means. The minds of those who live at a distance will receive an impulse from this movement; they will be impressed with the character of this people for enterprise, taste and refinement, and will feel confidence in the promised greatness of this inland city of the West—the destiny of which may be seen in her rapid growth and prosperity within the last fourteen years, and in her present disposition to encourage those improvements that contribute to its ultimate realization.

COMMERCIAL STATISTICS.

COMMERCE OF CHICAGO.

Receipts of Produce and Merehandise at Chicago during the

year 1853.

Description.

Lake. Canal, Railroad. Total. Agricult’l Implements, pks. 5,832

5,832 lbs. 44,078

44.078 Agricult'l products

93,006 432,690

525.696 Ale and Beer, bbls.

140

3

256 Apples

10,009

7955 17,964 Ashes, lbs.

17,400

967

.18,367 Anchors, No. 26

26 Bark, cds. 719

719 Barley, bu.

1,576 25.610

136,401

163,587 Barrels, No. 9,633 8,761

18,394 Beans, bu.

1,303 288 1,581 Beef, bbls.

106 101

207 Bran and Shorts, lbs.

46,000 1,239,965 1,28 ,971 Brick, No. 2,764,614 33,800

2,798,414 Broom corn, lbs.

134,414

134,414 B. Wheat flour, lbs.

13,481 Buggies and Wagons

69

8 Butter, lbs.

77,049 735,581

812,430 Beeswax "

4,601 Brooms, No. 2.328

2.328 Candles, lbs.

15,000 43,443 Castings, pkgs.

2,635 lbs. 266.001)

266.000 Cheese

8,100
926 35,639

44.665 Cider, bbls.

115
1

116 Coal, lbs.

72,705,000 4,369,560 22,000 77,096,560 Coffee

108,655

108,656 Corn, bu.

2,481,334 251,775 2,733,119 Cranberries, Ibs.

1,200

11,180 12,380 Crockery crts., No.

238 Chain cables 10

10 Dried Fruit, lbs.

80,500

213,252 293,752 Eggs, bbls.

2
202 69

263 Feathers, lbs.

7,456

7,456 Fish, bbls.

7,112
3

7,115 Flax, lbs.

12,990

12,990 Flour, bbls.

2,265 7.223 38,808 48,297 Fur're and Bag'e, pk. 1,591

1,591 lbs. 37.000 140,029 1,603,621 1,780,650 Fruit 3,800 203,426

207.226 Furs and Peltries " 3,200 48,516 36,867 88,584 Garden roots

188,710 489,890 678,600 Glass

303.150
4.220

317,370 Grass seed

54,600 1,027,363 1,115,024 2,197,987

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Description.

Lake. Canal.

Railroad. Total. Grease, bbls.

85,918

85,918 Grind stones, lbs. 5,915

5,915 270,000

270.000 Hair 8,400 680

9,080 Hams and Bacon Ibs. 276,000 5,206,222 7,963

5,490,185 Hay 15,000 494,500

509,500 Hemp

852,030

852,030 Hides and Skins 3,260 873,546 397,505

1,274,311 High Wines&Whiskey,bbls. 1,567

376 6,514 8,487 H'ps, Head'g, &c. 120,500

120.500 lbs.

245,190 1,215,234 1,460,404 Hops 7,750 920

8,670 Horns

16,200

16,200 Iron and Nails" 33,875,640 73,856 2,350,416 36,299.912 Lard 21,900 866,668

888,568 Lath, No. 39,133,116

39,1:3,116 Lead, lbs.

108,150 1,286,604 1,589,009 3,2. 3,763 Lead pipe, sheet & roll. “ 15,450 131,621

147,071 Leather 5

326,020 19,127 59,936 405,083 Lime, bbls.

225 469

1

695 Liquor "

357
70

427 Locomotives, No. 22

22 Lumber, ft.

191,879,111 54,615 10,167,352 202,101,078 Machinery, lbs. 10,000 37,073

48,073 Marble, pieces 2,739

2,739 lbs. 1,638,000 7,400

1,645,400 Meal

62,146 16,029 78,175 Mdze, pkgs. 1,038,889 1,000

11,920 1,051,809 lbs.

13,589,500 325,957 21,067,221 34,982,678 Milk, gals.

25,278

25,278 Mill stones, Ibs.

47,250 47,250 Molasses " 115,000 2,194,978

2,309,978 Oakuin, bales 340

340 Oats, bu.

971,350 501,691 1,473,041 Oil, bbls. 245

254 Paint " 117

117 P'ches, bsks. & bbls. 690

690 Pig iron 8,484,000 64,070

8,518,070 Plas'r & Stuc., bbls. 1,286

16 1,302 Pork in barrels

24
11,191

35 11,280 Pork in hog, lbs.

3,045,924 3,045,924 Potatoes, bu.

2,637 15,694 41,936 60,267 Powder, lbs. 808,000 200

808,200 Posts, No. 402,471

402,471 Pickets 84,755

84,755 Provisions, lbs.

35,190 3,468,528 3,503,718 Piles, No.

2,696 Rags, lbs. 3,900 39,350

43,250 R. R. Iron, bar 174,142

174,142 lbs. 34,204,000 82,792

34,286,792 Furnishing" 1,835,736

1,835,736

2,696

66

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