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on the other side, by forcing out some of the teeth, in dom ing which the jaw also seems to have been injured.
We visited the good fathers of this convent on a Thiirse. day evening, just before supper-time, and they received us with great politeness :-“We will not ask you, said they, to sup with us, because we are not prepared, but if you will come to-morrow, though it is a fast with us, we will have a turkey roasted for you.” This invitation, which shewed a liberality of sentiment not to have been expected in a con vent of Portuguese friars at this place, gratified as much, though it was not in our power to accept it.s
We visited also a convent of nuns, dedicated to Santa Claw ra, and the ladies did us the honour to express a particulars pleasure in seeing us there : They had heard that
there were great philosophers among us, and not at all knowing what were the objects of philosophical knowledge, they asked us several questions that were absurdi and extravagant in the highest degree'; one was, when it would thunder, and another, whether a spring of fresh water was to be found any where within the walls of their conventyr of which it seems they were in great want. It will natärally be supposed that our answers to such questions were neither satisfactory to the ladies, nor, in their estimation, honourable to us; yet their disappointment did not in the least Jessen? their civility, and they talked, without ceasing, during the whole of our visit, which lasted about half an hour.“
The hills of this country are very high; the highest, Pico Ruivo, rises 5,068 feet, near an English mile, perpendicuiarly from its base, which is much higher than any land that has been measured in Great Britain. The sides of these hilts are covered with vines to a certain height, above which there are woods of chesnut and pinê of ime:
3 Mr Barrow is no admirer of the monks that swarm in Madeirahe represents them as a very worthless, and a very ignorant race of beings. E.
According to Mr Barrow's account, it should seem, that though, there are several nunneries in this island, “ not a single instance of the veil being taken has occurred for many years pást."-E.
s In Mr Leslie's table of the heights of mountains appended to the second edition of his Elements of Geometry, the altitude of this remarka. ble peak, is stated to be 5162 English feet, but on what authority is not mentioned. That of Ben Nevis, in Inverness-shire, as ascertained by the barometer, is 4380.-E.
2-0 TS FI!! 200
mense extent, and above them forests of wild timber of various kinds not known in Europe ; particularly two, called by the Portuguese Mirmulano and Paobranco, the leaves of both which, particularly the Paobranco, are so beautiful, that these trees would be a great ornament to the gardens of Europe.
The number of inhabitants in this island is supposed to be about:80,000, and the custom-house duties produce a revenue to the king of Portugal of 20,0001. a-year, clear of all expences, which might easily be doubled by the product of the island, exclusive of the vines, if advantage were taken of the excellence of the climate, and the amazing fertility of the soil; but this object is utterly neglect ed by the Portugueze. In the trade of the inhabitants of Madeira with Lisbon the balance is against them, so that all the Portuguęze money naturally going thither, the currency of the island is Spanish ;, there are indeed a few Portugueze pieces of copper, but they are so scarce that we did not see one of them. The Spanish coin is of three denominations ; Pistereens, worth about a shilling; Bitts, worth about sixpence; and Half bitts, threepence.
The tides at this place flow at the full and change of the moon, dorth and south; the spring-tides rise seven feet perpendicular, and the neap-tides four. By Dr Heberden's observation, the variation of the compass here is now 15° 30' west, and decreasing ; but I have some doubt whether he is not mistaken with respect to its decrease : We found that the north point of the dipping needle belonging to the Royal Society dipped 77° 18".
The refreshments to be had here, are water, wine, fruit of several sorts, onions in plenty, and some sweetmeats; fresh meat and poultry are not to be had without leave from the governor, and the payment of a very high price.
We took in 270 lib, of fresh beef, and a live bullock, charged at 613 lib. 3,032 gallons of water, and ten tons of wine; and in the night, between Sunday the 18th and Monday the 19th of September, we set sail in prosecution
of our voyage.
When Funchiale bore north, 13 east, at the distance of
The reader need scarcely be apprized of the necessity of verifying or modifying the account of some of the particulars now given respecting Madeira, by an appeal to more recent authorities. A hint to this effect is sufficient, without further occupying his attention on the subject.-E.
seventy-six miles, the variation appeared by several 'azimuths to be 16° 30' West.
The Passage from Madeira to Rio de Janeiro, with some Ac, "count of the Country, and the Incidents that happened there.
On the 21st of September we saw the islands called the Salvages, to the north of the Canaries; when the principal of these bore S. W. at the distance of about five leagues, we found the variation of the compass by an azimuth to be 17° 50. I make these islands to lie in latitude 30° 17' north, and distant fifty-eight leagues from Funchiale in Madeira, in the direction of S. 16° E.
