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very disorder it is designed to remove. peculiar expressions, to his own limiFor what does the writer in effect, tation of terms, than that which bewho limits by definition the meaning longs to his mind and his works ?of his terms? He does that expressly All inquirers of original thought are and avowedly which others have per. candidates alike for fixing the terms haps unconsciously done. He takes the of language; all impress their own word from its large free use in the lan- meaning on its words with a force guage, and attaches it especially to the which is the force of their own minds. meaning, which, in his own metaphy. He whose paramount authority oversical speculation, is its most important bears his competitors, and leaves to meaning. For himself such defini- his successors no choice but to adopt tions may be of avail; they are a his language, has, with or without demeans to clear up obscurity from his finition, fixed the language of philoown language; they are a glossary sophy. Whilst he who falls short of annexed to his writings. But beyond this authority, however carefully he this, for general application in philo- may have limited and defined his sigsophy, how do they seem to be avail- nifications, falls back into the number able? The peculiar uses of terms of those who, by their peculiarity of which are found in the language of expression, have prepared obscurity each inquirer belong to his specula- for the writings of others, and, except tions. if those speculations are just to the most exact and studious of their and important, and if on these, or on readers, have left it upon their own. any other grounds, they are of autho It would seem to me, that the best rity with the public, they will carry a metaphysical writer can do for himto a certain degree into public use his self with respect to the important

unconscious appropriation of terms of philosophy, is to be consist terms ; they will make their expres- ent with himself in using them; and sion intelligible; and, if there is good the best he can do for others, to disreason, will impress its peculiarity turb them as little as possible from permanently on the language of phi- their natural signification in the lanlosophy, and at last on the language guage to which they belong. of the country. What other authori

S. T. P ty can any writer attach to his own Oriel College, Oxford.



The character of Louis XVIII. has mere good taste, to have made his af. been so long obscured, formerly by his fection towards his unhappy and perexile, and latterly by the eclipsing secuted brother, a little more promiglory of the Sieur Caze, his favourite, nent. It was surely a singular and that one must look thirty years back unlucky coincidence, that he should to find any traces of his real disposi- be, of all his family, after the Daution, which is the more material, un- phin, the nearest to the throne, and der present circumstances, inasmuch after Egalité, the dearest to the Jacoas it has given rise to the reproach so bins. It is true that this disgraceful commonly thrown out against the Ul. popularity was softened down by the tras of France, that they are more very qualities which perhaps contriRoyalist than the King.'

A little ex- buted to create it. His manners were amination into the early history of the low; his tastes were rather worse than revolution will shew that it was hard- his manners, and whatever abilities he ly possible to be less Royalist than may have possessed, were so buried Louis XVIII. was in those days of under the sensuality and selfishness of trial.

his mode of life, that they gave neither We cannot suspect that he was pa- hopes nor fears to the discontented nor ralysed by the same vile and odious to the loyal. Observe, we speak of motives which excited the activity of thirty years ago. It is to be hoped, Philip Egalité ; but undoubtedly the and indeed there is reason to believe, circumstance in which he stood, of that these thirty years of adversity being the second in succession to the (if the king considered that to be adcrown, and the first in succession to versity during which he never wanted the regency, ought, as a matter of two courses) may have in some degree

s, to his omla 1819.)

th or without

Louis XVIII. and the French Royalists.

43 han that which improved the personal character of this together; for the Jacobins detested and his wote prince. But it is surely not too

much M. D'Artois ; yet, as we see, did him iginal thought to say, that somewhat of his original some kind of justice; and why should

fixing the tee and natural indolence and selfishness we take it for granted that they did not impress their is likely still to adhere to him, and to also do justice

to M. de Provence? But ords with a lo render him as indifferent to what may let us see what the Royalists thought of

their own mä be the state of France under his him. In the 15th volume of the at authority on younger brother, as he was to what Actes des Apotres, p. 128, there is one of r's, and leaves was the state of France under his el- those satirical songs called by the oice but to ale der brother.

