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man ought not to be ashamed nor afraid to see or speak to any man living. But Poverty often deprives a man of all spirit and virtue: “It is hard for an empty bag to stand upright," as poor Richard truly says. What would you think of that prince, or that government, who should issue an edict, forbidding you to dress like a gentleman or gentlewoman, on pain of imprisonment or servitude? Would you not say, that you were free, have a right to dress as you please, and that such an edict would be a breach of your privileges, and such a government tyrannical and yet you are about to put yourself under that tyranny when you run in debt for such dress! Your creditor has authority, at his pleasure, to deprive you of your liberty, by confining you in jail for life, or by selling you for a servant, if you should not be able to pay him. When you have got your bargain, you may, perhaps, think little of payment: but “Creditors (poor Richard tells us) have better memories than debtors,;" and in another place he says, “Creditors are a superstitious sect, great observers of set days and times.” The day comes round before you are aware, and the demand is made before you are prepared to satisfy it. Or if you bear your debt in mind, the term which at first seemed so long, will, as it lessens, appear extremely short, Time will seem to have added wings to his heels as well as his shoulders. “Those have a short Lent (saith poor Richard), who own money to be paid at Easter.” Then since, as he says, “The borrower is a slave to the lender, and the debtor to the creditor;" disdain the chain, preserve your freedom, and maintain your independency: be industrious and free; be frugal and free. At present, per
haps, you may think yourselves in thriving circum stances, and that you cau bear a little extravagance without injury; but. .iii.
“For age and want save while you may,
no morning sun lasts a whole day,” as poor Richard says, Gain may be temporary and uncertain; but ever, while you live, ex pense is constant and certain : and, “It is easier to build two chimneys, than to keep one in fuel," as poor Richard says. So “Rather go to bed supperless than rise in debt.”
. “Get what you can, and what you get hold; . 't is the stone that will turn all your lead into gold," as poor Richard says. And when you have obtained the philosopher's stone, surely you will no longer complain of bad times, or the difficulty of paying taxes. This doctrine, my friends is reasonable and wise: but, after all, do not depend too much on your own industry and frugality, and prudence, tho' excellent things; for they may be blasted without the blessing of Heaven: and therefore ask that blessing humbly, and be not uncharitable to those who at present seem to want it, but comfort and help them. Remember, Job suffered and was afterwards prosperous. And now, to conclude, “Experience keeps a dear school; but fools will learn in no other, and scarcely in that; for it is true we may give advice, but we cannot give conduct," as poor Richard says. However, remember this, “They that will not be coun. selled, cannot be helped,” as poor Richard says; and further, “ That if you will not hear Reason, she will surely rap your knuckles.”
Thus the old gentleman ended his barangue. The people heard it, and approved the doctrine, and immediately
practised the contrary, just as if it had been a common sermon: for the auction opened, and they began to buy extravagantly, notwithstanding all his cautions, and their own fear of taxes. I found the good man had thoroughly studied my almanacks, and digested all I had dropped on those topics, during the course of twenty-five years. The frequent mention he made of me must have tired any one else; but my vanity was wonderfully delighted with it, tho' I was conscious that not a tenth part of the wisdom was my own, which he ascribed to me, but rather the gleanings which I had made of the sense of all ages and nations. However, I resolved to be the better for the echo of it; and tho'l had at first determined to buy stuff for a new coat, I went away resolved to wear my old one a little longer. Reader, if thou wilt do the same, thy proht will be as great as mine. I am, as ever, thine to serve thee,
RICHARD SAUNDERS. NECESSARY HINTS TO THOSE WHO WOULD
Written anno 1736. The use of money is all the advantage there is in having money. For six pounds a-year you may have the use of one hundred pounds, provided you be a man of known prudence and honesty. He who spends a groat a-day idly, spends idly above six pounds a-year, which is the price for the use of one hundred pounds. He who wastes idly a groat's worth of bis time per day, one day with another, wastes the privilege of using one hundred pounds each day.
He who idly loses five shillings-worth of time, loses five shillings, and might as prudently throw five shillings into the sea. He who loses five shillings not only loses that sum, but all the advantages which might be made by turn; ing it in dealing, which, by the time that a young man becomes old, will amount to a considerable sum of money. Again: he who sells on credit, asks a price for what he sells equivalent to the principal and interest of his money for the time be is to be kept out of it; therefore, he who buys on credit, pays interest for what he buys; and be who pays ready money, might let that money out to use; so he who posseses any thing he has bought, pays interest for the use of it. Yet in buying goods, it is best to pay ready money, because, he who sells upon credit expects to lose five per cent. by bad debts; therefore he charges, on all he sells on credit, an advance which shall make up that deficiency. Those who pay for what they buy upon credit, pay
their share of this advance.
He who pays ready money, escapes, or may escape, that charge.
“A penny sav'd is twopence clear;
THE WAY TO MAKE MONEY PLENTIFUL IN
EVERY MAN'S POCKET. At this time, when the general complaint is that"noney is scarce," it will be an act of kindness to inform the moneyless how they may reinforce their pockets. I will acquaint them with the true secret of money-catching--the certain way to fill empty purses—and how to keep them always full. Two simple rules, well observed, will do the business. First, let honesty and industry be thy constant companions; and,
Secondly, spend one penny less than thy clear gains. Then shall thy hide bound pocket soon begin to thrive, and will never again cry with the empty belly-ach: neither will creditors insult thee, nor want oppress, nor honger bite, nor nakedness freeze thee. The whole hemisphere will shine brighter, and pleasure spring up in every corner of thy heart. Now, therefore, embrace these rules and be happy. Banish the bleak winds of sorrow from thy mind, and live independently. Then shalt thou be a man, and not hide thy face at the approach of the rich, nor suffer the pain of feeling little when the sons of fortune walk at thy right hanı: for independency, whether with little or much, is good fortune, and placeth thee on even ground with the proudest of the golden fleece. Oh, then, be wise, and let industry walk with thee in the