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represented by sculpture in the ruined city of JEMSHI'd; but the planetary worship in Persia seems only a part of a far more complicated religion, which we now find in these Indian

provinces; for MoHSAN assures us, that, in the opinion of the best informed Persians, who professed the faith of Hu'SHANG, distinguished from that of ZERA'TUSHT, the first monarch of Iràn and of the whole earth was MAHA'B A'D, a word apparently Sanscrit, who divided the people into four orders, the religious, the military, the commercial, and the servile, to which he assigned names unquestionably the same in their origin with those now applied to the four primary classes of the Hindus. They added, that He received from the creator, and promulgated among men, a sacred book in a heavenly language, to which the Muselman author gives the Arabick title of desátir, or regulations, but the original name of which he has not mentioned ; and that fourteen MAHA'BA'ds had appeared or would appear in human shapes for the government of this world: now when we know, that the Hindus believe in fourteen Menu's, or celestial personages with simịlar functions, the first of whom left a book of regulations, or divine ordinances, which they hold equal to the Véda, and the language of which they believe to be that of the Gods, we can hardly doubt, that the first corruption of the

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purest and oldest religion was the system of Indian Theology, invented by the Brábmans and prevalent in these territories, where the book of MAHA'ba'd or MENU is at this hour the standard of all religious and moral duties. The accession of CAYU'MERS to the throne of Persia, in the eighth or ninth century before Christ, seems to have been accompanied by a considerable revolution both in government and religion : he was most probably of a different race fronı the Mahábádians, who preceded him, and began perhaps the new system of national faith, which HU'SHANG, whose name it bears, completed ; but the reformation was partial; for, while they rejected the complex polytheisin of their predecessors, they retained the laws of MAHA'BA'n, with a superstitious veneration for the sun, the planets, and fire; thus resembling the Hindu fects, called Sauru's and Ságnica's, the second of which is very numerous at Banares, where many aguibótra's are continually blazing, and where the Sagnica's, when they enter on their facerdotal office, kindle, with two pieces of the hard wood Semi, a fire which they keep lighted through their lives for their nuptial ceremony, the performance of folemn facrifices, the obsequies of departed ancestors, and their own funeral pile. This remarkable rite was continued by ZER A TUSIIT; who reformed the old religion by

represented by sculpture in the ruined city of JeMshi'd; but the planetary worship in Persia seems only a part of a far more complicated religion, which we now find in these Indian provinces; for MoHSAN assures us, that, in the opinion of the best informed Persians, who professed the faith of Hu'SHANG, distinguished from that of ZERA'TUSHIT, the first monarch of Iràn and of the whole earth was MAHA'BA'D, a word apparently Sanscrit, who divided the people into four orders, the religious, the military, the commercial, and the servile, to which he assigned names unquestionably the same in their origin with those now applied to the four primary classes of the Hindus. They added, that He received from the creator, and promulgated among men,

Sacred book in a beavenly language, to which the Muselman author gives the Arabick title of desátir, or regulations, but the original name of which he has not mentioned; and that fourteen MAHA'BA'ds had appeared or would appear

in human shapes for the government of this world: now when we know, that the Hindus believe in fourteen Menu's, or celestial personages with simịlar functions, the first of whom left a book of regulations, or divine ordinances, which they hold equal to the Véda, and the language of which they believe to be that of the Gods, we can hardly doubt, that the first corruption of the

purest and oldest religion was the system of Indian Theology, invented by the Brábmans and prevalent in these territories, where the book of MAHA'BA'd or Menu is at this hour the standard of all religious and moral duties. The accession of CAYU'MERS to the throne of Persia, in the eighth or ninth century before Christ, seems to have been accompanied by a considerable revolution both in government and religion : he was most probably of a different race fronı the Mahabadians, who preceded him, and began perhaps the new system of national faith, which HU'SHANG, whose name it bears, completed; but the reformation was partial ; for, while they rejected the complex polytheism of their predecessors, they retained the laws of MAHA'BA'D, with a superstitious veneration for the sun, the planets, and fire; thus resembling the Hindu sects, called Saura's and Ságnica’s, the second of which is very numerous at Banares, where many aguibotra's are continually blazing, and where the Sagnica's, when they enter on their facerdotal ollice, kindle, with two pieces of the hard wood Semi, a fire which they keep lighted through their lives for their nuptial ceremony, the performance of solemn facrifices, the obfequies of departed ancestors, and their own funeral pile. This remarkable rite was continued by ZERA TUSIIT ; who reformed the old religion by

the addition of genii, or angels, presiding over months and days, of new ceremonies in the veneration shown to fire, of a new work, which he pretended to have received from heaven, and, above all, by establishing the actual adoration of One Supreme Being: he was born, according to Mohsan, in the district of Rai ; and it was He, not, as AMMIANUS asserts, his protector GushTASB, who travelled into India, that he might receive information from the Brábmans in theology and ethicks. It is barely possible, that PyTHAGORAS knew him in the capital of Irak; but the Grecian fage must then have been far advanced in years, and we have no certain evidence. of an intercourse between the two philosophers. The reformed religion of Persia continued in force, till that country was fubdued by the Muselmans; and, without studying the Zend, we have ample information concerning it in the modern Persian writings of several, who professed it. BAHMAN always named ZerA'TUSHT, with reverence; but he was in truth a pure Theist, and strongly disclaimed

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adoration of the fire or other elements: he denied, that the doctrine of two coeval principles, supremely good and supremely bad, formed any part of his faith ; and he often repeated with emphasis the verses of FIRDAUSI on the protration of Cyrus and his paternal grandfather

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