French Noels : the verse in which In 1789, a patriotic wit attributes to Louis XVIII is described, may be guage of phi each of the royal family a song, the quoted as an additional proof of what ho falls short

first line of which is supposed to be the public opinion even of the Royalists ver carefully characteristic. The Count D'Artois of 1790, was with regard to him :defined his sings,

Grand ami du silence, into the num “ I am a soldier and a gentleman,"

Du bon vin, du repos. ir peculiarity

Le Comte de Provence but the Comte de Provence (Louis pared obscu

Balbutia ces mots ; XVIII.) only mutters, rs, and, en

“ Souffrez que promptement chez moi je tudious of the “ I am no king; and, what is worse, no

me retire, prince.” in their on

“ Je crains trop de l'embarras ;

Mon frère est dans un vilain pas,, that the le Again-in another jeu d'esprit, also

« Mais, helas ! qu'il s'en tire.". n do for Li from a patriot pen, where characteris

tic residences in the different streets of which may be thus imitated-
to be con
Paris are assigned to the royal family,

Very active at clearing his plate,
Egalité is lodged in the Rue de Louis

Very clever at holding his tongue; hers, to le Grand; the Count D'Artois (whose In size he is Louis the great, Dossible! devotion to his brother was so honour And thus he half-hiccupp'd half-sung: able that even his enemies respected

• Permit me to make my escape, it,) is placed in the Place Royale, “ I'm a poor inoffensive good man? 1g. while Monsieur (Louis XVIII.) is

My brother, who's in a d S. T.1

od scrape, trundled into the Rue des Francs Boura

“ Must get out o't as well as he can.”. geoisma street, says St Foix, which We think one may now safely say, has its name from being inhabited by that it is no very great crime in the the lowest and meanest

of the people. French Royalists to be more Royalist These not unimportant trifles are to than Louis the XVIIIth, who seeing be found in the Memoires pour servir his brother, his king, in a da d a l'Histoire de 1789, p. 30 and 116. scrape,' is represented as leaving him

But this, you will perhaps say, is to get out of it as well as he could.' re prom! the malice of the Jacobins. Not al.


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Protestant country-men, or women, as The godly book above mentioned late may not be too zealous in the cause of ly furnished me some important les our reformed religion to think of asons, or familiar examples, relative to vailing themselves of the wisdom of the sin of usury, which you agreed the scarlet lady; and the first subject with me in thinking peculiarly appo- which I happen to hit upon is one site and instructive, on the eve of the which appears to me, of all others, to meeting of a new Parliament, where- afford an useful field for reflection at in it was apprehended that matters of the termination of a London season. this nature might undergo a great It is the following, deal of discussion, and require the sa

“« How damnable and detectable a thing, lutary check of ancient experience, to And how odious to God, is vain and dissorestrain the too licentious spirit of lute dancing.” modern innovation. The close of the

Lib. I. Cap X. first session of the same Parliament in

“ Truly," observes our pious and eloduces me to refer again to the same quent author, " one of the most singular valuable repertory of monastic lore with follies committed by man and woman a. a like view of benefiting such of my mong the vanities of this world, is light and

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dishonest dancing ; which (as a learned construed into acts of undesigned, but
doctor writes) it may be well said, is the nevertheless most impious, parody ;
head and fountain of all sins and wicked, and he finishes his exordium by awarn-
ness-or, at least,"'-(and here we may well
admire the scrupulous spirit of candour and ing, peculiarly terrible to the class of
moderation in argument which distinguish-

male and female dandies, that the es our author, and forbids him from assert.

more curious and vain their attire at ing even so obvious a truism as this, with these indecorous exhibitions, the more out adding the due qualification,)—"or, conspicuous will be the deformity and at least, of the greater part.” To have rudity of their appearance “at the stated that the sin of dancing is the root day of judgment.' and foundation of all other sins without ex

We shall select the third of the ception, few persons would have carried their criticisms so far as to condemn for be these terrible denunciations. It shows

legends, or examples,” which follow ing hyperbolical ; but our author is too conscientious to assert, even as a general

“ how certain persons, dancing on proposition, what may be liable to be dis- Christmas eve, were unable to cease proved in particular instances, and I must dancing for a whole year after. .confess that, in my opinion, he has rather wards.' strengthened than detracted ought from his It is written in the “ Speculum årgument by the modest sobriety of the sub. Historiale," how in a certain town in sequent qualification. Thus, “ Tutti i

Saxony, where was a church dedicated Francesi sono ladri” is a national remark, the justness of which no true Englishman

to St Magnus the martyr, in the tenth could dispute even in this bold uncompro- year of the Emperor Honorius, just mising way of stating it--but how much when the first mass was begun upon more forcible is it rendered by the qualify- Christmas Eve, some vain young peoing clause" Non tutti-ma Briona Parte.ple, at the instigation of the devil, But to proceed, “ Inasmuch as," adds our were set a dancing and singing in a author, still following up the same sentence, dissolute manner hard by the church, ! it is impossible ever sufficiently to express in such manner that they hindered how many and great are the evils which spring from dancing ; seeing that by it all and disturbed the divine service. human feelings are vitiated; the heart it. Whereupon the priest, moved with a self grows corrupt and hardened ; and, fi holy and just indignation, commanded nally, the poor and miserable soul utterly them to be still, and to give over this perisheth.”

