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animated, more vigorous, and considerably more ornate; the embellishments partake of a greater freedom, and display more knowledge of the human voice. As, however, this school, like the preceding, relied exclusively on the beauty of the airs, neglecting science and ingenuity in the harmony, they are equally amenable to the charge of feebleness and monotony. On the other hand, their beauty was so exquisite as not only to spread the fame of Italian operas over the world but to cause it to be transplanted into every other country.* Whatever is an object of nearly exclusive attention will, under favourable circumstances, be speedily brought to perfection. If these statements prove correct, the assertion that the melodies invented by the Italian composers, from Jomelli or Pergolesi down to Paisiello, are, with one exception, more beautiful than any which occur elsewhere, will not excite surprise. While it is my decided conviction that no improvement in vocal melody has been effected by later composers, I freely admit that the motivi of their successors, commencing with Martini and Cimarosa, are intrinsically equal to them, while their effect is enhanced by the adoption of the system introduced by Mozart. Cimarosa and his successors always availed themselves of the power of the orchestra in strengthening the feel. ing intended to be produced by the air, and therefore they introduced the delightful orchestral effects with which their works abound. But after Paer, the last of that classical school, beauty of melody may be said to have declined. Rossini relied upon orna. ment as a means of exciting the wonder of his audience, and upon his power of expressing the ludicrous. The manner of Bellini may be described as a return to the simplicity, bordering upon inanity, which characterised the old Italian composers (Vinci and Galuppi), combined with the noisy, unmeaning system of instrumentation, which Mr. Hogarth designates as pseudo-German. I cannot contemplate the works of the classical Italian masters without experiencing a sensation of regret that, while the majority of students remain in ignorance of productions on which the fame of Italian music is founded, they should be induced, by a vague idea of the excel. lence of all Italian music, to consume time and corrupt their taste by persisting to draw from a source which is nearly exhausted, instead of recurring to the pure stream of melody which flows through the pages of those classical composers. Actuated by the hope of in

In proof of the admiration excited by the Italian compositions of the early schools, see the Letters of Gray, Marmontel's Autobiography, and Rousseau's Essays on Music, and Musical Dictionary.

VOL. VI.NO. XX.

zer.

principle would seem, from the context, to be an increase of simplicity and clearness of melody. But such has been by no means the tendency of the art ; the course which it has followed, at any rate, for a century back, has rather been in an opposite direction. Compare the melodies of Weber, Spohr, Marschner, Ries, Reissiger, with those of Haydn, Mozart, Winter, Himmel, Weigl, and Kreut

The latter will be relished by persons totally ignorant of musical science, while the former require the harmony and the whole design of the composer to be understood before they can impart the slightest pleasure. The style of the Mozart school, again, was so much more complicated than that of preceding composers that many critics ascribed the admiration of their partisans to affectation. Had the reviewer ever seen an opera of Graun or of Hasse, he might possibly, on account of their simplicity, have preferred them to the works of later masters ; yet this very simplicity has caused them to be forgotten even in name ; they are no where to be met with save in the cabinets of the curious, and were they produced before a modern audience, would infallibly send them to sleep.

If we turn to the Italian school, a similar change appears to have taken place. Where do we find airs so clear, simple, and intelli. gible, as in the unexplored works of Sacchini, Guglielmi, Sarti, Paisiello, and Zingarelli? The motivi of their successors, Cimarosa, Mayer, and Paer, although of exquisite beauty, are more interwoven and connected with the harmony, or, in other words, bear a certain similarity to the German works of the same period. It is impossible, consistently with beauty, to find melodies more simple than those of the first mentioned composers, nor can the piquancy of the latter be surpassed; Rossini, therefore, wisely struck into a different track, and the great sensation which he created may be fairly attributed to the lightness and flippancy of his melodies, and to the gayety which invariably pervades them. Where then do we find traces of this simplifying process to which Bellini is said to put the finishing stroke? The true history of melody would seem rather to be the following:-In the early part of the eighteenth century, while the opera was in its infancy, the melodies of Jomelli, Vinci, and Galuppi in Italy, and those of Graun and Hasse (Italian in character, but written in Germany), although beautiful, were not possessed of sufficient animation and vigour to render them appropriate on the stage. The accompaniments were meagre, and intended rather to fill up the harmony than to take an active share in forwarding the dramatic action. In the hands of the successors of these composers, with Sacchini at their head, melody became more

animated, more vigorous, and considerably more ornate ; the embellishments partake of a greater freedom, and display more knowledge of the human voice. As, however, this school, like the preceding, relied exclusively on the beauty of the airs, neglecting science and ingenuity in the harmony, they are equally amenable to the charge of feebleness and monotony. On the other hand, their beauty was so exquisite as not only to spread the fame of Italian operas over the world but to cause it to be transplanted into every other country.* Whatever is an object of nearly exclusive attention will, under favourable circumstances, be speedily brought to perfection. If these statements prove correct, the assertion that the melodies invented by the Italian composers, from Jomelli or Pergolesi down to Paisiello, are, with one exception, more beautiful than any which occur elsewhere, will not excite surprise. While it is my decided conviction that no improvement in vocal melody has been effected by later composers, I freely admit that the motivi of their successors, commencing with Martini and Cimarosa, are intrinsically equal to them, while their effect is enhanced by the adoption of the system introduced by Mozart. Cimarosa and his successors always availed themselves of the power of the orchestra in strengthening the feeling intended to be produced by the air, and therefore they introduced the delightful orchestral effects with which their works abound. But after Paer, the last of that classical school, beauty of melody may be said to have declined. Rossini relied upon ornament as a means of exciting the wonder of his audience, and upon his

