Was andere dazu sagen - Rezension schreiben
Es wurden keine Rezensionen gefunden.
Andere Ausgaben - Alle anzeigen
Report on the Manufacture of Iron: Addressed to the Governor of Maryland
John Henry Alexander,Maryland Topographical Engineer
Keine Leseprobe verfügbar - 2015
affinity alloy alumina analysis appears applied ashes atmospheric air atom average barrows of coke Berthier blast blast-furnaces calculation caloric carbonic acid carburet cast-iron cent charcoal charcoal-furnaces chemical coal coke coke-furnaces combination combustible compound considered constitution contain crude iron cubic feet decomposed density diameter Dudley Castle Dufrênoy earthy matters effect elements employed enamelled establishment experiments flux fuel furnace furnished fusible fusion given glass greater grey iron haematites hot-blast hydrogen Iron-master Karsten kinds less lime limestone magnesia manganese Manufacture of Iron Maryland mass materials means mentioned ments metal minute mixture nace nearly nitrogen oxide of iron oxygen pig-iron porcellanized portion pounds present pressure produced proportions protoxide puddling pure carbon regard remark separation shewn silex silica silicium specific gravity specific heat specimens square inch Staffordshire steel substances sulphur supposed Table shewing temperature tion tons trundle-head tuyères vapor Wales weight white iron
Seite 58 - The hearth, or bottom of the furnace, is made of sand stone, and the sides round, to the height of a yard, or thereabout; the rest of the furnace is lined up to the top with brick. When they begin upon a new furnace they put fire for a day or two before they begin to blow.
Seite 105 - AMA'LGAM is the term applied to that class of alloys (qv) in which one of the combining metals is mercury. On the nature of the union, it has been observed that ' on adding successive small quantities of silver to mercury, a great variety of fluid amalgams are apparently produced ; but in reality, the chief, if not the sole compound, is a solid A, which is merely diffused throughout the fluid mass.
Seite 72 - Yorkshire, represented, that if the bill should pass, the English iron would be undersold ; consequently a great number of furnaces and forges would be discontinued ; in that case the woods used for fuel would stand uncut, and the tanners be deprived of oak bark sufficient for the continuance and support of their occupation.
Seite 97 - ... the feet of large birds, which are common in this country. Though these impressions seem very perfect, yet I am persuaded that they are either a luaus natures, or that impressions of this nature were previously on the ground, and that the liquid mass of iron falling on it received them.
Seite 21 - As they gather silver, and brass, and iron, and lead, and tin, into the midst of the furnace, to blow the fire upon it, to melt it; so will I gather you in mine anger and in my fury, and I will leave you there, and melt you.
Seite 105 - It is certain, however, that metals have a tendency to combine in definite proportion ; for several atomic compounds of this kind occur native. It is indeed possible that the variety of proportions in alloys is rather apparent than real, arising from the mixture of a few definite compounds with each other, or with uncombined metal ; an opinion not, only suggested by the mode in which alloys are prepared, but in some measure supported by observation.
Seite 58 - Of twenty-four loads of coals, they expect eight tun of sows : to every load of coals, which consists of eleven quarters, they put a load of mine, which contains eighteen bushels. A hearth ordinarily, if made of good stone, will last forty foundays, that is, forty weeks, during which time the fire is never let go out. They never blow twice upon one hearth, though they go upon it not above five or six foundays. The cinder, like scum, swims upon the melted metal in the hearth, and is let out once or...
Seite 63 - Fahrenheit, produced a saving of threesevenths in every ton of pig-iron made, and the heating apparatus having since been enlarged, so as to increase the temperature of the blast to 600° Fahrenheit and upwards, a proportional saving of fuel is effected ; and an immense additional saving is also acquired by the use of raw coal instead of coke, which may now be adopted. By thus increasing the heat of the blast, the whole waste incurred in burning the coal into coke is avoided in the process of iron-making.
Seite 58 - Then they blow gently and encrease by degrees 'till they come to the height in ten weeks or more. Every six days they call a founday, in which space they make eight tun of iron, if you divide the whole sum of iron made by the foundays : for at first they make less in a founday, at last more. The hearth by the force of the fire, continually blown, grows wider and wider, so that...