accursed vanity. But the aforesaid He proceeds to trace the origin and miserable sinners, for all that was said invention of this “ dissolute and lase to them, and commanded them, would civious exercise” to the devils in Hell, never cease from that execrable prowhat time the Israelites, after feasting faneness and devilish mischief. Upon and gorging themselves with wine, fell which the priest, inflamed with zeal, to dancing round the molten calf in the cried out in a loud voice" May it desert; and he then enumerates the please God and St Magnus that ye

all several unbecoming actions, by which continue to sing and dance after this (as he strongly expresses it,) " young fashion for an entire year to come from men and maidens, while dancing, henceforward.”. Wonderful to relate ! do (as it were) crucify again their So did these words of that holy man Redeemer.” And first, he observes, prevail, that, by divine permission,

they find a sort of sensual grati- these wretched persons, (being fifteen fication in, and moreover obtain the in number, and three of them females,) applause of the spectators by the act did, in fact, so continue dancing and of, leaping as high as they are able skipping about for a whole year togenot reflecting that in exact proportion ther; nor did any rain fall upon them to the altitude of every leap will be during all that time, nor did they feel the depth to which they are doomed cold, nor heat, nor hunger, nor thirst; to sink in Hell.”. Secondly, “ it often- nor did they ever tire ; nor did their times happens that dancers spread out garments wax old, nor their shoes and extend their arms in order to give wear out. But as if they were beside greater energy to their performance, themselves, like to people possessed by which stretching out of the arms with phrenzy, or idiots, they kept in this profane amusement they dis- singing and dancing continually, night play a manifest disregard of the holy and

day. At the end of the year came crucifix, the figure whereof they so the bishop, who gave them absolution, irreverently imitate.” The lifting of and reconciled them before the altar the head and voice are in like manner of St Magnus. Which having been


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done, the three women suddenly ex would do so with the greatest alacrity, pired, and the rest slept for three days the good man therefore read her a serand nights successively, and afterwards mon, (which I may be excused for not did such penance for their sin, that they inserting at length,), the object of were thought worthy to work miracles which was to prove that, by her preafter death. And some of them that sent denial of similar enjoyments on lived longest, manifested the punish- earth, she would secure to herself an ment of their offence in dreadful trem- eternity of them in heaven; and this blings of their limbs, which they suf- he founded upon three texts 1. From fered even unto the day of their death. the prophet Jeremiah, “ Tu ornabe

The sixth example relates how a ris tympanis tuis, et egredieris choro virgin of noble family, and “ of mar- ludentium, &c." 2. From the Psalms, vellous beauty, according to the flesh," " Prævenerant principes conjuncti became extremely anxious to go and Psallentibus in medio juvenculorum join in the festivities and balls of this tympanistrianum.” And 3. From the world; and, being restrained in her Hymn of the Virgins,“ quacunque evil inclinations by her pious parents, deges, Virgines sequuntur, atque lauwaxed therefore very sad and sorrow dibus post te canentes cursitant.”. ful indeed. In which state being vi- And with these sacred promises the sited by a holy man, to whom she simple maiden was so much moved made confession of her vain wishes, he that she instantly became influenced asked her, whether, if it were propos- with holy desires, and after dedicating ed to her, by the privation of a single her virginity to Christ, went, at the day's pleasure, to secure the enjoy- expiration of five years, to enjoy the ment of a whole year's dancing and literal accomplishment of her compact, junketing, without interruptions, she in footing and jigging it to all eter would not agree to the bargain ? And, nity. having answered that certainly she

