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The Savings to the Nation's Libraries
from the Distribution of Cataloging Records
by the Library of Congress in Machine-readable Form

The Cataloging of Books

Number of academic and public libraries

13,883
1986 book purchases nationwide in dollars

$577,518,468
(Average cost per book = $30.00)
1986 number of books purchased nationwide

19, 250,619
Number cataloged using LC records (82%)

15,785,507
(Average savings per title cataloged = $11.29)
Total savings nationwide for books

cataloged

$178,218,370

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5,034,000

Number of academic libraries

5,034
Average number of new titles cataloged per year

1,000
per academic library
Total new titles in academic libraries
Number of public libraries

8,849
Average number of new titles cataloged per year

20
per public library
Total new titles in public libraries

176,980
Estimated total new titles cataloged

5,210,980
Estimated number of records derived from LC

2,605,490
cataloging (estimate of 50%)
(Average savings per title cataloged = $28.23)
Total savings nationwide for serials
cataloged

$73,552,982
The Cataloging of Maps, Music, Sound Recordings and Visual
Materials

3.

147,172

Annual number of times these records were used

for cataloging on the OCLC database
(Average savings per title cataloged = $21.71)

Total savings nationwide for maps, music,

sound recordings, and visual
materials

$3,195,169
TOTAL SAVINGS NATIONWIDE FOR CATALOGING BOOKS

SERIALS, MAPS, MUSIC, SOUND RECORDINGS AND
VISUAL MATERIALS
GRAND TOTAL ESTIMATED SAVINGS

$254,966,521

an

LC

(Estimates based

on data for academic and public libraries from
the 1986 Bowker Annual,

study Alternative Methods for
Transmitting Machine-readable Bibliographic Data: a Feasibility
Study and statistics supplied by OCLC, Inc.)

THE CATALOGING DISTRIBUTION SERVICE

OF THE
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

1.

Introduction to the cataloging Distrib, tian

ervice

The Cataloging Distribution Service (CDS) is a division within
Processing Services which, under a 1902 legislative mandate (2 USC 150).
supplies copies of the Library of Congress cataloging data at the cost,
plus 10 percent added. This data was originally distributed only in the
form of printed cards but, with changes in technology, other mediums of
distribution have been added which include printed book catalogs,
microfiche, machine-readable tapes and, soon, optical disk (CD-ROM).

In FY 1987, 60% ($4,698,000) of the CDS $8.2 million budget nas
devoted to the costs of providing products and services to outside
libraries. At the same time, earned receipts from libraries purchasing
these products amounted to $5,029,000.

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The major function of the Cataloging Distribution Service is to
provide products and services from the data created by the Library's staff.
Most of the data is derived from the cataloging operation under which
approximately 200,000 cataloging records and 150,000 authority records are
produced each year for the purpose of accessing materials in the Library's
collections. As a by-product of this operation, LC's cataloging data is
used by many thousands of U.S. research, public, special, federal, and
state libraries. Through the activities of the cataloging Distribution
Service, these data are provided in a variety of forms to meet the diverse
needs of a variety of institutions.

MARC Distribution Service

MARC tapes provide a major source of cataloging data for networks,
utilities and private sector vendors, as well as some individual libraries,
in the building of bibliographic systems. One of the major utilities
using the MARC tapes reported $84 million in revenues for fiscal 1987. The
activities of this utility, which are largely based an MARC records,
support the bibliographic operations of approximately 6,000 member
libraries.

2.1

2.2 Catalogs and Microfiche Products

Printed catalogs and microfiche products which are based on the
cataloging produced by the Library provide another means for outside
libraries to access our data. For some publications such as the National
Union Catalog and New Serial Titles, the data resource is expanded beyond
that of the Library by the addition of contributed records from other
libraries.

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THE CATALOGING DISTRIBUTION SERVICE

OF THE
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

1.

Introduction to the Cataloging Distrib. tion Service

The Cataloging Distribution Service (CDS) is a division within Processing Services which, under a 1902 legislative mandate (2 USC 150), supplies copies of the Library of Congress cataloging data at the cost, plus 10 percent added. This data was originally distributed only in the form of printed cards but, with changes in technology, other mediums of distribution have been added which include printed book catalogs, microfiche, machine-readable tapes and, soon, optical disk (CD-ROM).

In FY 1987, 60% ($4,698,000) of the CDS $8.2 million budget nas devoted to the costs of providing products and services to outside libraries. At the same time, earned receipts from libraries purchasing these products amounted to $5,029,000.

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The major function of the cataloging Distribution Service is to provide products and services from the data created by the Library's staff. Most of the data is derived from the cataloging operation under which approximately 200,000 cataloging records and 150,000 authority records are produced each year for the purpose of accessing materials in the Library's collections. As a by-product of this operation, LC's cataloging data is used by many thousands of U.S. research, public, special, federal, and state libraries. Through the activities of the Cataloging Distribution Service, these data are provided in a variety of forms to meet the diverse needs of a variety of institutions.

2.1 MARC Distribution Service

MARC tapes provide a major source of cataloging data for networks, utilities and private sector vendors, as well as some individual libraries, in the building of bibliographic systems. One of the major utilities using the MARC tapes reported $84 million in revenues for fiscal 1987. The activities of this utility, which are largely based on MARC records, support the bibliographic operations of approximately 6,000 member libraries.

2.2 Catalogs and Microfiche Products

Printed catalogs and microfiche products which are based on the cataloging produced by the Library provide another means for outside libraries to access our data. For some publications such as the National Union Catalog and New Serial Titles, the data resource is expanded beyond that of the Library by the addition of contributed records from other libraries.

-2

March 30, 1988

Cataloging Distribution

Service

2.3

Technical Publications

LC shares its technical expertise with outside libraries through its technical publications. These include the USMARC publications which are among the most important publications in the area of cataloging.

The Cataloging Service Bulletin serves as a medium of conmmunication between LC and other institutions which follow LC cataloging and classification practices. Individual manuals on LC's cataloging procedures, such as the Newspaper Cataloging Manual, help outside libraries achieve a consistent approach to the cataloging of specialized forms of material.

2.4 Catalog Cards

The sale of Library of Congress catalog cards was initiated in 1901. Since that time, the printed catalog cards have been used internally at LC and sold to thousands of custamers throughout the world. The sale of regular card orders, once representing the chief source of CDS revenue, has been steadily diminishing since the 1960's. Even with the continued decline in card sales, during FY 1987 CDS sold approximately 6.8 million cards to its customers ($742,180 in sales). In addition, CDS provided 6.4 million cards for LC use, of which 4.2 million were for CRS's Selective Dissemination of Information service.

The Library has historically accepted the responsibility for the continuity and integrity of the LC catalog card services at a reasonable price to its outside library users. Because of the Library's commitment to provide the printed catalog cards, especially to the many small and specialized libraries which depend on the service, CDS has been subsidizing cand products and services to ensure affordable prices. This subsidy has been made up in part through increased prices on the MARC distribution services, which service provides the opportunity for other vendors to serve MARC card customers.

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CDS has been developing and testing CD-ROM'S (Compact (optical] DiscRead Only Memory) as a storage and distribution medium for the Library's bibliographic data which might prove to be particularly effective for smaller libraries. This medium will allow customers to access the LC data using a microcomputer and CD-ROM drive. The first CD-ROM product, with the Library's subject authority data, will be in production soon.

III. The Importance of CDS to the U.S. Library Community

The Library broadly shares its expertise in all areas of technical processing with other libraries--expertise which in many instances is unique in the library community when the combination of subject knowledge, language competencies and cultural background is considered. The most

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