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before the blazing altar: “ Think not, that they “ were adorers of fire ; for that element was

only an exalted object, on the lustre of which

they fixed their eyes; they humbled them“ selves a whole week before God; and, if thy, “ understanding be ever so little exerted, thou “must acknowledge thy dependence on the “ being supremely pure.” In a story of SADI, near the close of his beautiful Bústàn, concerning the idol of SoʻMANA'T'H, or MAHA'DE’VA, he confounds the religion of the Hindus with that of the Gabrs, calling the Bráhmans not only Moghs, (which might be justified by a passage in the Mefnavi) but even readers of the Zend and Pázend: now, whether this confusion proceeded from real or pretended ignorance, I cannot decide, but am as firmly convinced, that the doctrines of the Zend were distinct from those of the Véda, as I am that the religion of the Brábmans, with whom we converse every day, prevailed in Persia before the accession of Cayu'MERS, whom the Pársi's, from respect to his memory, consider as the first of men, although they believe in an universal deluge before his reign.

With the religion of the old Persians their philosophy (or as much as we know of it) was intimately connected; for they were assiduous observers of the luminaries, which they adored,

and established, according to MOHSAN, who confirms in some degree the fragments of BeRosus, a number of artificial cycles with distinct names, which seem to indicate a knowledge of the period, in which the equinoxes appear to revolve: they are said also to have known the most wonderful powers of nature, and thence to have acquired the fame of magicians and enchanters; but I will only detain you with a few remarks on that metaphysical theology, which has been professed immemorially by a numerous fect of Persians and Hindus, was carried in part into Greece, and prevails even now among the learned Muselmans, who sometimes avow it without reserve. The modern philosophers of this persuasion are called Súfi's, either from the Greek word for a sage, or from the woollen mantle, which they used to wear in some provinces of Persia: their fundamental tenets are, that nothing exists absolutely but God: that the human soul is an emanation from his essence, and, though divided for a time from its heavenly source, will be finally re-united with it; that the highest possible happiness will arise from its reunion, and that the chief good of mankind, in this transitory world, consists in as perfect an union with the Eternal Spirit as the incumbrances of a mortal frame will allow; that, for this purpose, they should break all connexion (or taálluk, as they call it), with extrinsick objects, and pass through life without attachments, as a swimmer in the ocean strikes freely without the impediment of clothes ; that they should be straight and free as the cypress, whose fruit is hardly perceptible, and not sink under a load, like fruittrees attached to a trellis ; that, if mere earthly charms have power to influence the soul, the idea of celestial beauty must overwhelm it in extatick delight; that, for want of apt words to express the divine perfections and the ardour of devotion, we must borrow such expressions as approach the nearest to our ideas, and speak of Beauty and Love in a transcendent and mystical sense ; that, like a reed torn from its native bank, like wax separated from its delicious honey, the foul of man bewails its disunion with melancholy mufick, and sheds burning tears, like the lighted taper, waiting passionately for the moment of its extinction, as a disengagement from earthly trammels, and the means of returning to its Only Beloved. + Such in part (for I omit the minuter and more fubtil metaphysicks of the Sufi's, which are mentioned in the Dabistàn) is the wild and enthusiastick religion of the modern Persian poets, especially of the sweet HA'Fiz and the great Maulavi: such is the system of the Védánti philosophers and best lyrick poets of India ; and, as it was a system of the highest antiquity in both nations, it may be added to the many other proofs of an immemorial affinity between them.

III. On the ancient monuments of Persian sculpture and architecture we have already made such observations, as were fuificient for our purpose; nor will

you be surprized at the diversity between the figures at Elephanta, which are manifestly Hindu, and those at Persepolis, which are merely Sabian, if you concur with me in believing, that the Takhti Jemsbid was erected after the time of CAYU'MERS, when the Bráhmans had migrated from Iràn, and when their intricate mythology had been superseded by the fimpler adoration of the planets and of fire.

IV. As to the sciences or arts of the old Perfians, I have little to say ; and no complete evidence of them seems to exist. Mohsan speaks more than once of ancient verses in the Pahlavi language ; and BAHMAN assured me, that some scanty remains of them had been preserved : their musick and painting, which NIZA'MI celebrated, have irrecoverably perished ; and in regard to Ma'ni', the painter and impostor, whose book of drawings called Artang, which he pretended to be divine, is supposed to have been destroyed by the Chinese, in whose dominions he had fought refuge, the whole tale is too modern to throw any light on the questions before us concerning the origin of nations and the inhabitants of the primitive world.

Thus has it been proved by clear evidence and plain reasoning, that a powerful monarchy was established in Irin long before the Allyrian, or Pishdádi, government ; that it was in truth a Hindu monarchy, though, if any chuse to call it Cusian, Cafdean, or Scythian, we shall not enter into a debate on mere names; that it subsisted many centuries, and that its history has been ingrafted on that of the Hindus, who founded the monarchies of Ayodhyà and Indraprastha; that the language of the first Persian empire was the mother of the Sanscrit, and consequently of the Zend, and Parsi, as well as of Greek, Latin, and Gothick; that the language of the Assyrians was the parent of Chaldaick and Pahlavi, and that the primary Tartarian language also had been current in the same empire; although, as the Tartars had no books or even letters, we cannot with certainty trace their unpolished and variable idioms. We discover, therefore, in Persia, at the earliest dawn of history, the three distinct

whom we described on former occasions as possessors of India, Arabia, Tartary ; and, whether they were collected in Irèn from distant regions, or diverged from it, as from a common centre, we shall easily determine by the following considerations. Let us observe in the


races of

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