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I wish it were possible, from this instance, to invent a method of embalming drowned persons in such a manner that they may be recalled to life at any periodi, however distant: for, having a very arent desire to see and observe the state of America a hundrel years hence, I shoule: prefer to an ordinary death, the being inmersed in a cask of Madeira wine, with a few friends, until that time, then to be recalled to life by the solar warmth of my dear country! But since, in all probability, we live in an age too early, and too near the infancy of science, to see such an art brought in our time to its perfection, I must, for the preselit, content myself with the treat, which you are so kind as to promise me, of the resurrection of a fowl or a turkey-cock.
PRECAUTIONS TO BE USED BY THOSE WHO ARE ABOUT TO UN.
PERTAKE A SEA VOYAGE.
WHEN you intend to take a long voyage, nothing is hetter than to keep it a secret till the moment of your departure. Without this, you will be continually interrupted and tormented by visits from friends and acquaintances, who not
lose your valuable time, hul make you forget a thousan) things which you wish to remember; so that when you are embarked all fairly at sea, you recollect with much wneasiness, affuirs which you ha:e not terminateil, accounts that you have not settleil, and a number of things which you proposed 10 carry with you, and which you find the want oferery moment. Would it not be attendeal with the best consequences to reform such a custom, au to suffør a traveller, without derangiig hiin, to make his preparations in quietness, to set apart a few days, when these are finished, to take leave of his friends, and to receive their good wishes for his happy returi.
It is not always in one's power to choose a captain; tho' great part of the pleasure and happiness of the passage de. pends upon this choice, and though one must for a time be confined to his company, and be in some measiire under his commande If he is a social sensible man, obliging, and of
a good disposition, you will be so much the happier. One sometimes meets with people of this description, but they are not common; however, if yours be not of this number, if he be a good seaman, attentive, careful, and actiie in the management of his vessel; you must dispepse with the rest, for these are the most essential qualities.
Whate er right you may have, by your agreeinent with him to the provisions he has take on board for the use of the passengers, it is always proper to have some private store, which you may make use of occasionally. You ought therefore to provide good water, that of the ship being often bad; but you must put it in bottles, without which you cannot expect to preserve it sweet. You ought also to carry with you good dea, ground coffee, chocolate, wine of that sort which you like best, cider, orieil raisnis, almonds, sugar, capillaire, citrons, ruin, eggs clipped in oil, portable soup, bread twice baked. With regard to poultry, it is almost useless to carry any with you, unless you resolve to undertake tlie office of feeding and fattening them yourself. With the little care which is taken of them on board a ship, they are alınost all sickly, and their nesh is as tough as leather.
All sailors entertain an opinion, which undoubtedly originated formerly from a wantof water, and when it has been found necessary to be sparing of it, that poultry never know when they have drunk enough, ani that when water is given them at discretion, they generally kill themselves by irinking beyond measure. In consequence of this opinion, they give them water only once in two days, and even then in swall quantities: but as they pour this water into troughs inclining on one side, which occasions it to run to the lower part, it: thence happens that they are obliged to mount one upou the back of another in order 10 reach it; and there are soine which cannot even dip their beaks in it. Thus contintaliy tantalized and tormenteri by thirst, they are unable lo cligest their fooil, which is very dry, and they soow fall sick and die. Some of them are found thus every morning, and are thrown into the sea; while those which are killed for the table are scarcely fit to be eaten. To remedy this inconicnienice, it will be liecessary to divide their troughs. into small compartments, in such a manner that each of them may be capable of containing water; but this is seldom or never done. On this account, sheep and hogs are
to be considered as the best fresh provisions that one can have at sea; mutton there being in general very gond, and pork excellent.
It may happen that some of the provisions and stores, which I have recommended, may become almost useless by the care which the captain has taken to lay in a proper stock : but in such a case you may dispose of it to relieve the poor passengers, who, paying less for their passage, are stowed among the commor sailors, and have no right to the captain's provisions, except such part of them as is used for feeding the crew. These passengers are sometimes sick, melancholy and dejected; and there are often women and children among them, neither of whom have any apportunity of procuring those things which I have mentioned, and of which, perhaps, they have the greatest need. By distributing amongst them a part of your superfluity, you may be of the greatest assistance to them. You may restore their health, save their lives, and in short render them happy; which always affords the liveliest sensation to a feeling mind.
