Snake Venoms

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C.-Y. Lee
Springer Science & Business Media, 06.12.2012 - 1132 Seiten
The past decade has been a period of explosion of knowledge on the chemistry and pharmacology of snake toxins. Thanks to the development of protein chemistry, nearly a hundred snake toxins have been purified and sequenced, representing one of the largest families of sequenced proteins. Moreover, the mode of action of these toxins has been largely elucidated by the concerted efforts of pharmacologists, electro physiologists, and biochemists. As a result of these studies, some of the snake toxins, e.g., a-bungarotoxin and cobra neurotoxins, have been extensively used as specific markers in the study of the acetylcholine receptors. Indeed, without the discovery of these snake toxins, our knowledge of the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors would not have advanced so rapidly. The contribution of snake venom research to the biomedical sciences is not limited to the study of cholinergic receptors. Being one of the most concentrated enzyme sources in nature, snake venoms are also valuable tools in biochemical research. Venom phosphodiesterase, for example, has been widely used for structural studies of nucleic acids; proteinase, for the sequence studies of proteins and pep tides ; phospholipase A , for lipid research; and L-amino acid oxidase for identifying optical z isomers of amino acids. Furthermore, snake venoms have proven to be useful agents for clarifying some basic concepts on blood coagulation and some venom enzymes, e.g., thrombin-like enzymes and pro coagulants have been used as therapeutic agents.
 

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Inhalt

CHAPTER
3
References
11
CHAPTER
15
References
36
The Fine Structure of the Secretory Cell During the Venom Regeneration
45
E Venom Synthesis and Secretion
51
CHAPTER 4
61
CHAPTER 5
103
Formation of Thrombin
688
Formation of Autoprothrombin C Factor Xa
692
General Procoagulant Effects
697
Inhibition of Procoagulants
698
Prothrombin Derivatives
699
Thrombin
700
Fibrinolytic System
701
B Physiology of Hemostasis
702

Summary
144
Chemistry of Protein Toxins in Snake Venoms E KARLSSON With 11 Figures
159
Other Toxins
200
E Conclusion
203
CHAPTER 6
213
Conclusions
245
References
254
B Historic Development of Snake Toxin Phylogenetics
261
Future Possibilities
271
Properties
278
E Role of NGF in Snake Venom
291
Organic Constituents
297
Summary
304
Toxicity and Cause of Death
313
F Effects on Peripheral Nerve
354
CHAPTER 11
377
Utilization of Neurotoxins to Compare Junctional and Extrajunctional
386
G Use of Neurotoxins in Myasthenia Gravis Research
393
144
396
CHAPTER 12
403
Lethality of Pha2
411
Release of Physiologically Active Compounds by Phá2
424
G Summary and Conclusions
432
CHAPTER 13
448
Venom Factors Involved in the Hemolytic Process
450
E Mediated Effects of Venom Phospholipase A
464
F Hemolysis by a Cobra Venom Factor Acting Through the Complement
470
CHAPTER 14
480
E Hemorrhagic Effect
486
Involvement of an Endogenous or Exogenous Hemorrhagic Principle
521
F Concluding Remarks
536
Cardiovascular Effects of Snake Venoms C Y LEE and S Y
547
B Mechanism of the Depressor Action of Crotalid Venoms
557
Mechanism of the Depressor Action of Viperid Venoms
566
B Other Elapid Venoms
577
Sea Snake Venoms
580
CHAPTER 16
591
B 5Hydroxytryptamine
601
SlowReacting Substances Prostaglandins and Lysophosphatides
614
E Catecholamines
617
CHAPTER 17
629
Crotalid Venoms and Enzymes Simulating Their Effects
664
Interrelationships Between Morphology and Function
674
CHAPTER 18
684
Formation of Fibrin
686
Cross Linking of Fibrin
687
Snake Venoms and Blood Coagulation
703
Formation of Fibrin
710
ThrombinLike Enzymes and CrossLinking of Fibrin
712
Animal and Clinical Work
713
Autoprothrombin IIA and Fibrinolysis
716
Miscellaneous Aspects
717
Elimination of ThrombinLike Enzyme
718
Hemostasis
719
Rheology
720
Snake Venoms and Thrombin Formation
722
Snake Venoms and Autoprothrombin C Factor Xa Formation
727
Snake Venoms and Platelets
731
Platelet Aggregation Induced by Coagulant and Noncoagulant Venoms
732
Venom Inhibitors of Platelet Aggregation
733
Overview
734
Immunological Properties of Snake Venoms P BooUET With 7 Figures
751
Stimulation of the Immune System by Venom Antigens
768
Nature of Antivenom Antibodies and Measurement of the Activity
795
CHAPTER 20
825
Antivenin Standardization
833
Conclusions
840
CHAPTER 21
847
Common Antigens in Venom and Snake Serum
855
CHAPTER 22
863
E Modern Studies of the Interaction Between Snake Venom and Complement
871
CHAPTER 23
881
Active Immunization
891
CHAPTER 24
898
E Pathology
910
CHAPTER 25
922
B Medically Important Sea Snakes
930
E Prognosis
937
F Pathology
939
H Summary
951
Symptomatology
957
P Prognosis and Sequela
966
G Treatment of Viper Bite
972
CHAPTER 27
978
Epidemiology
985
F Treatment
991
CHAPTER 28
997
Vascular Lesions
1003
Pathogenesis
1010
E Treatment
1016
Subject Index
1101
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