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It is rather curious to recall to our re- above named powers, to determine all collection the States of Europe as they differences by a kind of judicial deciexisted in 1737, and the ranks which sion, and thus to ensure eternal peace, they were, at that time, supposed to appears now-a-days much less visionhold relatively to each other. The ary than it did in 1737. In truth, following list is extracted from the the Congresses of Vienna, Paris, and celebrated Abbé de St Pierre's plan for Aix-la-Chapelle, in which the four à European diet.-Ann. Polit. tom 2, great powers, Austria, England, Prus

sia, and Russia, (France being admit1. The Emperor of Austria

ted latterly to the conferences, settled 2. The King of France

all the questions relative to the divi3. The King of Spain

sion and policy of the great European 4. The King of Portugal

family, were diets upon M. de St 5. The King of England

Pierre's principle. And it will be well 6. The States of Holland

for mankind if a continuation of the 7. The King of Denmark

same system shall lead to the happy 8. The King of Sweden

result which the philanthropic Abbé 9. The King of Poland 10. The Empress of Russia

contemplated, of a general and lasting 11. The Pope

peace. Why should it not? Why 12. The King of Prussia

should a shot be fired in Europe 13. The Elector of Bavaria

when Austria, England, France, Hol14. The Elector Palatine

land, Prussia, Russia, and Spain, form 15. The Swiss

a tribunal to mediate between powers 16. The cclesiastical Electorates

who may have a difference, and a unit18. The Republic of Venice

ed force to punish any country which 18. The King of Naples

should dare to commit aggression upon 19. The King of Sardinia.

another. The celebrated “reverie” (as Fleury

Financial difficulties are the origin called it,) of a European diet to be of all national discontents and political formed of deputies from each of the revolutions. It would be hard to find

a serious sedition in European history also have created a military spirit, which has not had an immediate con which has rendered war the favourite nexion with taxation. Now, war is speculation of great masses of the pothe great cause of financial difficulties, pulation of all Europe ; and they have and if the European congress shall unfortunately concluded with consolirender wars infrequent, and great dating the triumph of their mischiemilitary establishments, pro tanto, vous principles, by the impunity which unnecessary, they will raise more ef- has been extended to all, and the refectual barriers against future revolu- wards which have been lavished on tions than any other possible device of most of the surviving criminals of that human wisdom can create. But alas, atrocious revolution. this wise system (if even to be perse Let us hope, however, that the vered in) is only for the future. The several governments have internal French revolution, and above all, the strength to enable them to weather gigantic ambition of “ its child and the present difficulties, and that the champion,” Bonaparte, have entailed judicial union of the sovereigns may upon Europe a load of expense and continue to decide upon all national financial pressure

which may, perhaps, differences, and thus deliver mankind be the germ of new troubles. They from internal wars for the future.




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Burns says,

I. Every one knows that in Burns Arcum dola dedit, dedit illis alma Sagittam song which begins,

Francia, quis chordum, quem meruere, da.

Howell's Fam. Epist. “ Is there for honest poverty ?”.

Dole gave these monks the bow-a shaft, the bard indulged in a levelling strain of sentiments, which some of his rea But who will give, what they deserve, a ders have blamed ; yet one of the most string! forcible stanzas might have been bor

The anagram is pleasant; but, it rowed (if Burns had ever borrowed) seems, the Jesuits know how to have from a person who was not likely to two strings to their bow. have encouraged levelling principles,

III. Pope exposes, in admirable or to have underrated the authority of poetry, the idle vanity of those whose the princes of the earth. I mean King

ancient, but ignoble blood, Lewis the XIV. of haughty and mag. Has crept through scoundrels ever since the nificent memory.


But I never have met this folly more “ A king may mak a belted knight, strikingly exemplified than in an acA marquis, duke, and a' that;

count of the family of Rosencrantz, in But an honest man's aboon his might, Hofman's Historical Portraits of the Gude faith he maunna fa' that."

Worthies of Denmark. “ This family, Freron tells us, that Lewis, walking through a long train of descents of one day in the garden of Versailles, persons filling the highest offices, offers with all his nobles around him unco- few events worthy of attention, except vered, directed Mansard, an able ar that one nobleman of this name was chitect and amiable man, who was, it executed for forging, and another baseems, unwell, to put on his hat-the nished for a libel.” courtiers looked astonished at so great IV. A curious Trial by Jury.a condescension, but the monarch re Christiern the II. had a mistress named buked them by saying, “gentlemen, Dyvele with whom he suspected one I can make as many dukes as I please, of his nobles, named Forben Oxe, to but I never could make a man like have been too familiar. She, however, Mansard." Freron, vol. ix. p. 36. died, and after her death the king

II. The Jesuits of Dole had two fine asked Oxe to tell him sincerely if his convents and estates, the one called suspicions were well founded. I own, L'Arc (the bow) in Lorrain, and La said Oxe, I tried, but never could sucFléche (the arrow) in Anjou ; when ceed with her. The furious king or the latter was given them by Henry dered Oxe to be tried for this intendthe IV. the following distich appeared, ed crime before the senate he was, of

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