The most disagreeable thing at sea is the cookery: for there is not, properly speaking, any professed cook on board. The worst sailor is generally chosen for that purpose, who for the most part is equally dirty. Hence comes the proverb used among the English sailors, that God sends meat, and the Devil sends cooks. Those, however, who have a better opinion of Providence will thiuk otherwise. Knowing that sea air, and the exercise or motion which they receive from the rolling of the ship, have a wonderful effect in whetting the appetite, they will say, that Providence has given sailors bacl cooks to prevent them eating too much; or that, knowing they would have bad cooks, he has given thein a good appetite to prevent them from dying with hunger. However, if you have no confidence in these succors of Provje dence, you may yourself, with a lamp and a boiler, by the help of a little spirits of wine, prepare some fool, such as soup, hash, &c. A small oven made of tin-plate is not a bad piece of furniture: your servant may roast in it a piece of mutton or pork. If you are ever teinpted to ent salt beef, which is often very good, you will find that cider is the best liquor to quench the thirst generally caused by salı meat or salt fish. Sea biscuit, which is too hard for the teeth of some
people, may be softened by steeping it; but bread doublebaked is the best: for being made of good loaf bread cut into slices, and baked a second time, it readily imbibes irater, becomes sofi, and is easily digested; it consequently forms excellent nourishment, much superior to that of biscuit, which has not been fermented.
I must here observe, that this double-baker! bread was originally the reai biscuit prepared to keep at sea; for the word biscuit, in French, signifies twice baked.* Peas often boil badly, and do not become soft; in such a case, by puto ting a two-pound shot into the kettle, the rolling of the ressel, by means of this bullet, will convert the peas into a porridge, like mustard.
Having often seen soup, when put upon the table at sea in broad flat dishes, thrown out on every side by the rolling of the vessel, I have wished that our timnen would make our soup-basins with divisions or compartments: forming small plates, proper for containing soup for oue person only. By this disposition the soup, in an extraordinary roll, would not be thrown out of the plate, and would not fall into the breasts of those who are at table, and scall them. Having entertained you with these things of little importance, permit me now to conclude with some general reflections upon navigation.
When navigation is employed only for transporting necessary provisions from one country, where they abou, to another where they are wanting; when by this it prevents famines, which were so frequent and so fatal before it was invented and became so cominon; we cannot help considering it as one of those arts which contribute most to the - happiness of mankind. But when it is employed to tran
sport things of no utility, or articles of luxury, it is then uncertain whether the advantages resulting from it are sufficient to counterbalance the misfortunes it occasions by exposing the lives of so many individuals upon the vast ocean. And when it is used to plunder vessels and transport slaves, it is evidently only the dreadful means of increasing those calamities which afflict human nature.
One is astonished to think on the number of ressels and *men who are daily exposed in going to bring tea from Chie
. is derived from bis, again, and will, boked
na, coffee from Arabia, and sugar and tobacco from Ame. rica ; all commodities which our ancestors lived very well without. The sugar trade employs nearly a thousand vese sels; and that of tobacco almost the same number. With regard to the utility of tobacco, little can be said; and with regard to sugar, how much more meritorious would it be to sacrifice the momentary pleasure which we receive from drinking it once or twice a day in our tea, than to encourage the numberless cruelties that are continually exercised in order to procure it for us?
A celebrated French nioralist said, that, when he consiçlered the wars which we foment in Africa to get negroes; the great number who, of course, perich in these wars; the multitude of those wretches who die in their passage, by disease, bad air, and bad provisions; and lastly, how inany perish by the cruel treatinent they meet with in a state of slavery; when he saw a bit of sugar, he could not help imagining it to be covered with spots of human blood. But, had be added to these considerations the wars which we carry on against one another, 10 take and retake the islands that produce this commodity, he would not have seen the sugar simply spotted with blood, he would have beheld it entirely tinged with it.
These wars make the maritime powers of Europe, and the inhabitants of Paris and London, pay much dearer for their sugar than those of Vienna, though they are almiost three hundred leagues distant froin the sea. A pound of sugar, indeed, costs the former not only the price which they give for it, but also what they pay in taxes, necessary to support the feels and armies which serve to defend and protect the countries that produce it..