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Why all these things change, from their ordinance,
Their natures, and pre-formed faculties,
To monstrous quality ; why, you shall find,
That heaven hath infus'd them with these spirits,
To make them instruments of fear, and warning,
Unto some monstrous state.
Now could I, Casca, name to thee a man
Most like this dreadful night;
That thunders, lightens, opens graves, and roars
As doth the lion in the Capitol :
A man no mightier than thyself, or me,
In personal action; yet prodigious grown o,
And fearful, as these strange eruptions are.
Casca. 'Tis Cæsar that you mean: Is it not,

Cassius ?
Cas. Let it be who it is: for Romans now
Have thewes and limbs like to their ancestors;
But, woe the while ! our fathers' minds are dead,
And we are govern'd with our mothers' spirits ;
Our yoke and sufferance show us womanish.

Casca. Indeed, they say, the senators to-morrow Mean to establish Cæsar as a king :

“ Thei calculate, thei chaunt, thei charme,

“ To conquere us that meane no harme." This author is speaking of women. Steevens.

There is certainly no prodigy in old men's calculating from their past experience. The wonder is, that old men should not, and that children should. I would therefore [instead of old men, fools, and children, &c.) point thus : " Why old men fools, and children calculate.”

BLACKSTONE. 8 - PRODIGIOUS grown] Prodigious is portentous. So, in Troilus and Cressida :

“ It is prodigious, there will be some change." See vol. viii. p. 406. STEEVENS.

9 Have Thewes and limbs --] Thewes is an obsolete word implying nerves or muscular strength. It is used by Falstaff in The Second Part of King Henry IV. and in Hamlet : “ For nature, crescent, does not grow

alone “ In thewes and bulk." The two last folios, [1664 and 1685,) in which some words are injudiciously modernized, read-sinews. STBEVENS.

And he shall wear his crown by sea, and land,
In every place, save here in Italy.

Cas. I know where I will wear this dagger then;
Cassius from bondage will deliver Cassius :
Therein, ye gods, you make the weak most strong;
Therein, ye gods, you tyrants do defeat:
Nor stony tower, nor walls of beaten brass,
Nor airless dungeon, nor strong links of iron,
Can be retentive to the strength of spirit;
But life, being weary of these worldly bars,
Never lacks power to dismiss itself.
If I know this, know all the world besides,
That part of tyranny, that I do bear,
I can shake off at pleasure.
Casca.

So can I :
So every bondman in his own hand bears
The power to cancel his captivity.

Cas. And why should Cæsar be a tyrant then ?
Poor man! I know, he would not be a wolf,
But that he sees the Romans are but sheep:
He were no lion, were not Romans hinds.
Those that with haste will make a mighty fire,
Begin it with weak straws: What trash is Rome,
What rubbish, and what offal, when it serves
For the base matter to illuminate
So vile a thing as Cæsar ? But, O, grief !
Where hast thou led me? I, perhaps, speak this
Before a willing bondman : then I know
My answer must be made ?: But I am arm’d,

1

- every BONDMAN-bears
The power to cancel his CAPTIVI

vity.] So, in Cymbeline, Act V. Posthumus speaking of his chains :

take this life, “ And cancel these cold bonds." Henley. ? My Answer must be made:) I shall be called to account, and must answer as for seditious words. Johnson.

So, in Much Ado About Nothing : Sweet prince, let me go no further to mine answer ; do you hear me, and let this count kill me." STEEVENS.

And dangers are to me indifferent.
Casca. You speak to Casca; and to such a

man,
That is no fleering tell-tale. Hold my hand :
Be factious for redress* of all these griefs;
And I will set this foot of mine as far,
As who goes farthest.
Cas.

There's a bargain made.
Now know you, Casca, I have mov'd already
Some certain of the noblest-minded Romans,
To undergo, with me, an enterprize
Of honourable-dangerous consequence ;
And I do know, by this, they stay for me
In Pompey's porch: For now, this fearful night,
There is no stir, or walking in the streets;
And the complexion of the element,
In favour's like the work we have in hand,

3

Hold my hand :) Is the same as, Here's my hand."