On Friday the 23d we saw the Peak of Teneriffe bearing W. by S. S. and found the variation of the compass to be from 17° 22' to 16° 30'. The height of this mountain, from which I took a new departure, was determined by Dr Heberden, who has been upon it, to be 15,396 feet, which is but 148 yards less than three mites, reckoning the mile at 1760 yards. Its appearance at sunset was very striking; when the sun was below the horizon, and the rest of the island appeared of a deep black, the mountain still reflected his rays, and glowed with a warmth of colour which no painting can express. There is no eruption of visible fire from it, but a heat issues from the chinks near the top, too' strong to be borne by the band when it is held near them. We had received froui Dr Heberden, among other favoars, some salt which be collected on the top of the mountain, where it is found in large quantities, and which he supposed to be the true natrum or nitrum of the ancients: He gave us also some native sulphur exceedingly pure, which he had likewise found upon the surface in great plenty. o: On the next day, Saturday the 24th, we came into the north-east, trade-wind, and on Friday the 30th saw Bona Vista, one of the Cape de Verd Islands; we ranged the east side of it, at the distance of three or four miles from the shore, till we were obliged to haul off to avoid a ledge of rocks which stretch out S.W. by W. from the body, or S.E: point of the island, to the extent of a league and a half, Bona Vista by our observation lies in latitude 16'N. and longitude 21° 51' west.
It is not said by what means Df H. 'ascertained the height of this peak, and one may safely call in question his accuracy. In the table referred to in a former note, its height, as measured by the barometer, is stated to be 12,358 English feet, being nearly 10,000 feet lower than that of Chimborazo, the highest summit of the Andes, which is estimated at 21,440. But there is a good deal of contrariety in the statements of the heights of mountains. The following quotations from Krusenstern's account of bis voyage will both prove this, and at the same time give the reader some lively conception of the magnificent effect of the Peak. " At half past six in the morning, we distinctly saw the island of Teneriffe, and . at seven the pic cleared itself of the clouds in which it had been enveJoped until then, and appeared to us in all its majestic grandeur. As its summit was covered with snow, and was extremely brilliant from the reflection of the sun, this contributed very much to the beauty of the scene. On either side, to the east and west, the mountains, which nature seems to have destined to sustain this enormous mass, appeared gradually to decine. Every one of the mountains which surround the pic, would be considerable in itself; but their height scarcely attracts the attention of the beholder, although they contribute to diminish the apparent size of the pic, wbich, if it stood alone, would be much more striking,” “At six the next morning, (this was the second morning after leaving Teneriffe) we still saw the pic from the deck; it bore by compass, N.E. 15° 30', that is, allowing for the variation, which is here 16° W., N.W. 0° 30. At noon, we had an observation in 26° 13' 51" latitude, and 16° 58 25 longitude. Between six in the morning and noon we had lessened our latitude 21' 5.", and increased our longitude 19 , 15", The ship was consequently, at the time we saw the pic, in 46° 35' 45 lat, and 16° 39 10 long. and as, according to Borda and Pingre, the pic lies in 28° 17' N. lat, and 19° (Oʻ W. long. of Paris, or '16° 40' of Greenwich, we must have seen it at six o'clock at the distance of 101 miles, and due north of us, in which direction it in fact bore. In very clear weather the pic may be seen 25 miles farther off from the mast-head; but this is the greatest distance which it is visible even from that height, and under the most fa. vourable circumstances. The elevation of the pic has been determined by several observations. Borda's calculation, which is founded on a geometrical admeasurement, and is conceived to be the most correct, makes it 1905 toises, or 11,480 feet.' The relations which some authors have given of the height of this famous pic or peak, are extravagant beyond all credibility. The reader will meet with some of them in Crutwell's Gazetleer.-E.
On the Ist of October, in latitude 14° 6' N. and longitude 22° 10 W. we found the variation by a very good azi. muth to be 10° 37' W. and the next morning it appeared to be 10°. This day we found the ship five miles a-head of the log, and the next day seven. On the 3d, hoisted out the boat to discover whether there was a current, and
found one to the eastward, at the rate of three quarters of a mile hour.
During our course from Teneriffe to Bona Vista we saw great numbers of flying fish, which from the cabin-windows appear beautiful beyond imagination, their sides having the colour and brightness of burnished silver; when they are seen from the deck they do not appear to so much advantage, because their backs are of a dark colour. We also took a shark, which proved to be the Squalus Carcharias of Linnæus.
Having lost the trade-wind on the 3d, in latitude 12° 14', and longitude 22° 10, the wind became somewhat variable, and we had light airs and calms by turns,
On the 7th, Mr Banks went out in the boat, and took what the seamen call a Portuguese man of war; it is the Holuthuria Physalis of Linnæus, and a species of the Mollusca. It consisted of a small bladder about seven inches long, very much resembling the air-bladder of fishes, from the bottom of which descended a number of strings of a bright blue and red, some of them three or four feet in length, which upon being touched sting like a nettle, but with much more force, On the top of the bladder is a membrane which is used as a sail, and turned so as to receive the wind which way, soever it blows: This membrane is marked in fine pink-coloured veins, and the animal is in every respect an object exquisitely curious and beautiful.
We also took several of the shell-fishes, or testaceous animals, which are always found floating upon the water, particularly the Helix Janthina and Violacea ; they are about the size of a snail, and are supported upon the surface of the water by a small cluster of bubbles, which are filled with air, and consist of a tenacious slimy substance that will not easily part with its contents; the animal is oviparous, and these bubbles, serye also as a nidus for its eggs. It is probable that it never goes down to the bottom, nor willingly approaches any shore ; for the shell is exceedingly brittle, and that of few fresh-water snails is so thin : Every shell contains about a tea-spoonful of liquor, which it easily discharges upon being touched, and which is of the most beautiful red-purple that can be conceived. It dies linen cloth, and it may perhaps be worth enquiry,