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tian sects, those truths might be taught in a National School without trenching upon any religious differences that might exist among them!-- I think they might.

547. And, therefore, if there were a spirit of forbearance among the Christian sects at this time in England, there would in reality be no objection on this score to the institution of a national education ?--Not the least I should think. There is, in the present day, as far as I have observed, less of excitement and mutual hostility between the different sects in Germany and France than in England; and, accordingly, in the ministerial and official instructions sent out to the prefect of the circle or department, as well as to the teachers themselves, they are strongly enjoined to encourage mixed schools, where the children may practically learn the principles of toleration and forbearance, and where that cannot be done, the authorities are invited to take every means to provide such religious instruction apart as shall be thought necessary, or even to form separate schools. The last, however, they consider as a resource not to be resorted to unless all means of uniting the two persuasions shall be found unavailing.

548. Do you not suppose that the teaching of various sects in one school under that system of Catholic faith, if it may be so called, would very much tend to promote general kindliness amongst the whole population ?-I think so desirable an object most likely to be attained by such a joint and mixed system. Judging both from reason and experience, I should say it is a result that could scarcely fail to take place.

549. Do you not think a true Christian feeling would be created by such a system of national education ?-I do.

550. Do you consider that in any way the interests of religion would be injured by such a system ?-On the contrary, it appears to me that the amount of religious feeling and true Christianity would be increased very considerably, inasmuch as we are all taught to believe, and cannot help believing, who are familiar with the Scriptures and the New Testament, that brotherly love is one of the first of Christian virtues.

551. So that, in fact, the difficulty to which you have alluded could no longer exist if persons of the different sects would only learn to forbear?-Certainly.

Any sect which is jealous of the exclusion of religious doctrines from a national system of education has far more cause to object to the present system than to one that should professedly exclude the teaching of doctrines; and for the following reasons. It is true that the desire to obtain good instruction will always be a strong motive in the selection of a school; and parents will often disregard its religious character, and judge of its merits upon other grounds. But ministers and teachers who are anxious to maintain the number of those under their care and to preserve them in the profession of their religious principles, would be more favourably placed if a national system were established than they can now be. The omission in the general system, of doctrinal instruction, would be remedied by the zeal of each sect: no attempts would be made to proselytize, as at present; and children would not be compelled, as they now are, to repeat that which they know to be false, and to treasure up in their memory doctrines which they cannot understand and which their parents do not wish them to learn.

If no injury is done to the religious habits of children by the exclusion of peculiar doctrines in a national system, and if in these matters they are left to the care of their parents and their respective pastors, there can be no objection to the interference of the State, and there is every reason for it. In the intelligence and education of those under its authority, the State has an immediate and direct interest. If, instead of being intelligent, the people are ig. norant, they will be untractable, easily excited, ferocious and brutal. Private persons may be led by benevolent feelings to supply, to a certain extent, the wants of the community, and to take upon them that which is properly a part of the civil administration : but they never can perform it entirely, and they never can perform it effectually. A large portion of the population will be trained in dependence upon private charity, upon private favour and patronage. The schools also, being left to the care of a variety of persons, will necessarily contain every kind of defect, and their improvement will be slow, because their directors will have neither the inclination nor the power to avail themselves of new improvements. It is not reasonable that any sect or body of persons should try to prevent the establishment of a system, which would enable those, now without the opportunity, to obtain good education. If particular tenets are not expounded, religion is not consequently excluded; under a national system, it could be taught as well as it is at present; children would learn honest and sound precepts; they would be placed early in life in happy communion with each other, and their attendance at different places of worship, and on different religious teachers, would not interrupt the peacefulness of their daily intercourse. Because one party in the nation do not wish to see the benefits of education extended to all, is the State to neglect those who are now either excluded from the advantages of education, or can only get them on terms which sometimes compromise their moral duties? Has the State no interest in the condition of the people?-is it to refrain from affording better means of instruction than can be now obtained by those whose

circumstances in life are confined, lest existing establishments should become less flourishing ? Let the State endeavour to frame comprehensive plans ; let it make the attempt to establish schools embracing a larger range of subjects than the schools now existing do, and its efforts will be successful. All men have a quick perception of their personal interests, and the objects of good education are not misunderstood by the poorest person. The practice and experience of the British schools, the system of education in Germany and France, show that religion is no obstacle to the interference of the State; and the admissions made by those who regard religion as an insuperable difficulty, furnish really the strongest encouragement to those who are desirous that a uniform and general system of instruction should be established in this country.


LAND AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. On visiting the prisons in England, that which most forcibly strikes a reflecting mind is the number of children of tender age, who for trivial offences are subjected to the corrupting influence of those places of confinement; who, before they have well begun to live, start in their career with characters already compromised, and who are learning, during their stay in prison, to be familiar with every vice. Such a system as this must be wrong, and full of danger to the well being of any country in which it is permitted to continue. But the magistrate replies, offences must not be committed with impunity, and however unwilling we may be to enforce the penalties of the laws, in the case of children, that duty, however painful, must be performed.