power expressing the ludicrous. The manner of Bellini may be described as a return to the simplicity, bordering upon inanity, which characterised the old Italian composers (Vinci and Galuppi), combined with the noisy, unmeaning system of instrumentation, which Mr. Hogarth designates as pseudo-German. I cannot contemplate the works of the classical Italian masters without experiencing a sensation of regret that, while the majority of students remain in ignorance of productions on which the fame of Italian music is founded, they should be induced, by a vague idea of the excel. lence of all Italian music, to consume time and corrupt their taste by persisting to draw from a source which is nearly exhausted, instead of recurring to the pure stream of melody which flows through the pages of those classical composers. Actuated by the hope of in

of

In proof of the admiration excited by the Italian compositions of the early schools, see the Letters of Gray, Marmontel's Autobiography, and Rousseau's Essays on Music, and Musical Dictionary.

VOL. VI.-NO. XX.

EE

able from realities, but require not the hypothesis of supernatural agency.

Dreams have occasionally led to the discovery of murders, of which the case of William Corder, who was convicted and executed in 1828 for the murder of Maria Martin, presents a curious instance. A philosophical mind will discover no causation in the conjunction of events like these, nor anything more than sequence; the dream being the involuntary, and therefore vivid, recurrence in sleep of thoughts more or less transient, upon which the mind has meditated when awake; just as darkness seems more black and ter. rible after momentary light.

I forbear to increase the number of these illustrations, the perti. nency of which will, however, be admitted when we consider what the mass of mankind still are, and the indispensable importance and inappreciable value of a correct standard of probability and analogical reasoning. Hence we infer the necessity of an enlarged and accurate knowledge of Nature, and of the springs and principles of human conduct; and thus it is that all the branches of knowledge are directly or remotely allied, and mutually receive and reflect light.

From what has been advanced it results that, in every investiga. tion based upon circumstantial evidence, the process is, in the first instance, analytical and analogical. Every combination of facts is resolved into its constituent elements, and we reason upon them, separately and in combination, from what is known to what is sought. The groundwork of our reasoning is our confidence in the stability of the order of nature and in the operation of moral causes, which have a tendency to influence human conduct with a similar unifor

mity.

The argument from analogy is founded on the observation of resemblances ; and, of consequence, the more numerous and close they are the safer will be our conclusions. Every branch of knowledge presents instructive examples of the extent to which this mode of reasoning may be securely carried. From shapeless ruins whose date, as the poet expresses it, “o'erawes tradition,” the scientific observer is enabled to construct a model of the original in its primitive symmetry and magnificence. A profound knowledge of compara. tive anatomy enabled the immortal Cuvier, from a single fossil bone, to describe the structure and habits of many of the extinct animals of the antediluvian world. “ The formation of the tooth,'

• Abercrombie, On the Intellectual Powers, p. 205.

says that great man, bespeaks the structure of the articulation of the jaw, that of the scapula that of the claws, just as the equation of a curve involves all its properties; and in taking each property separately as the basis of a particular equation, we should find again both the ordinary equation and all the other certain properties." We may corroborate and illustrate this remark by a case more immedi. ately connected with our subject—that of Eugene Aram, whose eventful story has given birth to one of the most interesting of modern novels, and who was tried in 1759 for the murder, about four. teen years before, of Daniel Clark. It is a fact in our nature that there is a general and involuntary tendency to truth and consistency, except where the mind is resolved upon concealment. An apparently slight circumstance in the conduct of Houseman, his accomplice, led to Aram's conviction and execution. About thirteen years after Clark was missing, a labourer, employed to dig for stone to supply a lime-kiln near Knaresborough, discovered a human skeleton near the edge of the cliff. It soon became suspected that the body was that of Clark, and the coroner held an inquest. Aram and Houseman were the persons who had last been seen with Clark on the very night before he was missing. At the request of the coroner, Houseman took up one of the bones, and in his confusion dropped this unguarded expression, " This is no more Daniel Clark's bone than it is mine ;" from which it was concluded that if he was su certain that the bones before him were not those of Clark, he could give some account of him. He was pressed with this observation, and, after various evasive accounts, he made a full confession of the crime, and, search being made pursuant to his statement, the skeleton of Clark was found in St. Robert's Cave, buried precisely as he had described it. Sellis, who, in 1810, attempted to assassi. nate the Duke of Cumberland, was a left-handed man; after hav. ing made his attack he cut his own throat, and the razor with which he committed the act was found lying by his left side.

“ True knowledge," says Bacon, “is the knowledge of causes;" and in moral no less than in physical science, we can hope to discover the relation of cause and effect only by following the inductive process so successfully pursued in all other philosophical researches. But when the inductive process is concluded, we may test the truth of our conclusions by reversing our previous course of proceediny and reasoning synthetically, from cause to effect. If our judgment be correct, it must not only comport with, but satisfactorily account for, all the facts, however numerous, to the exclusion of every other reasonable hypothesis ; and if the facts be rationally explicable by

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