JOHNSON. 4 Be factious for redress -] Factious seems here to mean active. JOHNSON.

It means, I apprehend, 'embody a party or faction.' Malone,

Perhaps Dr. Johnson's explanation is the true one. Menenius, in Coriolanus, says : " I have been always factionary on the part of your general ;” and the speaker, who is describing himself, would scarce have employed the word in its common and unfavourable sense. STEEVENS. s In FAVOUR's like the work -] The old edition reads :

Is favors, like the work." I think we should read :

In favour's like the work we have in hand,

“ Most bloody, fiery, and most terrible." Favour is look, countenance, appearance. Johnson.

To favour is to resemble. Thus Stanyhurst, in his translation of the third book of Virgil's Æneid, 1582:

“ With the petit town gates favouring the principal old portes.”

We may read It favours, or—Is favour'd-i. e. is an appearance or countenance like, &c. STEEVENS. Perhaps fev'rous is the true reading. So, in Macbeth :

Some say the earth
Was feverous, and did shake." REED.

Most bloody, fiery, and most terrible.

Enter Cinna.
CASCA. Stand close awhile, for here comes one in

haste.
Cas. 'Tis Cinna, I do know him by his gait;
He is a friend.-Cinna, where haste you so ?
Cin. To find out you : Who's that? Metellus

Cimber? Cas. No, it is Casca; one incorporate To our attempts. Am I not staid for, Cinna? Cin. I am glad on't. What a fearful night is

this? There's two or three of us have seen strange sights.

CAS. Am I not staid for, Cinna ? Tell me.
Cin.

Yes,
You are. O, Cassius, if you could but win
The noble Brutus to our party-
CAS. Be you content: Good Cinna, take this

paper, And look you lay it in the prætor's chair, Where Brutus may but find it; and throw this In at his window: set this up with wax Upon old Brutus' statue : all this done, Repair to Pompey's porch, where you shall find us. Is Decius Brutus, and Trebonius, there?

Cin. All but Metellus Cimber; and he's gone To seek you at your house.

house. Well, I will hie, And so bestow these papers as you bade me. Cas. That done, repair to Pompey's theatre.

[Exit Cinna. Come, Casca, you and I will, yet, ere day, See Brutus at his house: three parts of him Is ours already; and the man entire, Upon the next encounter, yields him ours.

Casca. O, he sits high, in all the people's hearts : And that, which would appear offence in us,

His countenance, like richest alchymy,
Will change to virtue, and to worthiness.
CAS. Him, and his worth, and our great need of

him,
You have right well conceited. Let us go,
For it is after midnight ; and, ere day,
We will awake him, and be sure of him. [Exeunt.

ACT II. SCENE I.

The Same. BRUTUS's Orchard 6.

Enter Brutus.
Bru. What, Lucius! ho!-
I cannot, by the progress of the stars,

6

Brutus's ORCHARD.] The modern editors read garden, but orchard seems anciently to have had the same meaning.

Steevens. That these two words were anciently synonymous, appears from a line in this play:

“ — he hath left you all his walks,
“ His private arbours, and new planted orchards,

“On this side Tyber.” In Sir T. North's translation of Plutarch, the passage which Shakspeare has here copied, stands thus : “He left his gardens and arbours unto the people, which he had on this side of the river Tyber.” Malone.

Orchard was anciently written hort-yard; hence its original meaning is obvious. Henley.

By the following quotation, however, it will appear that these words had in the days of Shakspeare acquired a distinct meaning. "It shall be good to have understanding of the ground where ye do plant either orchard or garden with fruite.” °A Booke of the Arte and Maner howe to plant and graffe all Sortes of Trees, &c. 1574, 4t0.—And when Justice Shallow invites Falstaff to see his orchard, where they are to eat a “last year's pippin of his own graffing,” he certainly uses the word in its present acceptation. VOL. XII.

D

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