Punishment is either for the purpose of generally deterring or of reclaiming offenders. In a work of considerable ability which was publislied no long time ago, it appeared to be shown that our prisons have not much power to deter. Indeed we are of opinion that men are rarely frightened out of wickedness. There have been times when ingenuity was put to the test to invent cruel punishments, but it was never discovered that crime was diminished by that expedient.

Our prisons then are without much effect in inspiring fear; and as to reclaiming, they make no attempt. But it is not so difficult a matter to reclaim, as at first sight might be supposed, and our brethren of the United States of America have set us a noble example in this respect. They have not only

JULY-Oct., 1834.


traced out a plan, but they have executed it. It is not our intention at present to enter into the details of their prison discipline, but only to consider how they have acted with regard to juvenile offenders. Let us not treat children as criminals, say our trans-Atlantic brethren, but let us put giddy and misguided children to school under a strict discipline. Let us by no means place them among those whom a life of crime has thoroughly corrupted, but take such measures as shall render their return into society safe. At Boston, New York, and in Pennsylvania, there are societies formed for this benevolent purpose. In order more distinctly to place before the view of the reader the method adopted for effecting reformation, we give an extract from the report of the managers of the society for the state and city of New York.

* The nature of the government and discipline exercised over the children will perhaps be better illustrated by a summary account of the routine of a single day in the House of Refuge, than by any other description which it is in the power of the managers to give. At sun-rise of every day in the year a bell rings to rouse the children. The cells are then simultaneously opened, and each of the children, having made up his own bed and arranged his little apartment, steps forth at a signal into the hall. They are then marched in order to the wash-room, where the utmost attention to personal cleanliness is required and enforced. From the wash-room they are called to parade in the open air, (the weather permitting,) when they are arranged in ranks, and undergo a close and critical inspection as to cleanliness and dress. The parade finished, they are summoned to morning prayers. These various operations consume about half an hour, and at half past five o'clock in the summer, the morning school commences. In school they remain until seven o'clock, when they are dismissed for a few minutes, until the bell rings for breakfast, which consists, according to the dietary regulations of the managers, of bread, molasses, and rye-coffee, occasionally varied by the substitution of Indian meal for bread, and milk for coffee. A hall hour is allowed for breakfast, at the expiration of which, the signal for labour is given, and the children are conducted to their respective workshops, to remain there until noon. By an allotment of tasks, however, these hours of labour are shortened to the industrious. The working-day for this purpose is considered as commencing at one o'clock in the afternoon, when a certain task, proportional to his years and capacity, is assigned to each child, and if this task is performed before twelve o'clock at noon of the suc: ceeding day, the child is rewarded by the allowance for his recrea, tion of whatever time he thus gains before twelve and after eleven o'clock, until which hour all are kept in the workshops. The benefit of this arrangement is sensibly perceived upon the spirits and industry of the boys, and there are few among them who do not thus gain, what all but the wilfully idle are able to gain, some extra time for their own ainuseinents,


At twelve o'clock, a bell rings to call all from work, and one hour is allowed for washing, (which is again scrupulously attended to,) and dinner. The dinner, by the managers' regulations, consists (for five days in the week) of nutritious soups, meat, potatoes, and bread. On Fridays, fish is substituted for soup and meat; and on Sunday, a dinner of beef and vegetables of superior quality to those of the other days, is allowed. At one o'clock a signal is given for recommencing work, which continues till five in the afternoon, when the bell rings for the termination of the labour of the day. A half hour is allowed for washing (which is once more enforced) and supper consisting of mush and milk, molasses and rye coffee; at half-past five the children are conducted to their evening-school, in which they are kept till eight o'clock. Evening prayers are now attended to by the superintendent, and the children, ranged in order, are then marched to the sleeping halls, where each takes possession of his separate apartment, and the cells are locked, and silence is enforced for the night. The above is the history of six days of every week in the year, except that, during the short winter days, morning school is suspended, and the workshops are closed at four o'clock in the after

On Sundays, labour of course ceases, and instead of the morning school, the time allotted on other days for this purpose is taken up in the classification of the children according to their conduct during the preceding week, and the distribution of badges of merit. Religious service is performed twice during the day in the chapel, in the presence of the committee of management by the clergymen of the city, in rotation. In the interval between the church service, a Sunday school is held for the children, and after the evening service they are allowed to walk about the grounds, under the observation of the officers, until eight o'clock.'

The nature of the employments is shown by the following extract from the report of the managers.

During the past year, the inmates of the House of Refuge have been engaged in the following mechanical employments-in the manufacture of brushes for clothes, shoes, hats, &c., in cabinet work, making bedsteads, pine and cherry tables, wash-stands, &c. ; in the manufacture of bead ear-rings, safety chains, and necklaces, and principally in the manufacture of seats for chairs and settees. The amount of work performed by the boys in these branches will ap, pear in the statements of the superintendent annexed to this report. Shoes for the use of all the children are made within the walls, as are also clothes for the use of the whole establishment. The cooking of the male and female houses is done exclusively by the inmates of the respective houses; and the washing for all the children is done by the girls. By a recent arrangement, fifteen of the girls are now employed by a tailor in making clothes on wages of a 1s. each per day. And in the above mentioned trades, (except the making of shoes and clothes,) the boys are in like manner hired by contractors at wages of 12d. or ls, 2d. each per day. This method

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